Study Guide PSY 100-005
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 100-005 at Colorado State University taught by Hillary Wehe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Exam 2 Psychology Study Guide Genes and Development: Natural Selection= the environment working/selecting on particular trains within a population Unnatural Selection=we have the ability to “choose” some traits in a species, mating is not random Belyaev selected behavior traits in foxes Tamed the foxes over generations through mate selection, created a more homogenous gene pool Twins: What are the differences between twins and identical twins? Tom and Jake (identical twins): genotypes are the same but phenotype is different Epigenetics= the environment can determine certain genes being turned off or on, and the environment can determine the expression of genes Epigenetic tags: determines what genes are read an which ones are not On/off switch: can be turned on/off by behavior, stress, smoking, diet, etc. Gender Differences: There are “9 differences” between males and females Prevalent for mood disorders and language abilities Bechdel Test: Males vs. females in the media How are genders portrayed in films? The test says that 2 named females must talk to 2 other people about something other than boys Minimizing Gender Differences Minimizing sex-stereotyped play—switching perspective of what girls and boys play with Is there an effect of a hormone? increased testosterone can change toy preferences Body Composition: “Thrifty genes” Not catching up with the environment Ex: we no longer need genes that store fat Mutations Mutations in the genes Genetics determine your phenotype Ex: sequencing fat instead of breaking it up Interaction of Genes and the Environment: Ex: Michael Phelps= “weird body”, had physical predispositions for being a good swimmer Genes give us directions and are heritable Ex: IQ, psych disorders Expression of genes depends on the environment Epigenetics, selection Development: Study of lifelong physical and social development Social and emotional development Ex: attachment Cognitive developmentPiaget’s stages Moral development Stages vs. Processing: We have critical periods/sensitive periods of development Ex: Genie case study—missed critical periods for motor development, language development, and attachment development Harlow’s Monkeys—attachment is important for our behavioral and emotional development and interactions Social, Cognitive, and Moral Development Parenting Styles: 1) Authoritarian Not responsive to child “because I said so” approach Common outcome= children rebel due to the many rules and restrictions they face 2) Permissive Overly-responsive Spoils children, constantly gives in to kid Common outcome= kids can turn out overly-confident, and can struggle with interacting with others later in life 3) Authoritative Responsive, but not without borders Common outcome= these children have the highest outcomes, have a social wellbeing and stable relationships Piaget’s stages of cognitive development: Believed in a hierarchy of development Basic thinking complex Development: sensory developmentmotor/language developmenthigher cognitive development Most important stage of development is right after birth Cognitive development Schemas= representations on how thoughts are related Creating associations and connections Assimilation and accommodation Piaget’s Stages: 1) Sensorimotor stage: Ages 0-2 Children experience world through movement and through their senses Learn through experimentation Struggle with object permanence= the awareness that things exist even when they are not perceived or seen Memory is developing 2) Preoperational stage Ages 2-7 Children can think in images and symbols, but cannot perform mental operations on those images or symbols Pretend play and animism (all things have souls) Struggle with egocentrism=the inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and another person’s perspective Struggle with theory of the mind=people’s ideas about their own and others mental stages Can struggle with conservation (they think too concretely) and reversibility (thinking backwards) 3) Concrete Operational Stage Ages 7-11 Children can perform mental operations on concrete mental objects Conservation begins (with mass, volume, and numberremain the same despite superficial changes) Begin to think systematically, and moral reasoning begins 4) Formal Operational Stage Ages 11-16 Can reason and think about abstract ideas Use logic and hypothetic-deductive reasoning Piaget’s stages: Exceptions Piaget used his own kids for his study The stages are not concrete Moral Development Kohlberg’s levels of moral thinking Preconventional: motivated by self-interest (obeying, fear of not obeying, rewards in mind) Conventional: baes on authority (laws, judged) Postconventional: representative actions, actions convey what we believe Moral reasoning develops Morals as Intuition Moral Intuitions vs. reasoning Gut feelings vs. thinking Sensation and Perception Sensation: receptors used for receiving information (eyes, ears, etc.) Receiving: Active processes, transforming information (brain, thoughts, opinions) Top-Down Processing: How our brains make use of information that has been already brought to brain through sensory systems Cognitive process, initiates with our thoughts, flow down to lower-level functions (ex: to the senses) Bottom-Up Processing: Processing sensory information as it is coming in Detecting Sensation: Absolute threshold: minimum stimulation we can detect 50% of the time, the lowest level of a stimulus Difference threshold: a “just noticeable difference”, the smallest amount by which 2 stimuli can be difference to perceive them as different Habituation: we become accustomed to a constant stimuli (ex: we don’t always notice our nose) Adaptive because it helps us adapt to our situations and to only focus on things we need to focus on Receiving Visual and Auditory Stimuli Light waves The visible spectrum Color is determined by frequency Brightness is determined by amplitude Sound waves Pitch is determined by frequency Loudness is determined by amplitude Processing Vison Processing light Cornea, pupil, lens, retina Sensory receptors transduce information Transducing light Photoreceptors- for color processing and movement information, centered in the phobia (rods, cones) Optic Nerve Visual Path 1) Eye Each eye divided the visual fiend, sends half to each side Ipsilateral processing and contralateral processing Both eyes get both sides of the visual field 2) Optic nerve 3) Thalamus 4) Visual cortex Conscious processing Perception “brains, not objects, have color” Perceiving sensations Feature detectors for vertical and horizontal lines, color, and motion Similar for both auditory and visual path Specific areas for: faces (fusiform facial area), places, objects Work to process vision, experiences, and memories Organizing Vision Cues of: size, distance, depth, and shadows (brain puts it all together) Gestalt Principles: We want to look at things as a “whole” The whole is greater than the sum of all parts We creating meaning based off of this (ex: grouping) Figure Ground Foreground and background Typically in one view Linear perspective Visual organization and processing = active processes Perceptual Set Mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another Touch---we can’t tickle ourselves Experiences and expectations influence how we perceive things Ex: Pareidolia: making patterns out of nothing (ex: seeing faces in nothing) Sensation without perception Ex: Prospagnosia—damaged fusiform face area, “face blind”, can’t recognize faces Perception without sensation Ex: Hallucinations: Charles Bonnet Syndrome---due to temporal lobe seizures Organizing Vision Critical periods= critical periods of development where our senses develop Ex: Kitten restriction---sensory systems adapt and change (plasticity) Reorganization in other senses Somatosensory cortex Perception of Pain Phantom Limb Syndrome Motivation Drive Theory: We need to eat and drink The body creates “drives” to motivate you to seek shelter, food, water, etc. Step 1: Bodily drive (unpleasant stimulus) Step 2: Drive reduction (to get rid of unpleasant stimulus) Keeps a balance in our bodies: Homeostasis Measures and regulates primary needs: hunger, thirst, sex, temperature Leads to regulatory behavior through learning and drive reduction Drive Theory Mechanism: Hypothalamus Monitors our physiological state---hormones, homeostasis, reproduction, and emotional states Hunger regulation Ex: Prader-Willis Syndrome= hunger drive is never turned off, always hungry Arousal Theory: Explains more complicated “drives” We seek stimulation, and we avoid boredom We are motivated by curiosity Incentive Interactions Pleasure Centers: for life’s natural pleasures, incentives motivate behavior Brain releases dopamine, teaches us “what we should do again” What makes us happy? Not simply rewards Happiness interacts with experiences, individual differences, and our expectations Psychoactive drugs can activate the same dopaminergic motivation pathway Drugs: Any chemical substance that alters our perceptions and mood Can be therapeutic or recreational Major Categories of Drugs: 1) Depressants: alcohol, barbiturates, opiates Lasts 1-3 hours 2) Stimulants: caffeine, nicotine, meth, cocaine, ecstasy Lasts 12 min-4 hours 3) Hallucinogens: LSD, THC Lasts up to 12 hours Depressants: Ex: pain killers, anti-anxiety meds They “depress” the nervous system activity Reduce inhibition and judgement Hallucinogens: Psychedelic= sensory experiences in the absence of sensory input Stimulants: Excitatory neural activity= speeds up bodily functions How do Drugs work?? Reuptake inhibition: Blocks reuptake, or the reabsorption of chemical signals from the pre-synaptic gap, more chemicals being sent Mimic neurotransmitter= increases neurotransmitters Addiction: “substance abuse”, “substance dependence” Physically and psychologically dependent on the drug Two components: withdrawal and tolerance Disruption to daily behaviors, seeking behaviors because of drugs Ex: Olds and Milner Study---rats endure extremes to get a stimulation Seeking behavior increases for drugs, despite increasing consequences Drug use and Motivation Motivational toxicity Bio-psych-social Ex: Rat Park Emotions Common Emotional Expressions: Are universal, cross-cultural, and in all ages Happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear Interest, contempt, shame, guilt Fear= oldest emotion? Evolutionary basis Ex: Darwin and the snake (fear of the snake) Fear is a reflexive response, a grimace response Adaptive= triggers responses, sends signals, and helps us communicate with others Social Communication Ex: looking at when athletes show an expression of emotions Context influences interpretations Gender differences in detection and expression Cultural differences in expression Theories to Explain Emotional Experiences 1) James-Lange Theory Emotion= awareness of physiological response First arousal then emotion 2) Cannon-Bard Theory Physiological response and emotion are triggered simultaneously 3) Two-factor theory (Schachter and Singer) Physiological arousal and label simultaneously Then emotion follows Cognition + emotion Ex: Vitamin shots—expect different side effects (arousal vs. no effect) High Road vs. Low Road Cognitive and physiological interactions We have quick responses
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