Final Study guide
Final Study guide HY 120
Popular in American History to 1877
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rima Notetaker on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HY 120 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr. Bauer in Fall 2012. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see American History to 1877 in History at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 09/15/15
HY 120 Final Study Guide Manifest destiny Belief that America has a god given gift to expand occupy all of North America Missouri Compromise Maine is a free state 0 Missouri is a slave state 0 Believe 3630 line 0 Above are free states 0 Below are slave states Monroe Doctrine James Monroe America will resist any attempt from Europe to expand North and South America should be off limits to Europe Andrew Jackson s Native American policy Indian Removal Trail of Tears Thousands of Indians died because of malnutrition disease and cold weather 0 Form of genocideethnic cleansing Jackson says treaties with Native Americans are irrelevant US Supreme Court decisions de ne Native Americans as dependents of the federal government Andrew Jackson wants to move natives to an unoccupied land in Oklahoma o The decision said they will never be citizens established the Indian Removal Act Natives became wards of the state and were forced to move SeminolesOsceola during Indian removal Osceola lead the resistance during the Trail of Tears Fought until 1842 0 Was a Seminole Indian 0 His tribe leader agreed to the removal so he killed the tribe leader and lead the resistance movement 0 FEDS spent 20 million trying to ght the resistance Osceola wanted to negotiate but is captured and dies in prison Trail of Tears Cherokee removal 0 Thousands of Indians removed 0 Form of genocide and ethnic cleansing Relocated them to what is now OKLAHOMA Reform movements Views about human improvement Perfectionism saw individuals in American society capable of improvement International and transnational connection 0 Ideas ow back and forth from Atlantic 0 Got ideas from the British Role of women Became upset because of position in abolition movement so they wanted to ght for gender equality 0 Play a big role in movements 0 Saw roles as extensions as their roles as mothers Overlap between the movements 0 Women that were involved in one movement were usually involved in other movements Temperance was going on while the women also fought for their rights 0 Slaves were ghting for their rights as well as the Confederate Confederate wanted to keep slavery Dorothea Dix Movement for the growth ofjails and prisons asylums and orphanages ldea was to create a controlled environment to change people s behavior and character Campaigns to study prison conditions Prisonasylum reform 0 Better methods of punishment nicer Make them more sanitary Temperance movement 0 Remove alcohol from society 0 Driven largely by women Successfully formed a temperance society and it was respectful to stay sober Abolitionist movement Slavery is a sin 0 Morally wrong Slavery contradicts Declaration of Independence 0 North set on the path to gradual emancipation William Lloyd Garrison o Writes weekly publication in the Liberator Teaches children slavery is wrong Believes freedom should be a universal entitlement shouldn t be earned Convinces slave owners of the wickedness of slavery Women s rights movement Elizabeth Cady StatonLucretia MottSusan Anthony 0 These women establishedheld a conference for women s rights in NY Seneca Falls Convention 0 Group of women go to London for the convention Many were barred from entering because of their sex Segregated from men if they were allowed in and prohibited from debate and participation in the conference Declaration of Sentiments Connection to Declaration of Independence list of grievances against men Talked about inequalities of women and crimes men had committed against women 0 War very powerful Peculiar institution 0 Southern slavery o A lot of the world had begun freeing their slaves Dominated every aspect of Southern life religion politics family relations economy Number of slaves in South 0 Huge increase between 18001840 about four million 0 Wasn t by birth internal slave trade Slaveholding and social status 0 More slaves the higher the social status 0 Status and wealth was handed down from generation to generation Cotton economy 0 Cotton economy grows so does the slave population driven by domestic slave trade 0 Demand for slave labor increased Internal slave trade from where to where 0 Picks up because the constitution banned the slave trade from other countries 0 Got slaves from northern states that had freed their slaves 0 SLAVES INCREASED DURING THE 180039s Southern slavery s economic effect on the North 0 Northerners became very wealthy from nancing plantations and slaves o Involved in the internal slave trade Paternalism Slaves are an extension of the family male notion Provide for slaves and care for them South s proslavery arguments Slavery had to exist for freedom to exist in the South Slaves freed Southern whites from doing harsh labor that Northern whites had to do Slavery allowed Southerners to receive and education re nement and leisure time What were slaves legal rights 0 Only legal right slaves had been that they could go to trial and have their day in court BUT it was in front of an all white jury 0 Can39t own re arms meet in a place for more than a few hours Slave driver 0 Maintained order on plantations Carried out punishments whipping and beating Masters means of maintaining order among slaves Physical abuse whipping beating Separation of slaves eld slaves and house slaves Hire slave drivers to maintain order makes slave owners seem nicer They threatened to sell family members and separate families Scariest thing for slaves Consequence of Nat Turner s Rebellion Scared the white plantation owners Slaves did not ee because punishment would be in icted on the family Rules were strictly enforced Gang labor elds and hard labor and House servants women cooking and cleaning Celia see reading guide posted in BB for an idea of what I might ask think about what we discussed as a group during the class discussion Slavery and westward territorial expansion This issue dominated American life north and south throughout the 1800 s Reason why we had a civil war Reason why southern states succeeded Reason why there was popular sovereignty Compromise of 1850 Created balance between slave and free states Formed to settle the issue of slavery in the territory gained from Mexico California was a free state Other states the residence decided Free Soil ldea that new territory needed to be free and not a slave state To bene t free white laborers To give each white man a chance to build their social status up and not compete with other whites with slave labor Steven Douglass and popular sovereignty 0 Steven Douglass proposes popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty peoples power KansasNebraska Act 1854quotBleeding Kansasquot Puts popular sovereignty into action 0 Makes things worse 0 Causes a small civil war 0 Both sides murder each other over slavery issues Pro and Anti slavery Dred Scott decision Dred Scott is a slave His master died 0 He sued for his freedom because he once lived in free territory 0 Supreme court declines his request Said African Americans slaves or not could NEVER be citizens Secession o Withdrawing from the Union 0 South Carolina was the rst state to succeed Confederacy Formed by the states that succeeded from the Union 0 Wanted slavery Fort Sumter Start of the Civil War 0 First modern war 0 Very violent and technology was better at killing people 0 Very long and deadly war favored Union more people and factories Lasted 40 years Changes in technology rst quotmodernquot war 0 Weapons were better at killing people 0 South adopted a defense strategy hold off the North 0 New Technology Telegraph hot air balloon changes to the rif e Lincoln s views on abolition early in the warrole of border or Upper South slave states in in uencing Lincoln s decisions about slavery 0 Early in the War Lincoln was not an abolitionist He owned slaves himself 0 As the war progresses Lincoln wants to pass the Emancipation Proclamation He signs the proclamation that frees the slaves only in the Confederate How did African American slaves and free blacks shape the war 0 They started playing active roles in the war 0 Many left plantations in the south trying to cross the Union line 0 Passed aong military intelligence to the Union 0 Some destroyed plantations and others refused to work Believed it was the quotFreedom Warquot War s effect on women 0 Have a greater role in society and in the work place 0 Move more into the public 0 They raise money get involved in the Red Cross and help get food and suppHes More professions open up to them Nursing 0 Nursing use to be male dominated Emancipation Proclamation o Freed all the slaves in the Union Two battles that were major turning points in war Gettysburg Pennsylavania o Largest battle in the Western Hemisphere o Confederate launches an offensive 0 UNION VICTORY o Confederate never sets foot on Northern soi after the loss 0 Vicksburg Mississippi 0 UNION VICTORY 0 North gains control of the Mississippi River Thirteenth Amendment Frees a slaves HY 120 Exam 2 Study Guide Revolution s language of libertyfreedom picked up by marginalized groups Ways black Americans pushed for freedom after the Revolution Started their own schools 0 Freedom Petitions Native Americans petitioned governments to get rid of slavery Which state until 1807 forgot to forbid women from voting 0 New Jersey Ways women contributed to the struggle for national independence 0 When men left home women ran farms businesses and homes Gives women new leadership roles Few went to war with their husbands and fathers because they didn t have farms or businesses to take care of Deborah Sampson Enlisted in the Continental Army 0 Her commanding officer discovers her identity and is honorably discharged after her battle Women s role in politics 0 Women had no say in politics until the Republican motherhood Abigail Adams Content of letters to John Adams 0 She told John Adams to not forget women 0 Women have greatly helped 0 Women should be given a voice and a small expansion of rights 0 Women should be protected from their husbands and husbands should not have absolute powertyranny over their wives John Adams response to Abigail s appeal to quotremember the ladies Says women are the same as Slaves and Indians Brushes her off Believes women aren t capable of having more rights Republican motherhood Women play more active roles They teach their children to become future Republicans Ideology and outcome signi cance 0 Gave women more leadership roles To teach leadership you have to know it 0 Women had more participation but not directly They expanded their knowledge and helped expand through teaching it Debate over political direction of the nation should states hold power or national government 0 Personal Opinion Founding fathers views on democracy in favor or not ie did they trust ordinary voters the masses to make good rational decisions 0 Did not trust ordinary voters to make good decisions because they were mainly farmers and not educated The founding fathers did not want a Democracy 0 Democracy means ruled by the masses 0 They wanted to create a Republican FederalistsAntifederalists Articles of Confederation Congress Could not regulate trade draft troops or levy taxes There was NO president and NO judiciary What powers did it have 0 Gave allimportant powers to the states and little power to the government 0 Based on the principles of limited government it gave virtually no power to the federal government Signi cance of Shay s Rebellion Lead by Daniel Shay farmer 0 Was caused because people were being taxed too much but was quickly ended o Scared George Washington and John Adams 0 Makes them realize Articles of Confederation States held power with the Articles won t work 0 Need a strong constitution with rules of society and government 0 Need a strong government to enforce rules Leaders see that they cannot control certain types of rebellions and they need a strong CentralFederal government Pushes the Founding Fathers to create a stronger constitution Constitutional Convention 1787 Delegates who were they runofthemill Americans or blue bloods Rich People 0 They were Blue Bloods Separation of powers Branches of government executive legislative judicial know the difference 0 Judicial Judges Court Systems 0 Legislative law making body House of Representatives and Senate 0 Executive executes plans President Constitution and slavery how did the delegates from the North appease the delegates from the South 0 The NORTH wanted to get rid of slavery The SOUTH didn t want the word slave in the constitution they wanted quotpersons held to service of labor Threefifths clause Slaves did not count as a whole person they were 35 of a person because the Southern states wanted more in uence in Congress Difference between Pederalists ex Alexander Hamilton and Republicans aka Democratic Republicans aka Jeffersonian Republicans aka not today s Republicans ex Thomas Jefferson 0 Federalists believed that trade and bankers were the backbone to America 0 Republicans believed that farming and agriculture was the backbone to America Alexander Hamilton What was the purpose of his national bank idea Federalist believed in trade with other countries commerce and bankers were the backbone of America 0 Create a National Bank that would fund business regulate trade etc Thomas Jefferson Wrote the constitution and he was a Republican Viewed as agriculture and farmers as the background of the country and believed in states rights They feared a large centralized government Strict constructionists versus loose constructionists Strict interpreted the constitution word by word and believe there is no room for change 0 Loose read inbetween the lines of the constitution if it is better for the country Which political group favored the French Revolution 0 Republicans didn t think it was too bad because if that is what it takes to gain power then it has to be done Louisiana Purchase westward expansion Understand the role Napoleon and the Haitian Revolution played in the selling of the Louisiana territory 0 Napoleon wanted the Louisiana Purchase because if you control New Orleans you control the gulf and the Mississippi River 0 In Haitia the Revolution was caused by an up rise of slaves they ended up defeating Napoleon and made Haiti an independent nation So Napoleon ended up selling Haiti Jefferson wondered whether the purchase betrayed his strict constructionism It did betray his strict constructionism because it was not written in the constitution that land could be expanded Claims to have revised his views and read between the lines for the betterment of the country s welfare Policy towards Native Americans in postrevolutionary America 0 Indian Removal Covert them to Christianity Some tribes did and others fought against it Tecumseh Assimilation or Indian unity Shawnee Indian who fought and died in battle Believed the best way to defeat Americans was to come together with other Indians 0 He did NOT want to convert War of 1812 sides United States and Britain Francis Scott Key Battle of New Orleans oops battle happened after the peace treaty was signed A Midwife s Tale Market revolution Innovations in transportation and communication canals roads railroads steamboats telegraph Transportation 0 Allowed people and goods to be moved faster 0 Connected people from different parts of the country Telegraph 0 Created by SAMUEL MORSE o Stabilized commerce Steamboat 0 Important because they could travel upstream and against currents Erie Canal 0 Reason for New York being so big o Caused for a GREAT engineering feat they taught themselves how to engineer canals Eli Whitneycotton gin impact on slavery He invented the Cotton Gin Cotton gin increased the need for slavery More demand more slaves needed Factory system Effects on artisans and skilled workers 0 The need for them decreased Their income decreased Effect on time 0 Everything became more time efficient but people had longer working hours to produce more Immigration 0 Increased as technology advanced and demand for labor increased Came from Ireland and Germany Rise of nativism Feared Impact of immigrants on the country Immigrants were blamed for everything 0 The later wave of Immigrants changed the society Second Great Awakening People were in charge of taking care of their own salvation Everything was upon ones self quotCult of domesticityquot Idea that women are not made for the public sphere they should be at home they are not educated enough and are too fragile MIDDLE CLASS IDEOLOGY HY 120 Exam 1 Study Guide Native Americans before the European arrival Population Iroquoian Cherokee etc Religion Different religions in different tribes Family customs Could have divorce matrilineal society Gives women power follow your mother s lineage opposed to your fathers hneage Women s roles Women held a very high role in society Impact of diseases Killed many Native Americans Caused fear among the peope Portuguese and other Europeans main motivation for finding a water route to the Indies Increase trade to increase their wealth quotGold God Glory Spread religion find riches and make their country seem allpowerful Columbian exchange Bringing diseases from England to the New World Europeans beliefs about Native Americans They are savages untamed and have no religion Spreading Christianity coming over and murdering and controlling Native Americans Bringing true religion and civilization to the savages Black Robe Wanted to save the people by converting them to Christianity Major themes 0 Catholicism is a central theme 0 A man whose faith is shaken by his experiences in society combining cultural and historical observations Role of religionIndians views of Christianity 0 Christianity was forced on the Indians 0 Indians thought of Christianity as odd quotMiddle ground Finding middle ground between Europeans and Native Indians cultural and commercial exchange between French and Indian groups English views of land and liberty Land is property to own and dispose of and liberty is freedom and for white males to voice their opinions Mercantilism Bene ts of pro table trading Commercialism trade generates wealth Early economic relationship between English and Native Americans drawing Indians into Atlantic economy Indians were nice to the English when they rst met Eed them and befriended them They accepted small changes When changes became too large and more of a dictatorship the Native Americans opposed the British May ower Compact The rst governing document of Plymouth Colony written by separatist Congregationalists who called themselves quotSaintsquot Later called Pilgrims they were eeing from religious persecution by King James of England Ann Hutchinson Had people go over to her house and she preached the Bible 0 At her trial she said God spoke to her directly and that should not happen Believed you don t have to go to the Church to interpret the Bible you can do that yourself Consequence of Bacon s Rebellion Small landowners wanted more land so they rebelled against officials Led to the importation of slaves Witchcraft in New England Likely to be accused 0 Single women 0 Women who lived in outskirts of town 0 Women who weren t involved with the church and in society African diversity 0 Had different religions Different customs How were Africans captured for the slave trade Who captured them 0 Some were captured by other Africans quotMiddle Passage Horri c movement across the Atlantic Ocean Slaves crammed into awful quarters Little to No sanitation Slaves in colonial America Culture Many different types Religion combined their own native religions with Christianity Resistance Becoming AfricanAmericans Slavery unites them quotCountry marks Scarring on Africans faces to tell from which tribe they come from Colonial slaveowners views of slaves Used Country marks to identify the slaves Pueblo revolt Santa Fe New Mexico 0 United even though they had differences among them and lead a revolt Destroyed Christian churches Reinstituted their native religions Expelled Spanish from their area Enlightenment Was about using science and reason to change society 0 Not only relying on religion Deists Knowledge of God based on reason and application Great Awakening Lead by George White eld 0 Spiritual renewal George White eld Preacher Leader of the Great Awakening Had a great voice and could bring in crowds of people Believed that it is up to the individual to break or make their own fate it is not up to the society Consequences of the Seven Years War aka French and Indian War Seven Years War Taxation France loses and gives up most of its territory to the British Expands British territory Puts England in a bad nancial situation 0 British fought French and Indians 0 Relations are ruined between English Indians and French Spurred British Nationalism Love of England Sugar Act Taxation on sugar Stamp Act Taxation on anything you print and could put pen and paper to Tea ActBoston Tea Party 0 Americans dressed up as Indians and dumped very large amounts of tea into the Atlantic Ocean IntolerableCoercive Acts Shutting down the ports until the British are fully reimbursed Allow British to quarter troops in peoples homes Purpose of the First Continental Congress 0 Made up of delegates from each colony 0 Made in the reaction of the Coercive Act 0 Series of measures imposed by the British because the colonies refusal to pay taxes 0 They discussed their different issues against the British offenses 0 They published a version of the American rights Differences among coloniescolonists Beginning of American Revolution 0 Not everyone wanted to join the war everyone had his or her own motives and motivations Americans weren t all united in this Thomas Paine s Common Sense Called America an asylum for freedom Declaration of Independence Consists of a list of grievances against King George 0 Thomas Jefferson s preamble Loyalists Those who stayed faithful to England British advantages during American Revolution 0 Soldiers were 0 Well equipped 0 Well fed 0 Well disciplined 0 Well paid American advantages during American Revolution 0 Home eld advantage 0 More motivation to win 0 Fighting for rights 0 Liberty 0 Freedom Supplied reached troops quicker than the supplies that were meant for the British since theirs took months to cross the ocean Role of black Americans during Revolution 0 Free black Americans could be drafted or enlisted in the army 0 Slaved African Americans were drafted to weaken the masters when they supported the opposing side Battle of Saratoga 1777 0 Victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War 0 British surrendered o Helped the Americans receive the support of the foreign armies 0 Turning point of the war Role of the French in the war 0 Allies of the Americans 0 Secretly sent supplies to the American Forces making it a global war with British having no allies Treaty of Paris 1783 Declared America s Independence 0 Saved loyalists from prosecution
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