Anthropology Exam 1 Study Guide
Anthropology Exam 1 Study Guide ANTR 110S
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nathaniel Rhodes on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTR 110S at Old Dominion University taught by KRISTIN M MACAK in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Anthropology Exam 1 Study guide ANTR 110 means a vocabulary word Chapter 1 what is Anthropology Origins of Anthropology A H Anthropology The study of humans in all aspects Anthropology looks into both human traits and cultural traits of a group of peoples Human diversity and attributes are very important to the study Holisticism is the study of humans as a whole past present and future through biological cultural economical and other human aspectsin the context of Anthropology Ethnocentrism The attitude that your own group is better and everyone else39s is strange Anthropologists will compare one society to another usually their own when analyzing some question cultures Traditions and customs passed on from one generation to the next Franz 3002 known as the quotfather of Anthropologyquot and started to look into the study on a more deep and scientific level Branches of Anthropology 11009 Biological or Physical Anthropology how we look adaptations DNA etc Linguistics language ArchaeologyLooking into those who existed before us Cultural Those traditions and customs that make us human not a branch of Anthropology but Applied Anthropology uses all 4 branches together in real world application Scientific Method WPP N The Question There must be a question posed to even have a scientific method Hypothesis what baseline information is put together to make a prediction Experiment needed to back up hypothesis test it Analyze Data and draw a conclusion Were the results what you expected if not why Anthropology Exam 1 Study guide ANTR 1105 Also see the Body Ritual of the Nacirema if you haven39t httpwwwsfuca palvsMiner1956 BodyRitualAmongTheNaciremapdf Chapter 5 EvolutionI GeneticsI and Inheritance Important figures of evolution A Charles Lyell Came up with the Uniformitarianism theory which states that we can find clues from the past in the presentcutura patterns fossils for example Carolus Linnaeus Developed a classification of taxonomy for animals and plants based on their physical traits for example vertebrae and invertebrate Gregor Mendel A monk who studied how chromosomes transmit their genes across generations of speciesThe Law of nheritance Charles Darwin brought about Natural Selection through the Theory of EvolutionOnly the most favored traits will be passed down from diverse sets of species Lamarck created the theory of change through use and disuse which basically says that the more certain physical features are useful a organism over time they will improve and become better and vice versa Mendel39s laws of inheritance3 A The Law of Segregation state that during a gamete formation the alleles of each gene will separate from one another and to carry one allele for each gene Gametes Sex cells given based on gender for mammals it39s an egg and sperm they combine to give 46 chromosomes The Law of Independent Assortment Genes of different traits can separate on their own during gamete formation The law of Dominance Some alleles are dominant while others are recessive the dominant overrides the recessive traits Principles of Evolution and Natural Selection A Variation requires replicating systems to experience many differences so that you don39t get the same exact molecule makeup as the parentevoution would not occur otherwise Anthropology Exam 1 Study guide B ANTR 110 Heritability is an estimation of how much genetic diversity there is in phonotypical traits in a certain population due to genetic differencesif everyone in a population was the same this also would not exist Survival of the fittest is used to explain that the strongest species are the ones that reproduce constantly DNA is the Genetic makeup of our existence chromosomes carry pairs of this DNA that makes us The difference between Genotype and Phenotype is that Genotypes are what give us a particular trait Think dominant and recessive alleles and Phenotypes are the actual physical expression blue eyes vs green eyes Dominant alleles alleles that override recessive genes in a heterozygote Recessive alleles alleles that get overtaken by dominant alleles in a heterozygote Nucleotide bases and pairing rules A B The nucleotide bases are as follows A for Adenine C for Cytosine T for Thymine and G for Guanine The pairings are Adenine goes with Thymine and Cytosine goes with Guanine AT and CG What is a species A A species is a organism able to have fertile offspring that will survive with other organisms like it Mitosis and Meiosis A Cell division splits cells into two types Meiosis sex cells and Mitosis all other cells Meiosis Mitosis Parent cell has 46 chromosomes and is somatic two chromosome sets of the bodymake up everything but the sex cells 1 nuclear division for 2 daughter cells daughter cells carry 46 chromosomes Parent cell has 46 Chromosomes And makes 2 nuclear divisions turning it into 4 daughter cells The daughter cells carry 23 chromosomes Anthropology Exam 1 Study guide ANTR 1105 Genetic Change and diversity A DNA sometimes mutatesa permanent change in the nucleotide sequence of a organism39s DNA that alters them slightly or majorly gene fow the contact of two populations over time makes them similar to each other genetically and socially genetic drift Low contact with two populations will differentiate them fitness not to be confused with working out it means the ability to successfully continue generations of a particular organism Micro evolution Change of a population occurs much quicker a few generations in time Macro evolution Change of a population occurs much slower rate probably a whole new species by the time this has an effect Sexual Selection Physical attributes that make an organism more attractive to a species Genetic changes will affect a smaller population much more than a large oneess members of a species to have offspring Human variationHumanity39s family tree Spencer wells main points Taxonomy A Charles Darwin addressed the question of our origin in the text quotThe Descent of Manquot Common ancestry tied together by DNA and is a record of our history Our origins are through Apes Linnaeustaxonomy creator catalogued our species with the name quotHomo Sapiensquot The important pieces of DNA used are our Mitochondrial chromosomeconverts food to energy and Y chromosome quotMitochondrial Evequot and quotYchromosome Adamquot are responsible for our creation 5070 thousand years ago our brain size increased and our crafting was better Taxonomy is the science of categorizing and naming species based upon their similarities Binomial nomenclature is the process of giving a first and last name to something in the case of taxonomy the first name is Genus Homo and the last is Species sapiens Anthropology Exam 1 Study guide Primates ANTR 110 Genus may be abbreviated but NEVER the species EVER H Sapiens would be correct Homo S is not ok The 7 level hierarchy of Taxonomy are as follows Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species in that order exactly Homologous Traits are similar in structure or position but not function A seal39s flipper is homologous to cats arm Analogous traits are similarly functioning body parts but have a different structure A moth39s wing compared to a bat39s wing Primates have a better sense of sight than smell Anatomical traits of primates are 5 fingerstoesdigits on the hands and feet a cavicecoarbone the ability to hold objectsPrehensiity or opposability nails on their hands and feet Dentals usually include 2 incisors and 1 canine in each quadrantsection lower left lower right upper left upper right of the mouth and varying molars and premolars from then on and they have a reduced snout weaker sense of smell Behavioral traits of primates include Extended juvenile periods longer periods of being kids large brains dependence on learning behavior imitation mother and infant bond an adult period usually have single offspring Anthropoids consist of Old world monkeys New world Monkeys and Apes including humans deviated from Prosimians in 40 Myamilions of years ago Anthropoids are split into two groups Catarrhines Old world Monkeys and Apes they have narrow noses and nostrils point down while Platyrrhines are have flat noses and their nostrils point forward distributed throughout the world except Australia Prosimians mainly consist of Loris and Lemurs distributed about Asia and Africa carnivorous Snouts protrude from the face and have a smaller brain size and head size Primate Adaptations A 4 forms of locomotion Quadrupedalism4 legs VCL vertical clinging and eapingjumping and traveling around trees Suspensionclinging to trees and Bipedalism2 legs Social groups tend to include Loner very rare Monogamous1 male 1 female one male harem multiple females one male and many female and many males Sexual dimorphism is the phenotypicalhow they look difference of males vs females usually identified by cranial size and sexual organs Anthropology Exam 1 Study guide ANTR 1105 Early Human Ancestors A 9 Early Ancestors A Hominids are taxonomically a offshoot of the primate family the family includes Chimpanzees Bonobos Orangutans Homo Pongos and Gorillas Hominids and Chimps diverged around 13 mya Evolution of the hominid family include a parabolic dental arc more U shaped pelvis became more suited for heavy use of legs Bipedalism big toe is closer in line with the rest of the toes than chimps increased cranial size big molars with thick enamel flaring cheek bones small brains but big teeth and jaws they also had a flatter face and no honing complex cp3 Bipedalism was first found in the Genus Australopithecines Taung child the foramen Magnumalowing the spinal cord to fit where it is is positioned further forward than apes to stand up straight foot shape had the big toe closer to the rest of the toes arched feet more human like and the vertebral column was more upright The Laetoli Footprints are believed to be tracks left over from hominids proved the bipedalism of early human ancestors Mosaic evolution basically is a concept that evolutionary changes take place in some areas of the body faster than others our bipedalism came before our complex thinking for example Gracile Australopithecines include Australopithecus Anamensis Australopithecus Aferensis and Australopithecus Africanus They tended to be smaller in general size teeth stature cranial size etc First early hominids Sahelanthropus Tchadensis Orrorin Tugensis and Ardipithecus Ramidus Robust Australopithecines include Australopithecus Boisei Australopithecus Aethiopicus and Australopithecus Robustus They had bigger everything in generalteeth stature cranial size etc The feature that distinguish Gracile and Robust is the size of their body parts Early Genus Homo A Homo Habilis a species of the Genus Homo debated and considered controversial around 26 mya they used Oldowan tools which were early simple stone tools used for hunting probably Anthropology Exam 1 Study guide B ANTR 110 Homo Erectus A species of the Genus Homo and have better control of their locomotion method which is bipedalismwaking on two legs social structure more like modern humans than Australopithecines have smallerjaws and teeth and a bigger head for protection Huntergatherers that used Acheulcan tools that were slightly more complex than Oldowan tools but good enough to use effectively also made of stone Late Genus Homo A Archaic Homo Sapiens evolved from Homo Erectus and were found in Africa Asia and Europe gave way to Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans AMH for short Neanderthas had shorter limbs large noses 1500 cc in brain size and barrel chests for the purpose of winter survival and created Mousterian tools made with a prepared quotcorequot ready for flaking and one side is smooth while the other side would be flaked Anatomically Modern Humans Evolve around 100 to 200 thousand years ago and evolved from Africa In the upper Paleolithic era The tools in each region of the world that AMHs inhabit Tools they used started to become more specialized to each regionart specialized weapons etc 2 Emergence models came out to explain how we got around the world the Out of Africa replacement model states that we came from Africa and moved to other places the Multiregional theory states that we were already in other eastern hemisphere countries and interbred with one another with no movement necessary Anatomical and behavioral modernity usually complement each other for instance when the hominid group had smaller brain size and capacities it was more difficult to utilize complex thought and tool use Anthropology Exam 1 Study guide ANTR 110
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