Exam Review for 3/15/16
Exam Review for 3/15/16 Psych 260
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria Vann on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 260 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Debra Palmer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Microscopes ● Anton Van Leeuwenhoek- Given most credit for developing the microscope. Improved the original. First person to observe living cells in pond water. ● Dissecting Microscope- used for examining relatively large, often opaque objects. ○ Viewed with reflected light. ● Compound Microscopes- more than one lens ○ work on the principle of REFRACTION or the bending of light as it passes through glass. ○ Mags up to 500x and 1000x possible with special lens and oil. ● Electron Microscopes- Transmission/Scanning. ○ Transmission (TEM) produces a 2D image. 500,000x mag. ■ Useful in studies of cell structures ○ Scanning (SEM) produces a 3D image. 300,000x mag. ■ Useful in examining anatomy of small plant & animal structures. Uses gold unlike TEM. Advantages: Both capable of high mags & near perfect focus Disadvantages: Specimens only visible in black and white. Can use only dead specimens and must be placed in a vacuum chamber. Very expensive: $250,000 or more. Chapter 1 ● Properties of Living Things- ○ Chemical Uniqueness: Living systems demonstrate a unique and complex molecular organization ○ Life exists in a Hierarchy of Organizations: Atoms-molecule- macromolecule-organelle-cell-tissue-organ- organ system- organism-population-community-ecosystem- biosphere ○ Reproduction: Genes replicate, cells dividing, organisms reproduce, populations fragment, species split ○ Possession of a Genetic Program: Provides fidelity of inheritance. ■ Nucleic acids: code for specific protein molecules for proper development and functioning. ■ DNA: Long, linear, chain of molecules called nucleotides store genetic info. ○ Metabolism: Chemical reaction that builds and maintains living things. Process include: ■ Digestion, Energy Production (Cellular Respiration), Synthesis of required molecules and structures by organisms, and Excretion(waste) & Secretion(hormones). ○ Development: All organisms pass through a life cycle. (Metamorphosis) ○ Environmental Interaction: Movement at the cellular and organ level are required for the organism to ■ Reproduce, Grow, Respond to stimuli, (On a larger scale) Individuals/populations or species may disperse from place to place over time. ● Characteristics of Animals ○ Eukaryotic: Cells contain membrane-enclosed nuclei and organelles. Prokaryotes are the opposite, where they don’t have a nucleus but their DNA is found in a NUCLEOID. ○ Heterotrophic: Relies on external food sources ○ Lack Cell Walls: Cell membrane only ○ Some form of Nervous System ○ 95% of Known Species are Invertebrates ● Scientific Inquiry ○ Observation, Research, Hypothesis, Experiment, Record Data, Draw Conclusions, Publish Results ● Theories of Evolution 1. All living things are undergoing measurable changes overtime. 2. All forms of life descend from common ancestors. 3. New species are formed by splitting of older ones. (Genetic Variation) 4. Gradualism: Many small genetic variations accumulate overtime 5. Natural Selection: Variations among offspring allow certain individuals to survive and reproduce better than others (adaption). Chapter 2 ● 4 Main Types of Macromolecules ○ Carbohydrates- Compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen ■ Grouped into 3 classes: Monosaccharides (one molecule), Disaccharides (two single molecules bonded together), and Polysaccharides (Long chains of glucose) ■ Main source of energy for living things-(fructose, glucose) ○ Lipids- Large group of compounds that do not dissolve in water ■ Fats- important in long-term energy storage, cushions vital organs, insulation. ■ Phospholipids- major component of cell membranes ■ Steroids- cholesterol is found in cell membrane and is building block of sex hormones ○ Proteins- Very elaborate and complex ■ Made up of amino acids ○ Nucleic Acids- DNA/RNA. Chapter 3 ● Cell Structures and Functions ○ Cell Membrane: Thin, flexible barrier around a cell. Regulates what enters and leaves the cell; provides protection and support. ○ Nucleus: Contains DNA; controls most cell processes ■ Chromatin- granular material visible within the nucleus; DNA bound to protein. ○ Cytoplasm: Fluid inside the cell containing sugars, ions, and proteins, and organelles. ○ Ribosomes: Small particles of RNA and protein; synthesis of proteins. ○ ER: Produces lipids, stores calcium, ions, and secretes many enzymes. “Rough ER has ribosomes”. ○ Golgi Apparatus(Body): Contains enzymes that attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins. ○ Lysosomes: Filled with enzymes whose function is to break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins from food into particles that can be used by the rest of the cell. ○ Vacuoles: Stores water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates. ○ Mitochondria: Uses energy from food to make high-energy compounds that the cell can use to power growth, development, and movement. ○ Cytoskeleton: Support and maintain cell shape; assists in movement of molecules. Composed of ■ Microfilaments-muscle contraction and cell movement ■ Microtubules- moves chromosomes during cell division; found in cilia and flagella ■ Collagen- made up of proteins, 40% of all protein is made of, produced by animals, and binds cells ● Movement Through The Cell Membrane ○ Diffusion: Molecules move from an area of high to low concentration until equilibrium is reached; cell membrane regulates movement of diffusion. ○ Osmosis: Diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane. **Concentration gradient- solutes moving through a solution of high to low concentration, separated by membrane. ○ Facilitated Diffusion: Transporter assists a molecule to diffuse through the membrane that it cannot do by itself. ○ Active Transport: Molecules move from low to high area of concentration, against the gradient, requiring energy (ATP). ○ Sodium-Potassium Pump: 3 ions of sodium bind to interior end of transporter, complex binds a molecule of ATP and cleaves it to ADP, 3 ions of sodium are released and 2 potassium ions bind to the transporter, phosphate is released and 2 potassium ions move into the cell. ○ Phagocytosis: extension of cytoplasm surrounded and engulf large particles. ○ Endocytosis: Taking materials into the cell. ○ Exocytosis: Taking materials out of the cell. ○ Hypotonic: Less materials in the cell than outside the cell. Materials will move into the cell. ○ Hypertonic: More materials in the cell than outside the cell. Materials will move out of the cell. ○ Isotonic: Equal amount inside and outside the cell. (Our blood is an isotonic solution.) ● Mitosis- Division of zygote cell ○ IPMAT: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase. (Mitosis and Cytokinesis) ○ Chromosomes: Chromatin organized into a number of discrete linear bodies. ○ Chromatids: Formed by DNA replication, “X” shape ○ Centromere: In the middle of the two sister chromatids. ○ Kinetochore: Disc of proteins that bind with microtubules of the spindle that forms during mitosis. ○ Spindle Fibers: Microtubules that stretch across the cell to connect in the middle. ○ Cytokinesis: Rest of cell divides; including cytoplasm and organelles. ○ Cell Cycle: 4 parts- takes about 18 to 24 hours to divide ■ G1 or “Presynthetic phase”: RNA and functional protein synthesis; preps for DNA replication. (Spends ½ of life here) ■ S or “Synthesis of DNA”: DNA replication occurs. ■ G2 or “Postsynthetic phase”: Structural protein synthesis; preps for chromosome separation in mitosis. ■ Mitosis and Cytokinesis ○ Cancer: Proteins that don’t work properly that result in uncontrolled cell growth ○ Stem Cells: Unspecialized cells that can develop into any kind of body cell. Chapter 4 ● Chemical Formula for Respiration- C(6)+H(12)+O(6)- >6CO(2)+6H2O+(ATP) ● Basic Steps of Reaction 1. Digestion: Fats, carbohydrates, and proteins broken down into Fatty acids & glycerol, glucose & other sugars, and amino acids. (NO NET ENERGY PRODUCED HERE) 2. Glycolysis(in the cytoplasm): Sugars (6-carbon) split into two molecules of pyruvic acid (3-carbon). Requires 2 ATP but produces 4 ATP (Net gain of 2 ATP). 3. Kreb’s Cycle(in matrix of mitochondria): Pyruvic acid loses a carbon atom-release of CO2, resulting in Acetyl Coenzyme A. Produces 2 ATP and NADH & FADH2. 4. Electron Transport Chain(in inner membrane of mitochondria): NADH & FADH2 are oxidized, water is released and 32 ATP is produced. ● Anaerobic Glycolysis- Generating ATP W/O Oxygen ○ Used if organism runs out of oxygen ○ Only 2 ATP produced ○ Lactic Acid starts to build up in tissues ○ Steps are identical from glycolysis down to pyruvic acid. One of its carbons is then released as CO2, and the resulting 2-carbon compound is reduced to ethanol; thus regenerating the NAD+ Chapter 5 ● Structure of DNA, RNA ○ DNA: Constructs Proteins: Large, complex molecules that are necessary for life as we know it. Double Helix structure founded by Rosalind Franklin; James Watson and Francis Crick were given Nobel Prize for discovery. ○ RNA: Single Helix Structure. ● Causes of Mutations ○ Gene mutations are chemicophysical changes that alter the sequence of bases in DNA. Some mutations produce a codon substitution as in the human condition called sickle cell anemia. ○ Rate of mutations for humans is 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 per generation. ● Replication, Transcription, and Translation ○ Replication: The two strands of the double helix unwind; occurs just before cell division; DNA is replicated inside the cell. ■ Several enzymes (DNA polymerase) attract food material or “loose nucleotides” from surrounding nucleoplasm. Nucleotides line up according to matching nitrogen bases (A+T & C+T), resulting in two new identical DNA molecules. ○ Transcription: Opens up DNA, RNA polymerase makes up sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen bases to make RNA. ■ Nucleotides are rearranged, constructed RNA leaves nucleus, and DNA zips back up. ■ mRNA carries DNA in the nucleus to wherever it needs to go; mRNA travels thought cytoplasm and associates with ribosomes, creating a codone. (Thymine has now changed to Uracil) ■ tRNA connect to codones and makes protein. ○ Translation: Amino acid #1+#2 (tRNA connect to codones) make an anticodon, bond to the codone and create a protein. ● Genes and Proteins ○ Genes must be regulated. Gene regulation in eukaryotes occurs at several levels, with control of transcription and translation or particular mRNAs being particularly important. Proteins are synthesized in translation.
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