POSI 2310 Test 1 Study Guide
POSI 2310 Test 1 Study Guide 2310
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marissa on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 2310 at Texas State University taught by Joshua Quinn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 658 views. For similar materials see Principles of American Government in Political Science at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Test 1 Study Guide 1 What is a citizen Someone who receives protection and services for their allegiance 2 What are the 4 Core political values of the United States Liberty Individualism Equality SelfGovernment 3 The means by which society settles its conflicts and allocates the resulting benefits and costs is called Politics 4 Power is defined as The ability of persons groups or institutions to influence political developments 5 What is the difference between a democratic government and one that is authoritarian Democratic consent of the people Authoritarian repressive can t speak out against them 6 How much tax fraud does the United States have Very little 7 How do people form Knowledge By gathering information and thinking critically about political issues 8 What is Political culture The relationship between citizens and their government 9 What was the Stamp Act Why was the Stamp Act passed A tax on colonial newspapers and documents England was in debt from the French amp Indian war so it placed taxes on items 10 What were the 3 demands the Continental Congress gave King George Global control over taxes an end to the occupation of British troops the guarantee of trial by a local jury 11 In 1785 what issues did Pres Washington try to settle that revealed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Shay s Rebellion farmers attacked the bank interstate argument over use of the Potomac River 12 What issue was at stake with quotThe Great Compromise What was the outcome of quotThe Great Compromise State representation within Congress created a 2chamber Congress House of Representatives Senate 13 What did the Federalists want from the ratification debate The antifederalists Federalists supported the Constitution AntiFederalists were against a strong national government 14 What is the difference between a democracy and a republic Which one protects from quotthe overbearing majority In a democracy the government is direct whereas a republic governs through representatives Republic protects from the overbearing majority 15 Where did the principal ofjudicial review come from Marbury v Madison courts determine if governmental institution is acting within its constitutional powers 16 The founders established checks and balances among the institutions they were creating The reason they did this was to Divide the powers of government prevented a faction from gaining control of one institution 17 How is the power of the executive branch the President quotchecked and balanced by the system President checked by Congress Supreme Court Senate approves treaties and appointments impeaches the President creates laws and the budget The Court looks at cases of presidential action 18 What are the three types of systems that apportion governmental power 1 Unitary national government is sovereign 2 Federal system national government and states share power 3 Confederacy states are sovereign 19 What is an enumerated power How many are there A specific power states in the Constitution 17 20 What are reserve powers What amendment creates them Anything not specifically listed reserved for states 10th Amendment 21 What are implied powers Who gets them What amendment creates them Powers that makes laws in support of enumerated powers federal government 22 After the Civil war dual federalism meant that states retained a great deal of power and the Federal government was quothandsoff with regulating business The Great Depression created citizen demand for more social welfare programs that the states could not meet What effect did this have on the federalist system in the United States Created interdependency and intergovernmental relations shared policy responsibilities between national state and local levels 23 There are 2 types of grants that the Federal government uses to provide funding to states What are block grants What are categorical grants Block grants federal funds for state programs addressed to a general concern Categorical grants federal funds restricted to certain state programs 24 What is devolution What impact does it have on the statefederal power balance The idea that American federalism can be strengthened by a partial shift of power from national government to states Gives more power to the states 25 What was the Republican Revolution of 1994 What was the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 Who did it give more control to Over what An attempt to increase devolution The Welfare Reform Act of 1996 was the result of the Republican Revolution and the idea of shifting power to states It took responsibilities of welfare from the federal level to the state level 26 What former Confederate state was willing to ratify the 14th Amendment before the Reconstruction Act passed Tennessee 27 When the Supreme Court began protecting the rights of the accused in the 1960 s what rights did selective incorporation extend to Free expression 28 Neither slander nor libel are protected by the 1st Amendment freedom of expression What special protections do public official get from libel Libel against public officials requires malicious intent 29 The free expression clause says government may not favor One religion over another religion over no religion 30 Lemon v Kurtzman 1971 established the three part test known as the Lemon test 1 The policy must have a nonreligious purpose 2 The policy s primary effect must be one that neither advances nor inhibits religions 3 The policy must not foster quotan excessive entanglement of government with religion 31 What has the Court chosen to do about religion in public schools Why have they decided this way Prohibited organized prayer and Bible reading in public schools children are impressionable 32 McNabb v United States 1943 dealt with following proper procedures during an investigation Justice Felix Frankfurter stressed the importance of this because quotThe history of has largely been the history of the observance of procedural guarantees Liberty 33 What is a Grand Jury How many states use grand juries A group of people that come together to decide if there is enough evidence to try a case 12 states use grand juries 34 What was the outcome of Johnson v Zerbst 1938 To what level of government did this apply How did Gideon v Wainwright 1963 affect the ruling Defendant has the right to an attorney if they cannot afford one then they must be provided with one Applied to the federal level Gideon selectively incorporated this right to the state level 35 What tests does the Eighth Amendment protection from quotcruel and unusual punishment use to determine if a punishment violates a person s rights 1 Is the punishment disproportionate to the offense 2 Does it violate the fundamental standards of good conscience and fairness 3 Is it unnecessarily cruel 36 The Supreme Court generally allows states to decide punishments but the federal government has limited aspects of death penalty in some ways What are the ways capital punishment has been limited by the Supreme Court that I listed in class No death penalty on mentally disabled or minors life without parole only in cases of homicide 37 What was the outcome of Felker v Turpin 1996 What level of government does this ruling apply to Allows only one appeal on the federal level 38 What was the outcome of the Supreme Court case of Plessy v Ferguson 1896 What was the problem with this outcome Gave the idea of separate but equal separate institutions still were not equal laws prevented equality 39 How many women were in the first class of Oklahoma39s first black law school One 40 What social issue did Loving v Virginia 1967 deal with Why did the state of Virginia claim it did not violate the quotseparate by equal clause I Interracial marriage didn t violate quotseparate but equa because both whites and nonwhites were punished equaHy 41 Is the government allowed to discriminate against people If so in what circumstances If not what amendment states this Yes on a reasonable basis Setting a drinking age is age discrimination but it is legal 42 How did Shelby County v Holder 2013 impact the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Removed the requirement that the state government must ask before changing voting rules 43 What has been the result of all the court cases concerning Affirmative action Outcome is controversial hasn t met high expectations 44 What is de facto discrimination What is de jour discrimination De facto social economic cultural the way it is due to a history of racism De jure specific law written into law 45 What was the outcome of Obergefell v Hodges 2015 Gay marriage legal in all 50 states 46 How do outcomes for Asian immigrants compare to other immigrant groups economically Why is this Upwardly mobile due to academic achievements
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