History Midterm Study Guide
History Midterm Study Guide HIST141
Popular in American History to 1865
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verified elite notetaker
PHYS 2212 - P
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stacey Notetaker on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST141 at University of Evansville taught by Dr. Robin Sager in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see American History to 1865 in History at University of Evansville.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Term Who What When Where Why/Significa nce Christopher Christoph Explore North 1492 Bahamas CC Columbus er America. A for 10 documented Columbus ship is weeks circulation of funded by wrecked, leave winds, Spanish 39 men mapped out Monarchs behind, take coastlines, Isabell back Taino and and (NA) and dress conquests Fedinand them. When into South they return, 39 America men are dead so CC attacks villages God; Glory; Spanish Gold – wealth Late North These are the Gold Explorers for self and 1500s America motivating nation. If Spain factors for gets gold, they Spanish will become exploration trading powers Glory – military diplomatic conquistadors use military method to gain political power God – Spanish missionaries are to spread gospel and connect Natives Conquistad Spanish Claim land 1500s North Led to ors explorers over Natives America Hernan using military Cortez attack method on Aztecs? Hernan Hernan Attack Aztec 1579 Aztec By the Mid Cortez Cortez Capital, a Capital 1500s, and 100 powerful city in Spanish had men Central Am. He claimed most uses 1. Virgin of SA, CA, Mary – and a bit of welcoming NA. They find image used to gold and convert a become more higher order. 2. powerful in Converted Europe outsiders against Aztecs to join Spanish. 3. Gunpowder. 4. Small pox lowered Aztec defense Columbian Europe, Exchange of 1500s Along the Natives taken Exchange Spanish, people, Atlantic to Europe, Natives products, maize starts disease etc. to grow in the when people Mediterranea cross the n. Spanish Atlantic life of people not improved due to inflation. Joint Stock England GB originally 1560s England JSC born out Company focused on of necessity continental and helps GB Europe but with move mercantilist westward due goals to economy. London merchants exp downturn to form JSC: partnerships of shared enterprise. Ie – I want settlement in VA but I got no cash, So I ask people to contribute and we share all risks. Mercantilis Merchant Global wealth 1500s- Europe Were able to m s and the is finite bc it’s1600s bring in gold GB crown measured in reserves. Led gold/silver, so to we must as competition much as and in the possible, trade, late 1500s, colonize, etc. there was a JSC good for population this. Merc is boom and so the benefits of people were trading. GB shipped out. had paid Raiding privateers raid helped GB ships with merc goals Roanoke Sir Walter Sir Water 1586 Roanoke 1604 GB and “The Lost Raleigh, Raleigh is Island Spain treaty: Colony” Wingina given a charter GB will stop to raid Spanish raiding, shipping in NA. Spanish will They sink in stop hurting wealth to colonies Roanoke and 1604 Virginia choose a place compromise – for shelter. receive Wingina helps charter to them, but colonize colonists Pictures demand chief humanizing too much, so natives Wingina launches attack on colonists. Wingina is killed, and settlers ride back home. 2 nd time, GB comes with men and women Jamestown English Settlers arrive 1607 MD/VA Lead to men at Jamestown, Malaria and capital city of people were VA with no on the verge farmers. All of death single men, upper class arrive for profit. Had freshwater, but polluted by their wastes, trouble crowing crops, access to ships, shelter from the Atlantic. Powhatans Native Jamestown 1607 Jamestown Led to a lot of American settlers area death and s and established “starving Jamestow poor relations time” n with colonists Powhatans by pushing them for supplies. Colonists attack Powhatans and are victorious “Starving Jamestow Colonists were Winter Jamestown Pochahontas Time” n desperate for 1609- area helps people colonists, food, Spring gain Pocahont cannibalism. 1610 knowledge of as, James People agriculture, Smith survived bc GB people, funded tobacco, etc. Jamestown, advertised people to come, James Smith “work or die” so people stopped looking for gold. Pocahontas is captured and marries Smith for peace. Tobacco Pocahont John Ralph 1600s Jamestown Pocahontas as already area saves VA and exploring Chesapeake tobacco. but doesn’t Pocohontas solve other gives demographic knowledge, issues: grew for cash, tobacco takes used as toll on other currency crops, native tensions Cecilius King Wants to 1632 MD MD is the first Calvert Charles I create a to adopt the grants trading colony Act charter to and refuge. Concerning Cecilius Opens up MD religion – Calvert to as a religious colonists can create a refuge for adopt other colony profit and religions labor. MD st becomes 1 proprietorship Indentured Ceclius People are Mid VA already Harsh Servitude adopts contracted to 1600s had, MD treatment of ententure work for 4-7 adopted servants led d years of labor. to court. servitude Given food, Decisions shelter, and usually favor after servitude master. is over, they Workers are receive land usually termed unruly and their term is extended. Puritanism Puritans Believe that 1620’s Plymouth Develops into reforms in GB a city upon a aren’t strict hill, to be a enough. Want model city for new found other cities godly society. Concerned with revival of Catholicism in GB. Want pure society. Salvation through predestination. “City Upon Puritans Puritans want 1620’s Plymouth People from a Hill” to create a Netherlands civilization that wanted to is a “model” come to VA for other but landed in civilizations. cape cod. They created a body republic and the Plymouth colony was founded. Mayflower Puritans Plymouth 1620s Plymouth 1 self Compact and needed governing English governing doc of English colonies agreements colonies. because of People believers and figured out nonbelievers how to inhabiting the govern area. themselves Mayflower Compact created by an assembly. People abide by community decisions. Roger Roger Godly minister, 1630s Massachus Gives us an Williams Williams arrives in etts idea about Massachusetts. how Puritans Believed that responded to the challenge. government Mostly involves itself banished too much with people bc it religion. protects the Believes in the colony from separation of wraithful church and God. state. Believes that god directly communicates with individual. Advocates for religious freedom. Anne Anne Educated 1630’s Boston Gives us an Hutchinson Hutchinso midwife tries idea about n to hold how Puritans meetings with responded to other women challenge. to discuss Mostly religion. Draws banished power with people bc it meetings and protects the becomes direct colony from competition wrathful God. with ministers. Tried to be “witchy” and banished Pequat War Puritans As puritan 1637 Plymouth, War and population by concluded Natives grew, they had Massachus due to so to expand land etts Bay many deaths to they from raids. invaded the Treaty of Pequat’s land. Hartford – Puritan killed pequats for invading required to pequat land so give up fight, war starts and land, and puritans burn name for pequat village. peace. Salem Smuel Hearings and 1692 Salem Showed high Witch Trials Parris prosecutions of use of those accused spectral of witchcraft. evidence and Accusation of that targets outsiders, were often court hears outsiders cases. Court ended up being dissolved and excluded spectral evidence. Spectral Part of Evidence that 1692 Salem Used as Evidence salem the accused witness witch appeared to testimony trials witness in a that victim dream when can see the witches spectra body was at created by another witch location Halfway Puritans A halfway 1662 Massachus People Covenant compromise etts believed that measure the inability between to regulate Massachusetts outsiders led Puritan to the salem ministers and which trials. the people. The church This allows had a children of attendance ministers to crisis. People become could be halfway church church members members but without didn’t have conversion voting rights because the so this was church controversial attendance dropped so they are trying to lure people in. William William Founder of PA, PA 1681 This was the Penn Penn a middle last English colony. A colony Quaker that established. receives a Formed for charter from political and Charles II religious devoted to reasons. He Quaker believed that interest. Penn we all have believed in an an inner light equality of all and that’s persons, why we are including equal women. Believed that Men, women, natives, and the English were equal. He believes that everyone’s interpretation of the bible is valid and allowed kids and ministers to speak up Quakers Quakers They are PA Late 1600s- Pacifism pacifists who 1700s made try to avoid Quakers materialism. seem week They’re known and unloyal. to take a William Penn peaceful parcels out approach and land to true are good Quakers. A negotiators to measurable avoid war. port in Philly grows with urban problems like poverty and quaker goal drifts over time and is watered down “Inner William William Penn 1680s PA That is why Light” Penn, believed that we are equal people of all people have PA an “inner light” or spirit of god William William Favor of crown, 1680s Jamestown Imp for bacon Berkeley Berkeley enlightened, VA rebellion related to Bacon. Bacon betrays Berkeley and attacks the Natives. He invades Jamestown where Berkeley is Bacon’s Bacon Servants are 1670s VA Mass Rebellion and freed living longer rebellion that servants and so they is a transition feel discontent to slavery. because they Lower class are outliving who are freed their servitude. want land so They come out they push with no money into the to buy land. mountains, They have no where natives political control are. This is in because the direct conflict elites control with the the legal treaties set system. MD/VA up by VA and restrict voting NA tribes. rights to Bacon issues landowners Declaration and freed of Grievances servants can’t and his laws vote because are passed. they have no He wanted land so they limits of have to sign office another holdings, contract and avoiding work until accepting death. Led political to .angry bribes, and people and a restoring the rebellion, led vote to all by Bacon men. Bacon dies and laws are re- evaluated. This is a transition to slave labor bc servants are dangerous and highly outnumber the officials Transatlanti Slaves slaves are 1670s- From Africa Led to slaves c slave taken from 1808 to british in America trade Africa to the America being tied to carribeans to skin color. british Also, middle America. passageway Slaves are captured and sold to sugar colonies slave ships are packed tight Middle Slaves 6 month From 1670s-1808 Part of passagewa voyage. Slave Africa to transatlantic y ships with tight VA/britis slave trade. packaging, h Slaves are pack the America tied to skin maximum color. Leads amount of to an bodies due to increase of high mortality slaves rate from lack leading to of oxygen, 1705 slave diseases, etc. code By the 1700s- 1800s some say loose packaging is more humane and that more slaves will survive so there is a higher profit. Slaves arrive and need to survive a “seasoning” of 6 weeks to new contagions 1705 Slave Slave Series of laws 1705 MD/VA Slaves laws Trade code owners that tells favored and owners how owners. slaves they to run a Slavery is slave society. A very present series of laws so owners led to this. must have 1643, a tax on rules – ie, if a African slave runs American away, steals, women, etc. Slaves meaning that are property AA are double and masters taxed. In 1662, of free of bondage is an punishment if inherited he kills a condition from slave the mother. At (“accident”). the same time, Slaves are no no interracial longer sex, bc citizens/ offspring will people so be mixed and they can’t won’t abide by come to court bondage law. for protection In 1664, in MD or marry. and VA, slavery is a lifelong condition. This separates slavery from servitude. In 1667, religious conversions can’t free a slave. Navigation English A series of acts 1650s Coastal William and acts crown that end North Mary change smuggling with America the acts via taxes. Made the laws based on Declaration $ means. Act and give of 1651- any people more goods going rights. in/out of ports “Salutary need to be neglect” – carried on English English ships – leaves limiting goods colonies shipped. 1663 alone and – all products there is coming from silence for a Europe to the while. colonies must passed through English ports st 1 – double taxation and goods become expensive. 1673 – taxes accessed on all coastal trade in English North America. This increases arms, courts, track of goods in/out of colony The John Locke initiates 1650- Europe, GB, Led to a Enlightenm Locke Enlightenment 1700s North reaction ent by saying that America against the we have enlightenmen freedom to t, the great unionize and awakening that if we live in an unnatural gov. we should revolt. During the enlightenment, everyone has access to education and information. People focus more on science and not supernatural. King and queen now rule by vote, not god. Ministers complain about enlightenment bc people are pursuing material wealth and not god, so church membership drops The great Ministers Re-awakening 1730s Europe, GB, Minister’s awakening of religious North reaction to impulses. America the Ministers enlightenmen preach and t travel to people who would listen. Gather crowds, have revivals where people would come and listen to save their souls. People gave $ to them. Revivalists used fear based language – if you don’t follow god you’ll be dammed. The choice to be saved is emphasized. Only god’s mercy will save you. Jonathan Jonathan Massachusetts 1741 New One of the Edwards Edwards puritan England many minister who ministers of travels around the great new England awakening to spread God. People who listen usually go crazy as an occurrence of visiting God. Some people thought that Edwards was corrupt st Anglicizatio English How the 1 half Enligsh The two n and colonists begin of 1800s Colonies groups are colonists to take after very close the English. but this goes Colonists begin from people to imitate loving GB to enligsh bc of people hating lack of ruling them. Higher class. Adopt class and English culture lower class crown. Ie – separate eliza Lucas (gap), growth Pickney of urban studies the culture, French and consumer wears GB style culture clothing 7 years French, War between 1754- Colonial Sparks the war/French Britain, GB, their 1763 america Treaty of and Indian colonists, colonies and Paris in 1763. war NA native allies, NA gets and France, French and their Territory. GB colonies and get east of native allies. In Mississippi. VA, GB citizens French get need more West of land in their Mississippi. growing There is a population so cultural they decide disconnect that they want here and the to expand into alienation of French territory Anglicization (ohio valley unites people river territory). to fight VA Royal Gov. because of Dimwiddee the common sends GW with enemy, the a letter to talk French. with France. France rejects GW. GW goes a second time this time with an army, but with no intent of starting a war. There is a fire of a gun as a result of miscommunica tion and GW is successful. Then the Battle of Ft. William Henry. This is a moment of unification, but GB loses. There is a peaceful surrender bc GB just needs to leave land with weapons but then NA attack GB because they want something out of the war. This massacre prompts militia mobilization. However GB is open to peace talks with France because GB is in debt. Albany South, South and 1754 NY Establish a Conference Middle Middle (GB) plan of union. colonies, colonies meet This is an Mowhawk up with attempt to Mohawks to unite the get them to colony as it side with them allows for (GB), not more France. They frequent make trade communicati agreements on between with the the colony. Mohawks This fails so they head into the 7 years way. Proclamatio GB A line is drawn 1763 Appalachia Unintended n of 1763 colonists, to prohibit n Mts consequence: Natives Natives from this angers expanding past the colonists the because they Appalachian feel that the Mountains line limits their opportunities, and thus leads them to poverty. GB puts standing armies in new forts along the lines. GB armies are centralized to cities. Stamp Act GB Gov, Act that states 1765 Boston First direct colonies that colonists tax on must pay a tax colonies. Prior for paper to stamp act: products. sugar act- Colonists feel indirect tax that they are on sugar so losing their prices would voice because go up, but only the not wealthy can noticeably. print Currency act- newspapers parliament and newspaper was companies pressured to were going create a bankrupt. The universal GB currency bc government there were so says this isn’t many diff a new tax. ones People who sell circulating. stamps get Passing the money for declaratory selling the act stamps and foreshadows enforcing. more taxes to Colonists come. believe this is taxation without representation and so they form the stamp act congress. They still are loyal to the government but insist on being consented to tax. People form the Sons and Daughters of Liberty and boycott GB goods. Parliament repeals the stamp act but passes the Declaratory Act which says that Parliament is supreme, and that they can pass whatever laws they want. Intolerable GB, GB closes 1774 Massachus Colonists Acts Boston Boston port in etts unify against colonies response to GB gov. Boston Tea Party. Ports closed until tea is paid for. Then Massachusetts gov. prohibits town meetings, appoints members of the royal gov (absence of voting), quartering act (soldiers live in unused buildings. Colonials mad bc they see soldiers as bad and soldiers have diseases), impartial admin of justice act (Royal officials accused of crimes are tried by their peers in England), and Quebec act (people can practice Catholicism in Canada – get people on their side).
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