Test 1 Biol 1110-005
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Notetaker on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 1110-005 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by James Robertson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Proka ryotic 1 Small cells lt5um Always unicellular No nucleus instead has a P1P oowow BIO LAB STUDY GUIDE Types of cells 10Eg Nostoc nitrogen xing 39naked loop39 called a nucleotide No membrane bound organelles Ribosomes are small 705s Svedberg unit of measure of the size of organelles No mitochondria Cell division by binary fusion Reproduction mainly asexual however there are some non meiotic forms of gene exchange such as conjugation Many metabolic pathways fermentation nitrogen xation amp photosynthesis contain heterocysts Larger cells that have a thick cell wall amp resist oxygen diffusion This is where nitrogen xing occurs gt coccusEukaryotic 1 Large cells gt um 2 Often multicellular 3 Always has nucleus wlinear DNS chromosomes amp histones Membrane bound organelles Ribosomes are large 805s Mitochondria present Cell division by mitosis or meiosis Reproduction asexual or sexual 9 Common form of respiration involving molecules like sugar 10Eg Elodea disophyros NP P P Bacteria 3 shapes due to cell walls Bacillus rod shaped Spirillum spiral Coccus spherical Useful bacteria Rhizobium Nitrogen xing bacteria in root nodules of plants that help the plant grow better Exploit the plaint39s nutrients thus creating a mutualistic relationship Anaerobic gt cannot grow in the presence of oxygen Also found in blue algae Opportunistic bacteria Phosphorus levels in ponds increase during the later parts of summer that leads to algal blooms Commonly called quotgreen slimequot Towards the end of august nitrogen in the water runs out amp everything dies except blue green algae containing rhizobium These can x nitrogen from the air so they get to take advantage of the endless amounts of phosphorus amp nitrogen Chi Square Z o er 6 e expected 0 observed Scienti c method Question Observation allows us to form a question about nature Hypothesis Formed from Types of hypothesis Null Ho this is the tested hypothesis Eg Human populations exhibit a 11 sex ratio Alternate Ha tentatively accepted when null hypothesis is rejected Eg Human populations DO NOT exhibit a 11 sex ratio Sampling error The difference in the value of a characteristic measured from a sample of the population and the value of that characteristic of the entire population The null hypothesis is rejected when the probability of getting the expected results from the null hypothesis is less than or equal to 005 The symbol or is used to designate t that probability and call it the probability of a type one error This means that there is a 005 5 chance or less that a scientist will reject a null hypothesis that is actually true Use Chi Square to test this If test statistic lt critical value we accept null If test statistic is gt critical value we reject null Diffusion and Osmosis Kinetics and movement The energy a molecule has due to motion Molecules are constantly moving Molecules move from regions of high concentration to lower concentration eg Cigarette smoke Net movement continues until molecules become homogenous mixed evenly throughout Diffusion The passive movement of molecules or particles solute along a concentration gradient Particles move from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentrations Particles quotwantquot to spread out and become evenly distributed Direction of diffusion depends on gradient of concentration of heat or of pressure Rate can be dictated by steepness of these gradients Differentially Permeable Membranes Cell membrane allows certain things to cross but not others selective This is accomplished by the cell39s phospholipid bilayer hence the term differentially permeable Similarly dialysis works by ltering out some molecules but still allowing the blood to cross and reenter the patient39s body Membrane Permeability Depends on size polarity and molecule solubility Osmosis Refers to the diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane Water is always the principle solvent Osmosis deals with the movement of water from an area of low concentration of solutes to an area where solute concentration is high Low to high osmosis High to low diffusion Enzymes Many reactions go on in a given cell at any time and these are catalyzed by enzymes Catalyst speeds up the reaction by lowering the activation energy required to quotget the reaction goingquot Most enzymes are proteins and will only catalyze a speci c reaction This is due to their shape at the active site and the shape of their substrates Enzyme Peroxidase Reaction H202 gtperoxidasegt H20 12 02 Use spectrophotometer to measure the activity of the enzyme Measures the absorbance value at 470 nm as it correlates to the enzyme39s activity Tonicity and solutions Solvent what does the dissolving Solute what is being dissolved 3 types of solutions Hypotonic lower concentration in solution A vs solution B will gain weight Water will move into a cell Hypertonic higher concentration in solution A vs solution B will lose weight Water will move out of a cell Plasmolysis shrinking of a plant cell in hypertonic solution lsotonic solutions A amp B have the same solute concentration cells will not change Water moves in both directions
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