Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide GEOG 322
Popular in Louisiana Geography
Popular in Geography
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianne Hall on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 322 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Molly McGraw in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 343 views. For similar materials see Louisiana Geography in Geography at Southeastern Louisiana University.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
GEOGRAPHY Geo Earth Graphy Describe Geography Describing the Earth Fields 0 Physical studies land forms amp climate 0 Cultural humans economics agriculture and settlement patterns Direction Location 0 Latitude an imaginary line running east to west that measures the angular distance north to south parallels 0 Longitude an imaginary line running north to south that measures the angular distance east to west meridians 0 Equator 0 Latitude 0 Prime Meridian 6 Longitude 0 New Orleans is 90 W Longitude and 30 Latitude Degrees 0 l 60 minutes 01 minutes 60 seconds 0 A precise location example would be 90 36 06 Maps 0 Twodimensional representation of the Earth s surface 0 Basic properties of a map 0 Direction 0 Distance 0 Location 0 Legend info about map title cartographer date etc Louisiana 0 LOUISIANA PURCHASE WAS IN 1803 0 Became State of Louisiana on April 18 1812 0 Part of Louisiana Purchase from France 0 Consisted of Isle of Orleans amp drainage basin of Mississippi River 0 In 1812 this was Louisiana 0 In 1819 The North Shore and No Man s Land was obtained from Spain in 1819 We are located in the Gulf Coast Physiographic Province We are characterized by low relief at 0 We are between 29 33 N Latitude 94 W 89 W Longitude Natural Boundaries Rivers Gulf of Mexico ArtificialArbitrarV Boundaries latitudelongitude E Mississippi River Pearl River and Chandelier Islands Size of Louisiana 0 Now 48 523 Sq Miles 0 2010 48 204 Sq Miles 0 300 Miles E to W 0 280 Miles N to S 0 We are constantly losing and gaining land Demoaranhics 0 46 million people in Louisiana 0 64 White 32 Black 5 Hispanic 2 Asian less than 1 is Native American 0 High School Graduates 83 0 Bachelor s Degree 218 The Mississippi River I Dominate Geographic Feature in Louisiana 0 Createdshaped approximately 23 of the state all of South and East La I Attracted Native Americans European Explorers and later immigrants from around the world 0 Important to European powers because whomever controlled the mouth of the MS River controlled trade in Central North America I New Orleans built to claimcontrol lower MS River I In uenced settlement patterns and layout of settlements I Fertile soil mild climate and exceptional farmland I Louisiana and New Orleans very wealthy bc of MS River Louisiana Parishes 0 After the La Purchase in 1803 present day La became known as the Territory of Orleans 0 1805 Territory of Orleans divided into 12 parishescounties I 1845 parish became to official designation 0 The term Parish used in Catholicism to determine area the Church covered I Original 12 Parishes Acadia Attakapas Concordia German Coast Iberville Lafourche Natchitoches Opelousas Orleans Ouachita Pointe Coupee and Rapides O The names of the parishes describe the culture or geography of that parish I New parishes were added as populations increase 0 1820 25 parishes O 1860 48 North shore parishes O 1912 64 parishes Allen Beauregard and Jefferson Davis added 0 Today 64 parishes 0 Parish names re ect our historyculture 0 Native American I Ex Tangipahoa cornstalk gatherers 0 French Settlement I Ex Baton Rouge red stick 0 Roman Catholic I Ex St John the Baptist St Helena St Charles etc 0 American Settlement I Ex Red River Richland 0 American Figures I Ex Beauregard confederate general Maior Regions of the State I Uplands 0 Hill region 0 Coastal terraces loess 0 Salt domes 0 Lowlands O Chenier plain O Deltaic plain O Alluvial river ood plain Louisiana s Climate Climate vs Weather 0 It s a matter of time scale 0 Weather is the day to day stuff 0 Climate consists of weather variations over a period of months to years Daily Extremes 0 Climate is what you expect weather is what you get Mark Twain LA s Climatic Classification 0 Humid Subtropical O Mild winters 0 Hot wet summers amp rainy Climatic Controls 0 Latitude 29 33 N Latitude 0 Dominate air masses 0 Positon on N American continent 0 Ocean currents O Topography 0 Prevailing winds Latitude 0 Sun angle 0 Summer northern hemisphere is tilting toward the sun 0 Summer Solace approx 83 0 Winter northern hemisphere is tilting away from the sun 0 Winter Solace approx 37 Dec 21st Length of Day 0 Summer long days steep angle of sun 0 Solace approx 14 hours 0 Winter short days shallow angle of the sun 0 Solace approx 10 hours Dominate Air Masses Maritime Tropical 0 DOMINATE 0 Very warm moist unstable air mass Lots of rain Continental Polar 0 Severe cold fronts in the Winter 0 Very cold and dry Air comes from Canada Maritime Polar 0 Cold fronts in the Winter from the Pacific Ocean 0 Air is moist and unstable 0 We often get these Continental Tropical 0 Air comes from Pacific Ocean 0 Hot amp Dry 0 Primarily in the summer Bermuda High Dominate 2 0 Huge dome of high pressure 0 In uences the route of a hurricane 0 Hurricanes have to go around Bermuda High 0 High pressure cool cold stable dry 0 Low pressure warm moist unstable rain Position in North America Ocean Currents 0 The air above cold water currents are coolcold dry and stable 0 The air above a warm water current is going to be warm moist and unstable 0 Gulf of Mexico has a warm water ocean current 0 The equator has a low pressure belt 0 The rest of the World at 30 Latitude is a dessert Except Louisiana because of GULF STREAM Prevailing Winds 0 Prevailing winds 0 Westerlies winter 0 Easterlies summer 0 Sea Breeze Southern LA 0 Daytime onshore wind I Land warm air rises cool air from ocean rushing in to place 0 Nighttime off shore wind I Reverse ow Temperature amp Precipitation Temperatures Average January Range Average July Range North Louisiana 32 53 F 70 91 F South Louisiana 48 63 F 71 90 F Frost DatesGrowing Season 0 North Louisiana 0 1St freeze late October 0 Last freeze late March 0 Growing season 230 days includes Florida Parishes 0 South Louisiana 0 1st freeze early December 0 Last freeze midFebruary 0 Growing season 300 days 3 months longer than North La 0 Plaquemines Parish has the LONGEST growing season Precipitation rainfall 0 Decreases Northward Average N La 50 inyear S La 64 inyear Average Summer Afternoon Tornadoes pattern T storms Winter Cold front pattern passage 0 A dash of air masses High Pressure Low Pressure Air Starts Spinning and creates a tornado Tornado vs Waterspout 0 Tornado overland 0 Waterspout over water 0 Can turn into each other Tornadoes in Louisiana 0 Louisiana NW La is part of tornado alley 0 When do they occur I Land falling hurricanes I Passage of cold fronts 39 Summer TStorms 0 Louisiana is 10 in number of tornadoes 0 La 9 in the country for number of KILLER tornadoes 0 La 5 in number of LONGEST tornadoes 0 La 7 for annual tornadoes per 10000 sq miles 0 19611990 avg 27 tornadoes per year Deadliest 0 1840 Concordia Parish Natchez MS gt 300 Dead 0 1908 Feb Outbreak gt 100 Dead 0 LiVingston Tangipahoa St Helena Washington Caddo Bossier Parish and Concordia Parish 6 The Enhanced Fajita Scale EF CLASSES GUST SPEED MPH 0 They measure the category of a EF 0 65 85 tornado by the damage it caused EF 1 86 110 after it is over EF 2 111 135 EF 3 13 6 165 Hurricanes EF 4 166 200 EF 5 gt200 0 Large intense in spirals of low pressure fed by release of latent heat 0 The word hurricane comes from a West Indian term which means evil spirits evil winds or God of Evil Where do they form 0 Tropicalsubtropical waters worldwide 0 Hurricanes North Atlantic amp Eastern Pacific 0 Cyclones Southwestern Pacific and Indian Ocean 0 Typhoons North Western Pacific 0 AM They are basically all the same just different names Tropical Weather Systems 0 Tropical Depression max sustained winds 38 mph 0 Tropical Storm max sustained wind speed 39 mph to 73 mph 0 Hurricane Min sustained winds of 74 mph and above Hurricane Season 0 June 1st to Nov 31St 0 Peak Sept 10th How do Hurricanes Form 0 Start as a low pressure system warm 0 Between 10 35 North Latitude NEVER EQUATOR 0 Warm Water 0 2 80 F 0 Deep Water 0 200 Ft at least 0 Westward movement due to trade winds 0 Coriolis creates spin counterclockwise in northern hemisphere 0 Also causes Northerly curve of hurricane track 0 STHP Bermuda High important steering mechanism HURRICANE CAN NOT GO THROUGH A BERMUDA HIGH IT HAS TO GO AROUND IT Hurricane Audrey 1957 one of the worst hurricanes to hit Louisiana Cameron Parishes Residents did not even know the storm was coming Impacts 0 Tide 0 Execrable storm surge impacts I High tide increases water elevation DAMAGE I Low tide decrease in water elevation GOOD 0 Wind Speed 0 Wave height increase wave height 0 Storm surge O Pushes water inland 0 Storm Track 0 Storm Surge 0 Low pressure raises the water level 0 Doming effect 0 Stronger the hurricane the lower the pressure the higher the storm surge and the higher the Wind waves 0 Morphology 0 Shape of coast line 0 Coastal Morphology I Smooth vs irregular coast Accordion Marsh marsh pushed dup to create a ripple effect Displaced Marsh marsh picked up and moved to a different area of marsh Wrack Debris washed up after storm Inverted Marsh marsh ipped over 0 Eye area of calm Winds 0 Eye wall worst area of Wind 0 Winds decrease as they move away from eye wall 0 The movement of the hurricane Will depend on the strongest area of the hurricane 0 Area 2 has the Strongest Winds Past Hurricanes 0 Hurricane Lili O Started to break apart before it hit land 0 Dry air killed the hurricane EL NINo amp LA NINA 0 Natural events linked to sea surface temperature in the SouthernEquatorial Pacific Ocean 0 Cycle El Nino normal La Nina avg 35 years 0 La Nina an intensification of normal conditions Effects in La 39El Nino 0 Wet Winter amp spring 0 Fewer Atlantic hurricanes 39Shears the tops of storms 0 La Nina 0 Dry Winters and spring 0 More Atlantic hurricanes Climate Change 0 Earth s temperatures have uctuated throughout time 0 Cool periods glaciers and ice sheet grow 0 Warm periods glaciers and ice sheets recede Cool g glacial 0 Sea levels decrease Warm interglacial 0 Sea levels increase Currently in warm period for past 7000 years Global average temperature 0 Increased 1 C in the last 140 years 0 Expected to rise 6 7 F by the end of this century Hadley model 0 Predicts climate in LA 0 Much dryer due to breakdown of gulf stream amp more storms Canadian Model 0 Predicts climate in LA 0 Going to be wetter and more storms
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