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Introduction to Personality Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Cassie Ng

Introduction to Personality Exam 2 Study Guide PSY3101

Marketplace > University of Minnesota > Psychlogy > PSY3101 > Introduction to Personality Exam 2 Study Guide
Cassie Ng
U of M

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About this Document

- Personality Structure - Biology & Personality - Behavior Genetics - Evolutionary Psychology & Personality - Personality Development
Intro to Personality
Rachael Grazioplene
Study Guide
Personality Exam Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY3101 at University of Minnesota taught by Rachael Grazioplene in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Intro to Personality in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 03/07/16
Psychology 3101: Introduction to Personality Exam 2 Study Guide ALL TOPICS listed here are fair game for exam questions Week 5, Lecture 1: Personality Structure Personality is hierarchical, e.g. we tend to think about the Big Five, but there are higher order and lower order traits. The Big Five: know the 5 traits and their definitions - O.C.E.A.N. . Neuroticism: Emotion sensitivity to threat and punishment  - . Openness/ Intellect : Cognitive flexibility and complex information processing—both  abstract and perceptual; curiosity, imagination  . Extraversion: Approach­orientated, sensitivity to reward, positive affect  . Agreeableness: Altruism, social affiliation, cooperation  . Conscientious: Effortful control of impulses and distractions, so as to follow rules and  purse long­term goals  The 10 Aspects – what are the 10 aspects and which of the Big Five traits to they belong to? (for  example: the two aspects of Conscientiousness are Orderliness and Industriousness) - Extraversion  (Plasticity)  . Assertiveness: dominant, outspoken, active, (Fred and Josh)  . Enthusiasm: Sociable, playful, fun­loving (Harry)  - Aggreeableness (Stability)  . Compassion: warm, empathic, kind (Hagrid)  . Politeness: considerate, unaggressive, compliant (Snape, Draco)  - Conscientiousness (Stability) . Industriousness: hard­working, self­disciplined (Hermione)  . Orderliness: neat, careful, punctual, thrifty (Ron, Nevile)  - Neuroticism: Emotional sensitivity to threat and punishment (Stability) . Volatility: temperamental, irritable, easily upset (Dobby)  . Withdrawal: anxious, depressed, vulnerable (Dumbledore)  - Openness/ Intellect (Plasticity)  . Openness: artistic, creative, perception (Luna, Lovegood)  . Intellect: smart, intellectual, philosophical (Muggles’ family)  Stability:  - Emotional, social and motivational stability  - The need to maintain a stable organization of functioning in order to accomplish goals  - Serotonin function  Plasticity:  - Exploration and engagement with novelty, cognitive and behavior flexibility  - The need to incorporate novel information into one’s worldview  - Dopamine function  The Big Two (Stability and Plasticity) – know which of the Big Five correspond to each, and  what the general characteristics are of people high/low in each Know which traits are associated with: Conservatism/Liberalism (Stability)  Alcohol consumption  (Stability)  Happiness/Well Being (Plasticity)  Success in the workplace (Plasticity)  know the answer: The five factor model represents a combination of _Lexical_and  Statistical__  approaches to studying personality taxonomies.  (lexical?, statistical?, theoretical?) Week 5, Lecture 2: Biology & Personality (continued into Week 6, lecture 1) Know the definition and roles/function (discussed in class) for the following terms: Brainstem: It coordinates motor control signals sent from the brain to the body, also controll life  supporting autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system, e.g: Breathing, blood pressure,  digestion  Limbic System: its in the middle of the brain (under the cortex), its largely responsible for the  generation of basic motivational and emotional states  Hypothalamus: a comparator, comparing expectations (predictions) to actual experience. It  accomplishes this by receiving highly processed information from the cortex, which allows it to  firm an integrated map of the world.   …and the four “F”s - Upper Segment of the hypothalamus: controls behaviors that are necessary when really  important things (food, danger, a mate) are in the immediate environment  . Fighting  . Fleeing  . Feeding  . Mating  Thalamus: receiving a sensory signal which is then directed to the relevant cortical area. It plays a role in controlling the motor systems of the brain which are responsible for voluntary bodily  movement and coordination  Hippocampus: comparator (context, memory, spatial mapping)  Amygdala:  - defense system, vigilance and avoidance, attends to positive and negative - important for responding to threat/vigilance   Nucleus accumbens: - An important part of the dopamine system and controls motivation to purse rewards  - Incentive reward system (approach, dopamine)   Frontal lobe: involved in planning and executive control  Know about the experiment “Lesions used by Bard to isolate the hypothalamus as an emotional  center” (the slide about the forebrain removal) Know which brain systems correspond to each of the Big Five (the slide that says, “Functions  associated with the Big Five” extraversion/reward , neuroticism threat/punishment, agreeableness  theory of mind - Emotional, Limbic  . Neuroticism  . Extraversion (Limbic system)  . Agreeableness (Cortex)  - Voluntary, Cortical  . Agreeableness  . Openness/ Intellect (Limbic system, cortex, white matter)  . Conscientiousness  (Cortex)  Know which neurotransmitters are theoretically associated with Stability and Plasticity - Serotonin  (Stability)  . Regulates stability of motivations and emotions . Enhances self control  . Suppresses hypothalamus  - Dopamine (Plasticity) . Frontal Cortex: working memory, executive attention, intelligence  . Limbic System: Incentive reward & approach behavior  Understand the 2D:4D ratio:  - there is a reliable gender differences in which  males have a smaller 2D: 4D ratio than  female (their second finger is shorter than their fourth finger)  - Sexes, individuals of either sex with lower 2D:4D ratios have been found to be less  agreeable and more aggressive  Know these terms and their roles: Neurotransmitters:  - Each neurotransmitters acts on multiple receptors, and has different effects depending on  which receptor is activated, on which kind of neuron  - Drugs work by increasing or decreasing the action/effectiveness of neurotransmitters  Hormones:  - Chemical messengers that are secreted directly into the blood, which carries them to  organs and tissues of the body to exert their functions.  - There are many types of hormones that act on different functions & process: include,  development & growth  Epinephrine: (adrenaline)  - A chemical that narrows blood vessels and open airways in the lungs  - Hormone in bloodstream, neurotransmitter elsewhere - Used as drug that treat cardiac arrest & allergies  - Sympathetic Nervous System  Dopamine:  - Motivation, motor control, communicating with activities maybe rewarding (e.g: eating when hungry activates dopamine receptors, which is experienced as  pleasurable)  - Parkinson’s  - Cocaine (block Dopamine reuptake)  Serotonin:  - Especially important for emotional states  (Low levels are associated with sad & anxious moods, food craving, & aggressive)  - Block the reuptake of serotonin  - Used to treat depression, eating disorders, obsessive­compulsive disorders & obesity  Testosterone:  - The principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid  - For men, it plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the  testis and prostate as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle, bone mass, and the growth of body hair  Oxytocin:  - A mammalian hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain  - For women, it is released mainly after distension of the cervix and vagina during labor,  and after stimulation of the nipples, facilitating birth and breastfeeding, respectively   What are the two basic motivational/emotional systems and how do they relate to the “Four  Classes of Stimuli”?  Know the findings discussed regarding traits and behaviors linked to testosterone and oxytocin,  respectively. Week 6, Lecture 1 (and Lecture 2) – Behavioral Genetics Phenotype:  - The phenotype is the form of that organism and its functioning and behavior, which  results from the interaction  Genotype:  - Specific pattern of DNA or genes  - The code guides the construction and functioning of the organism  Phenotypic variation:  ­ Differences in physical form and behavioral patterns among/across individuals   Genotypic variation: Differences in code across people  Heritability:  - Degree to which variation in the phenotype is caused by variation in the genotype - There must be phenotype variation that is due to genetic variation    Heritability coefficient:  - Not everything ‘in the genes’ is ‘heritable’  - It’s not the case that some of your height is due to genes and some is due to your  environment. It is only differences between people that are described by heritability.  what A, C, and E stand for in the ACE model know that A, C, and E sum to 100% (since E includes error variance) in addition to knowing what heritability IS, know what it ISN’T  Know what Differential Susceptibility is Be able to fill in the blank: the heritability of most traits appears to ___________ when people  leave their family environments and go out into the world as adults (a. increase, b. decrease, or c.  stay the same) Week 7, Lecture 1: Evolutionary Psychology and Personality What are the 4 conditions of natural selection? Understand the distinction between adaptations and by­products Understand the Four levels of analysis for thinking about/describing/studying a trait or behavioral phenomenon. Basic definition of natural selection What are the four conditions of natural selection? What are the theoretical trade­offs for each of the big five traits? Definitions: EEA Sexual Selection intersexual competition intrasexual competition fluctuating selection (and how this applies to personality variation) differential parental investment (& how it relates to male/female mate preferences) Know the findings of Schaller & Murray, very broadly: Which personality trait levels were  predicted by history of infectious disease in a population? In which direction (positively or  negatively correlated)? What were the findings of Eagly and Wood regarding cross­cultural differences in gender  inequality and gender differences in mate preferences? What were the findings of the fake polygraph study that examined self­reported number of sexual partners in males vs. females? What is Cohen’s d and how is it used in gender/sex differences research? • Fill in the blank: for most traits, within­gender variance (e.g., the how much a trait varies  WITHIN males) is _____________ (much smaller, much larger, equal) compared to  between­gender variance.  Know the sex differences across the Big Five/Big Five Aspects across cultures. What is the one  trait that seems to replicate across cultures in terms of showing a sex difference in magnitude? Understand how gender differences in affiliation and dominance are thought to be related to  gender differences in sex hormones. (Tend­and­befriend vs. Fight­or­flight) Week 7, Lecture 2: Personality Development  Terms: mean level stability rank order stability Social Investment Model Maturity Principle which traits increase/decrease over the course of development agreeableness extraversion neuroticism openness conscientiousness  During which times in development does personality appear to change the most? The least? How do trait levels of Stability (the higher order factor) appear to influence personality change?


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