Chapter 4 Study Guide
Chapter 4 Study Guide PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 438 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR CHAPTER 4 Perceiving Persons LEARNING OBJECTIVES GUIDELINES FOR STUDY You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 4 1 Explain the importance of first impressions in social perception Consider the cues facial features name style of dress that contribute to these snap judgments pp 105108 We make firs r impressions very quickly and we migh r make a judgmen r by looking a r someone39s heigh r weigh r skin color glasses piercings or o rher aspec rs of physical appearance We can jump to conclusions jus r by looking at someone39s face research has shown that people rhink of people with babylike fea rures were seen as warm kind na39ive hones r and submissive 2 Explain the function of scripts in social perception Discuss the expectations and beliefs people tend to have With regard to mind perception as well p 108 Scrip rs in social percep rion is our prese r no rions abou r cer rain rypes of si rua rions which allow us to an ricipa re the behaviors and ou rcomes that are likely to happen in a cer rain se r ring People are able To do This because rhey a r rribu re humanlike men ral s ra res to people and rhings when they use mind percep rion They see someone fixing a small bicycle bu r ins read rhink rhey mus r be fixing it for their daughter 3 Explain the role of nonverbal cues in social perception Summarize the research concerning perception of angry faces Discuss the roles of other nonverbal cues including body language eye contact and touch Discuss the role of cultural norms in evaluating nonverbal behavior pp 109114 We send and receive a Io r of nonverbal cues during social in rerac rions of ren wi rhou r realizing rha r we39re doing so Sub rle Things in someone39s body language and facial cues can help you unders rand how a person is feeling These rhings aren39t really raugh r To us formally bu r ins read learned socially However The same body language can mean rwo comple rely differen r rhings depending on the cul rure People in the US are more individualis ric but in more communitybased cul rures like I raly people s rand much closer To you during conversa rion where rha r would be considered s rrange for us 4 Describe people s ability to detect deception Contrast the channels of communication that are most likely to reveal that someone is lying With the channels that perceivers typically try to use to detect deception pp 1141 16 Fidge ring of someone39s hands or fee r is one way someone migh r be able to de rec r lying however rhese nervous behaviors are rela rively easy to con rrol if you concentrate on them The voice can be one of the most telling channels they will hesitate then speed up and raise their voice Liars also tend to avert their eyes instead of making eye contact Other cues that might indicate lying is fidgeting squirming or Touching their face Even experts at detecting deception such as detectives make quite a bit of error when making judgments 5 Define What is meant by attribution Distinguish between personal and situational attributions Summarize J ones s correspondent inference theory and Kelley s covariation theory pp 116120 Attributions are the explanations that we use to explain someone else39s behavior what caused them to perform that behavior in order to understand our world better Personal attribution is when we quotblamequot a behavior on some type of internal characteristic of the actor examples personality mood talent effort while situational attribution is when we attribute a behavior to some external factor such as other people some situation environment The Jones correspondent inference says people try to infer from an action whether the behavior results from an enduring personal trait of the actor ex aggression based on how freely the behavior is chosen are they free to do what they like or are they feeling some type of situational pressure to act a certain way expectedness is this behavior expected in this type of situation and effect what were the actor39s intended outcomes or consequences of their actions Kelly39s covariation theory says that people attribute actions to situational factors when the factors are present and the behavior doesn39t happen when those environmental factors are absent 6 Describe cognitive heuristics in general and the availability heuristic in particular Explain the relationship between the availability heuristic the falseconsensus effect and the base rate fallacy pp 120 121 Cognitive heuristics are how people often make attributions by using information processing rules of thumb The availability heuristic is the tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event occurring by how easily examples come to mind We can form opinions about the likelihood of certain events your favorite football team winning a game for example and have the tendency to overestimate the degree to which other people agree with your opinionsbeliefs called the falseconsensus effect Related to this is our relative insensitivity to statistical information Our recent experiences mean more to us then a bunch of numbers on a piece of paper even though the stats are probably more reliable 7 Define counterfactual thinking and identify When it is likely to occur p 122 Counterfactual thinking is the tendency to imagine alternate outcomes that might have occurred but did not People tend to ask these what ifquot questions when our hypothetical outcome is better than the real outcome they might feel disappointment or resent or when things might39ve been much worse relief after having a close call while driving on the highway 8 Define the fundamental attribution error and describe the factors that make this error more or less likely to occur Compare the fundamental attribution error With the actorobserver effect and discuss the two explanations for the actorobserver effect Understand the role of culture in the attribution process pp 123127 Look to the Key Terms section for the definition of fundamental attribution error We are more likely to make internal attributions when we make very quick judgments about the reason someone acted a certain way We tend to downplay the influence of situational factors because they are less obvious than the action we observed Unless the situational pressures are obvious and dramatic we may discount them all together 9 Explain how attribution biases may stem from motivational factors such as the desire to take more credit for success than for failure Define What is meant by the belief in a just world and identify the factors that lead to defensive attributions pp 127130 We tend to attribute positive outcomes to our own internal factors so that we can claim we are responsible for the outcome thus boosting our own selfesteem However less than positive outcomes are often blamed on others That39s why we are more likely to make situational attributions for our own selves when something goes poorly I made a bad decision but it was because my group of friends were pressuring me than for others he was with his friends but it was still his decision The belief in a just worldquot can lead to victim blaming since people might think that everything good and bad happens for a reason If this were true the victim simply got what was coming to them Our need for selfesteem is the main factor that can lead to these different defensive attributions 10 Describe Wishful seeing and give an example of When you have engaged in the behavior p 128 Wishful seeing is basically how it sounds It39s been found that groups of people one group thirsty because they ate salty pretzels and the other group quenched estimated the difference from them to a bottle of water were significantly different The thirsty group on average estimated that the bottle of water was 3 inches closer than the notthirsty group did I39ve mistaken a piece of paper for a dollar bill because I was hoping to find cash inside my couch ll Explain the summation and averaging models of impression formation Explain the role of perceiver characteristics including the effects of individual differences priming and mood and of target characteristics including the trait negativity bias on impression formation pp 130135 The summation model would cause you to be more impressed by the number of positives you count about someone You will be less impressed if you use the averaging model since you will average out both the positives and the negatives Perceiver characteristics are whether you form impressions about someone based on in rellec r physical beau ry humor or wha rever Whichever aspec r we are more likely ro notice about someone else is our perceiver charac reris rics The Target charac rer ris rics are rrai rs such as ex rroversion emo rional s rabili ry openness To experience agreeableness and conscien riousness 12 Explain how people s implicit personality theories affect their impressions of other people Describe the effects of central traits and the primacy effect on these impressions Identify two explanations for the primacy effect pp 135138 Our implici r personali ry Theories are a ne rwork of assump rions about The rela rionships among various rypes of people rrai rs and behaviors this means that knowing someone possesses one rrai r can lead us To believe rha r They also possess o rher rrai rs even if we don39f have evidence of Them Cen rral rrai rs are ones rha r imply the presence of certain other rrai rs ex someone who is shown to be warm a cen rral rrai r can also be assumed to be friendly and caring The primacy effec r is the phenomenon that informa rion presen red early in a long sequence is more impac ring rhan informa rion presen red la rer on We might forge r o rher informa rion from The sequence because our a r ren rion span causes us To get dis rrac red offer a shor r while Ano rher reason people fall fo the primacy effec r is that they might have judged rhemselves as having made an accura re impression so They don39f pay a r ren rion To The res r of The information 13 Define confirmation bias Describe how belief perseverance confirmatory hypothesis testing and the selffulfilling prophecy can each contribute to this bias Discuss the relationship between confirmation bias and belief perseverance pp 138141 Confirma rion bias is the rendencies to seek in rerpre r and create informa rion rha r verifies exis ring beliefs This comes from our rendency to feel very s rrongly in one opinion rha r we discredi r or kind of ignore informa rion rha r conflic rs with our beliefs We have selec rive a r ren rion rha r disregards informa rion rha r we don39f wan r To hear We use our confirma rion bias paying more a r ren rion or giving more credit ro informa rion rha r suppor rs our beliefs ro back up our own opinions We can also see cer rain ou rcomes simply because we expec r To see rhem in The selffulfilling prophecy l4 Explain selffulfilling prophecy and give a personal example 141144 A selffulfilling prophecy is an event that rakes place simply because someone expec red rhe even r ro happen An example would be a coach who expects a par ricular a rhle re To really Take off and perform at a higher level Throughou r The season The coach migh r spend more Time with Their special a rhle re because They are expec ring This success If The a rhle re does succeed i r39s unknown if The coach39s predic rion was right all along or if if was The ex rra a r ren rion and The a rhle res desire not To le r their coach down rha r caused The success 15 Describe generally how people fare as social perceivers listing reasons for being both optimistic and pessimistic regarding people s competence as social perceivers pp 144 146 Some percepTions are made aT The drop of The haT while oThers are made Through painsTakingly analyzing behavior However There is a loT of inaccuracy no maTTer whaT because people are subjecT To all These common misconcepTions ThaT we wenT over Even Though nobody is impressively accuraTe in Their impressions people Tend To feel preTTy confidenT in Their compeTence as social perceivers They also Tend To be pessimisTic abouT oTher39s abiliTies in This aspecT because They doubT someone could make an accuraTe snap judgmenT abouT Them KEY TERMS attribution theory p 117 A group of Theories ThaT describe how people explain The causes of behavior availability heuristic p 120 The Tendency To esTimaTe The likelihood ThaT an evenT will occur by how easily insTances of iT come To mind baserate fallacy p 121 The finding ThaT people are relaTively insensiTive To consensus informaTion presenTed in The form of numerical base raTes belief in ajust world p 129 The belief ThaT individuals geT whaT They deserve in life an orienTaTion ThaT leads people To disparage vicTims beliefperseverance p 140 The Tendency To mainTain beliefs even afTer They have been discrediTed central traits p 135 TraiTs ThaT exerT a powerful influence on overall impressions confirmation bias p 138 The Tendencies To seek inTerpreT and creaTe informaTion ThaT verifies exisTing beliefs counterfactual thinking p 122 The Tendency To imagine alTernaTive evenTs or ouTcomes ThaT mighT have occurred buT did noT covariation principle p 118 A principle of aTTribuTion Theory ThaT holds ThaT people aTTribuTe behavior To facTors ThaT are presenT when a behavior occurs and are absenT when iT does noT falseconsensus effect p 121 The Tendency for people To overesTimaTe The eXTenT To which oThers share Their opinions aTTribuTes and behaviors fundamental attribution error p 123 The Tendency To focus on The role of personal causes and underesTimaTe The impacT of siTuaTions on oTher people39s behavior implicit personality theory p 135 A neTwork of assumpTions people make abouT The relaTionships among TraiTs and behaviors impression formation p 131 The process of inTegraTing informaTion abouT a person To form a coherenT impression information integration theory p 131 The Theory ThaT impressions are based on 1 perceiver disposiTions and 2 a weighTed average of a TargeT person39s TraiTs mind perception p 109 The process by which people affribufe humanlike mental states to various anima re and inanimate objects including other people need for closure p 137 The desire To reduce cognifive uncer rainfy which heigh rens The importance of first impressions nonverbal behavior p 110 Behavior that reveals a person39s feelings without words Through facial expressions body language and vocal cues personal attribution p 117 Affribul ion fo infernal characteristics of an actor such as abilify personalify mood or effort primacy effect p 137 The Tendency for information presented early in a sequence To have more impact on impressions fhan information presented lafer priming p 133 The fendency for recently used or perceived words or ideas To come ro mind easily and influence The interpretation of new information selffulfilling prophecy p 141 The process by which one39s expectations about a person eventually lead That person To behave in ways rha r confirm fhose expecfafions situational attribution p 117 Affribufion ro fac rors exfernal To an actor such as The Task other people or luck social perception p 105 A general rerm for39 the processes by which people come To understand one another Sample Multiple Choice Questions keyed to each Learning Objective As social perceivers people s impressions of others are a formed only after knowing the person for a considerable period of time b uninfluenced by superficial attributes of a person c formed at first encounter and completely unchangeable d ANS D REF Observation The Elements of Social Perception OBJ 1 KEY Conceptual Based on the research of Todorov and others 2008 which facial expression will be perceived as most trustworthy a b Ushaped mouth with eyebrows forming a V c Mouth curled down with raised eyebrows d Mouth curled down with eyebrows forming a V OBJ ANS A OBJ l REF Observation The Elements of Social Perception KEY Factual In research by Pryor and Merluzzi 1985 the script for a first date a b varied widely by gender c varied widely by sexual orientation d was similar across cultures ANS A OBJ 2 REF Observation The Elements of Social Perception KEY Factual The process by which people attribute humanlike mental states to various animate and inanimate objects is called a belief perseverance b social perception c nonverbal behavior d ANS D REF Observation The Elements of Social Perception 2 KEY Factual Research by Gray and colleagues 2007 has indicated two dimensions on which people perceive minds These dimensions are referred to as depth and breadth morality and rationality 99w contextual and focal ANS C OBJ 2 REF Observation The Elements of Social Perception KEY Conceptual While traveling around the world Teun shows various people pictures of men and women from his hometown who are smiling and frowning and he asks these people to infer what emotions the individuals in the pictures are experiencing According to the research on perceptions of primary emotions Teun should find that a erce tions of the emotions var widel as a function of the eo le s culture b H c little can be inferred about the emotions unless the behaviors of the individuals in the pictures are also described d little is inferred about the emotions unless the situational contexts of the individuals in 10 the pictures are also described ANS B OBJ 3 REF Observation The Elements of Social Perception KEY Applied The anger superiority effect in social perception refers to the finding that a people are quicker to look away from an angry face in a crowd than a neutral face people are quicker to look away from an angry face in a crowd than a happy face b c d crosscultural differences in the perception of angry faces are greater than they are for faces with other emotions ANS C OBJ 3 REF Observation The Elements of Social Perception KEY Conceptual A target s gaze disengagement tends to lead perceivers to a believe that a target is overly confident b rate a target as more physically attractive c have difficulty forming an accurate impression of a target d ANS D REF Observation The Elements of Social Perception OBJ 3 KEY Conceptual Deception is most likely to be detected by attending to which channel of communication a Spoken words b Body posture c d Facial expression ANS C OBJ 4 REF Observation The Elements of Social Perception KEY Conceptual Colin and Erin are waiting to meet with their caterer so that they can discuss the menu for their wedding The caterer is 30 minutes late and still hasn t arrived Colin suggests that the caterer is probably delayed because of traffic Erin suggests that the caterer is probably disorganized and unreliable Colin is making an attribution whereas Erin is making a n attribution a dispositional situational b c expected unexpected d correspondent dispositional ANS B REF Attribution From Elements to Dispositions ll 12 l3 l4 OBJ 5 KEY Applied According to correspondent inference theory correspondent inferences are most likely to occur when a person s behavior is a not freely chosen expected and results in many desirable outcomes b freely chosen expected and results in few desirable outcomes c freely chosen unexpected and results in many desirable outcomes d ANS D REF Attribution From Elements to Dispositions OBJ 5 KEY Conceptual In Kahneman s 2011 work on judgment and decision making System 1 is to as System 2 is to a b effortful easy c accurate inaccurate d inaccurate accurate ANS A OBJ 6 REF Attribution From Elements to Dispositions KEY Conceptual Stephon knows someone whose brother received a very lucrative contract to play professional basketball for the National Basketball Association NBA With this success story in mind he ignores the statistics that indicate a very low probability that anyone will make it to the NBA and overestimates his own chances of making it This scenario best illustrates a the covariation rinciple b i c noncorrespondent inferences d the actorobserver effect ANS B OBJ 6 REF Attribution From Elements to Dispositions KEY Applied The tendency to mentally undo events or to ask What if is called a baserate fallacy b attribution c d fundamental attribution error ANS C OBJ 7 REF Attribution From Elements to Dispositions KEY Factual 15 l6 l7 18 According to Medvec s research on counterfactual thinking among Olympic medalists which of the following is true a Bronze and silver medalists are equally likely to think What if I had won the gold b Silver medalists are happier with their standing than bronze medalists because silver medalists think about how they could have done worse and received the bronze C d Bronze medalists are envious of silver medalists ANS C OBJ 7 REF Attribution From Elements to Dispositions KEY Factual You hear Tiger Woods doing a radio commercial for Buick Even though you know that Woods did not write the commercial himself was paid to provide the voiceover for the commercial and probably does not drive a Buick in real life you still think that at some level at least Woods must think highly of Buicks This is an example of a actorobserver effect b falseconsensus bias c availabilit heuristic d ANS D OBJ 8 REF Attribution From Elements to Dispositions KEY Applied According to the twostep model of the attribution process people make an a automatic first step of weighing situational and personal attributions equally and then an effortful second step of considering the initial inference b c effortful first step of weighing situational and personal attributions equally and then an automatic second step of making a dispositional inference d automatic first step of making a situational attribution and then an effortful second step of considering personal factors ANS B OBJ 8 REF Attribution From Elements to Dispositions KEY Conceptual Research on the impact of ideological motives on attribution indicates that a liberal is most likely to explain poverty as due to a laziness b c personal characteristics d selfindulgence ANS B REF Attribution From Elements to Dispositions 19 20 21 22 OBJ 9 KEY Conceptual The tendency to think that most victims of Hurricane Sandy were irresponsible and naive for not evacuating their homes before the storm hit is most likely to result from which of the following tendencies a b Implicit personality theory c Falseconsensus effect d Priming ANS A REF Attribution From Elements to Dispositions OBJ 9 KEY Applied The finding that moderately positive traits can dilute the impact of extremely positive traits on impressions is most consistent with the a role of central traits in impression formation b influence of priming effects in impression formation c d summation model of impression formation ANS C OBJ 11 REF Integration From Dispositions to Impressions KEY Factual Priming refers to the tendency a to infer unknown personality characteristics on the basis of known dispositions b c for people to underutilize target characteristics and rely on their own traits when forming impressions of others d to continue to believe preexisting impressions even after they are discredited ANS B OBJ 11 REF Integration From Dispositions to Impressions KEY Factual Social perceivers are most likely to agree in their judgments of which of the following traits a Openness to experience b c Agreeableness d Emotional stability ANS B OBJ 11 REF Integration From Dispositions to Impressions KEY Factual 23 24 25 26 Which of the following traits would produce the most extreme impression of a target a Honesty b c Maturity d Intelligence ANS B OBJ 11 REF Integration From Dispositions to Impressions KEY Conceptual A network of assumptions that people make about the relationships among traits and behaviors is called a b information integration theory c a selffulfilling prophecy d the confirmation bias ANS A OBJ l2 REF Integration From Dispositions to Impressions KEY Factual The primacy effect refers to the tendency for a people s impressions of others to be in uenced by their memory of events that have just recently occurred b perceivers to choose to make personal versus situational attributions as a function of which type is initially available c people to first make situational attributions and then only later to insufficiently correct these attributions so as to take dis ositions into account d ANS D OBJ 12 REF Integration From Dispositions to Impressions KEY Factual Darley and Gross 1983 conducted a study in which they asked participants to evaluate the intellectual ability of a nineyearold named Hannah Some participants were led to believe that she came from a high socioeconomic SES background others were led to believe she came from a low SES background Which of the following statements about this study is accurate a Only for perceivers who actually met the target ie Hannah in person did expectation influence perceptions b Perceivers expectations determined the way they behaved toward the target which in turn influenced the target s behavior c Perceivers expectations led them to fail to notice clear limitations of the target s actual performance ANS D OBJ l3 REF Confirmation Biases From Impressions to Reality KEY Factual 27 28 29 Denrell s 2005 explanation for the persistence of negative first impressions is that when we meet someone and do not like them we tend to reduce the opportunity for future interaction which allows the first impression to remain stable and relatively crystallized This notion is called a b the fundamental attribution error c the availability heuristic d mind perception ANS A OBJ l3 REF Confirmation Biases From Impressions to Reality KEY Conceptual Vernell is being interviewed for a job Though it isn t really true the interviewer suspects that Vernell is incompetent Because the interviewer doesn t expect much from Vernell he sits far away from her during the interview interrupts her frequently and seems distracted when she speaks As a result Vernell becomes nervous starts to stutter and loses her train of thought several times The interviewer s final impression is that Vernell is as he suspected incompetent This impression is most likely the result of a the trait ne ativit bias b c primacy effects d the fundamental attribution error ANS B OBJ 14 REF Confirmation Biases From Impressions to Reality KEY Applied Social perceivers are more likely to form accurate judgments of others if they a rely exclusively on cognitive heuristics b make broad ilobal iudiments c d ignore the rules of probability and logic and trust their instincts ANS C OBJ 15 REF Social Perception The Bottom Line KEY Conceptual
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