study guide exam 1
study guide exam 1 PSYC-20651-001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sabriah Brown on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC-20651-001 at Kent State University taught by Dr. William Edward Merriman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 304 views.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Child Psychology Week one I General Issues and Important Concepts Why study children So we can help Children So we can help adults Broad domains of development Physical Cognitive Linguistic Language Emotional Social Age periods Prenatal Infancytoddlerhood 03 Preschool 35 Middle childhood 612 Adolescence 1317 Contexts of development Definition the physical economic social cultural and historical Issue Universal development vs contextspecific development 393 Urie Bronfrenbrenner s Ecological Systems Model Assumes that context is crucial for understanding development Focus two kinds of traits Developmentally generative Positive Developmentally disruptive Negative Development occurs within nested contexts Child and contexts affect each other Examples 393 Microsystem is the relationship between child and Parents teacher siblings Mesosystem the relationship a parent has With the child s school this relationship affects the life of the child Exosystem this doesn t affect the child directly Macrosystem friends of family mass media 0 Chronosystem systems change over time F amiiv Si hool Tho individuai Hooith 52 aorvioozt lial Hnahh at Floors Choroh I gro up Neighborhood may area titanium 1h Patterning oi environmental rmiahtmrbH Events and transitions ovor tho oomtitions and ts395 a quot5 course smithstoma it arm lira wants 3H conditions 39I 39H quot39 quotMMI H me Hun I I H39 li39we a n39ri39frll En 39onnmrronmwrMMr roproo umlmoruispruy The Developmental Niche of Childhood Super amp Harkness Niche Stable context to Which organisms have adapted Three Dimensions of Cultural In uence 0 Physical settings and conditions 0 Childcare customs O Childrearing beliefs and goals Promote independence or interdependence more later 6 on next page How has our view of children changed over the past 50 years 0 Family structures 0 Women in the work force 0 Effect of change in electronic media A central dimension of historical change and cultural difference Independence Interdependence 0 Individual excellence Group excellence 0 Competition Cooperation 0 Selfsufficiency Playing role well 0 Selfesteem Sense of belonging 0 Confidence ambition Respect trust loyalty Childhood is a social construction read Box 11 Headline children having children Four key issues in child development Nativism vs Empiricism 0 Genetic Biological Process Experience both contribute to development but which is more important vs O Abrupt change gradual change 0 Unstable differences stabledifference Nativist tend to be discontinuity theorists Periodic spurts of physical growth in the brainabrupt change Empiricists tend to be discontinuity theorists Daily experiences small changes in the braingradual change vs 0 Typical patterns of development why 1 child differs from another vs 0 Developmental patterns found in all cultures why 1 culture development differs from another Major applications for child research 0 Parenting 0 Schooling 0 Child Care 0 Laws amp Social Policy 11 Theory Psychoanalytic Approaches A Sigmund Freud 18561939 Grew up in Vienna Developed Dream Analysis Became Medical Doctor Proposed revolutionary theory of psyche Interested in hysteria and hypnosis developed the talking cure Three part structure of the psyche IdNeWborn baby Center of ones animal instinctsmostly unconscious Present at birth Has sex drive libido Has aggressive drive thanatos Ego young baby Center of rational thought Present shortly after birth Tries to satisfy the I and conscious Superego 6 or 7 Ones ideal self form societys view Source of guilt and shame Not present until age 6 or 7 Mostly unconscious Stages of psychosexual development Key concept the erogenous zone 0 Region of the body that is the most sensitive to pleasure and pain 0 Oral birth 1 yr Mouth 0 Anal 1 3 yr Potty training 0 Phallic 3 6 yr Competition With same sex Darent for the attention of onnosite sex parent 0 Latent 6 yr puberty None O Genital rest of life Intimacy and meaningful work Strengths amp weaknesses of Freud s theory B Erik Erikson 19021994 NeoFreudian theory accepted Freud s framework but revised major parts of it Was a student of Anne Freud s Added stages of adult development 3 Early stages middle stages and later adulthood Redefined the crisis of each stage Made the stages broader Emphasized the identity crisis of adolescense hints El l u lE mu Hupe Fruit 5 llllilruil 13 run lu Will Aulun myr use Shame 3 Duut rl agellum 3 fr 5 Furposa I illoliva use Euil Childhuud u it l2 Cum palunu Induglru Inle u ly hdulleseume 1221 I3 Fiualilyr ldenllw Rule Cu f u un T uuug Adults l in Ill we lnllmuuy l lijun Middle Adu huud 41 its 455 w Cure Generallyi rlu us Slgn un Swims I55 yrs 1 Wl zlum Egu Integrity Damn Granted greater role to culture Less role to sex and aggressive drives Granted more power to the ego It has positive drives Curiosity mastery love 111 Theory Evolutionary amp Biological Approaches A Charles Darwin 1809 1882 Theory of Natural Selection English naturalist the theory of Traits that promote survival become more common from one generation to the next Gradua11y all members of the species come to possess the trait B Ethology The study of the behavior of animals in their natural habitat Nikolas Tinbergen amp Konrad Lorenz 1930 s Assumed to be the products of evolution Universal found in every member of a species Not learned Stereotyped take the same form every time Minimally affected by shortterm environmental in uences Sequence of innate behaviors Method Naturalistic observation Sensitive period A period in development in which a behavior is most readily acquired Before or after this period the behavior either cannot be acquired or is very difficult to acquire Example 0 Imprinting Lorenz the strong emotional bond that babies in many species form for their mothers Lorenz imprinting in water fowl Sensitive period the first two days after hatching Affects later sexual behavior Example Early childhood may be a sensitive period for the development of attachment visual perception language gender roles C John Bowlby Developmental Theory of Human Attachment Synthesis of Psychoanalytic amp Ethological Ideas D Evolutionary Devlopmental Psychology How is this theory broader than ethology What does it predict about a child s acquisition of cultural skills that were not important thousands of years ago eg complex math IV Theory Behavioral and Social Learning Approaches A Early Behaviorism John Watson 0 British Empiricism Locke all knowledge comes from learning no innate ideas tabula rasa infant is a blank slate 0 Behaviorism restrict all explanations of development to observable stimuli and responses animals learn to associate stimuli and responses 0 Classical Conditioning A neutral stimulus acquires the power to evoke a re ex if the stimulus regularly precedes a stimulus that evokes the re ex Food 9 Salivate Bell 9 Food 9 Salivate Bell 9 Salivate Food the unconditioned stimulus Bell the conditioned stimulus 0 Little Albert Notorious experiment Used classical conditioning to cause a 9monthold to be afraid of furry animals Loud noise 9 Fear Furry animal 9 Loud noise 9 Fear Furry animal 9 Fear Loud noise unconditioned stimulus Furry animal conditioned stimulus Here is the naturenurture continuum A B C D Nature Nurture Where would each of these theories fall Pick A B C or D Ecological Systems Bronfrenbrenner D Psychoanalytic Freud B Psychosocial Erikson C Ethology Tinbergen Lorenz A BehavioralLearning Watson Skinner D Name two changes that Erikson made in Freud s theory Which of these is a modal action pattern a Spinning a web b Building a nest c Both What must happened during the sensitive period for a duckling to imprint on its mother Must see the mother In the experiment in which Little Albert became afraid of furry creatures what was the conditioned stimulus white rat and what was the unconditioned stimulus loud noise B Behavior Analysis B F Skinner B F Skinner American psychologist Dominant theory of 1940s and 1950s Three forms of learning Habituation and dishabituation decline in orienting re ex when a stimulus is presented repeatedly recovery of orienting re ex when the habituated stimulus changes Respondent conditioning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Instrumental conditioning A voluntary behavior or operant increases in frequency when it is reinforced amp decreases in frequency when it is punished Other key concepts Stimulus Generalization tendency for a response learned in one situation to occur in similar situations Extinction decline in a learned response in Respondent Conditioning caused by no longer presenting the unconditioned stimulus after the conditioned stimulus in Operant Conditioning caused by no longer presenting reinforcement or punishment Present Stimulus Remove Stimulus Desirable Event Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Getting a reward for something Getting rid of something good Example Example Not listening so mom takes away A treat for going to the potty your game Undesirable Event Positive Punishment Negative Punishment negative consequence after RemOVal Of a reinforce in an undesired behavior response to an unwanted behavior Example Ex mple Child picking his nose and 36mg Put 1 me out teacher reprimands him in front of class C Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura Combines behavior analysis with information processing theory Observational learning is considered another form of learning Learn boldface terms Vicarious reinforcement seeing that the person who enacted a behavior the model was reinforced Vicarious punishment seeing that the model was punished Imitation the learner attempts to copy the observed behavior Response Inhibition the learner keeps self from performing the observed behavior The 4stage processing model of observational learning Learning Processes Performance Processes Attention Retention Production Motivation
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