Introduction to Personality Exam 2 Study Guide
Introduction to Personality Exam 2 Study Guide PSY3101
U of M
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY3101 at University of Minnesota taught by Rachael Grazioplene in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Intro to Personality in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Psychology 3101: Introduction to Personality Exam 2 Study Guide ALL TOPICS listed here are fair game for exam questions Week 5, Lecture 1: Personality Structure Personality is hierarchical, e.g. we tend to think about the Big Five, but there are higher order and lower order traits. The Big Five: know the 5 traits and their definitions - O.C.E.A.N. . Neuroticism: Emotion sensitivity to threat and punishment - . Openness/ Intellect : Cognitive flexibility and complex information processing—both abstract and perceptual; curiosity, imagination . Extraversion: Approachorientated, sensitivity to reward, positive affect . Agreeableness: Altruism, social affiliation, cooperation . Conscientious: Effortful control of impulses and distractions, so as to follow rules and purse longterm goals The 10 Aspects – what are the 10 aspects and which of the Big Five traits to they belong to? (for example: the two aspects of Conscientiousness are Orderliness and Industriousness) - Extraversion (Plasticity) . Assertiveness: dominant, outspoken, active, (Fred and Josh) . Enthusiasm: Sociable, playful, funloving (Harry) - Aggreeableness (Stability) . Compassion: warm, empathic, kind (Hagrid) . Politeness: considerate, unaggressive, compliant (Snape, Draco) - Conscientiousness (Stability) . Industriousness: hardworking, selfdisciplined (Hermione) . Orderliness: neat, careful, punctual, thrifty (Ron, Nevile) - Neuroticism: Emotional sensitivity to threat and punishment (Stability) . Volatility: temperamental, irritable, easily upset (Dobby) . Withdrawal: anxious, depressed, vulnerable (Dumbledore) - Openness/ Intellect (Plasticity) . Openness: artistic, creative, perception (Luna, Lovegood) . Intellect: smart, intellectual, philosophical (Muggles’ family) Stability: - Emotional, social and motivational stability - The need to maintain a stable organization of functioning in order to accomplish goals - Serotonin function Plasticity: - Exploration and engagement with novelty, cognitive and behavior flexibility - The need to incorporate novel information into one’s worldview - Dopamine function The Big Two (Stability and Plasticity) – know which of the Big Five correspond to each, and what the general characteristics are of people high/low in each Know which traits are associated with: Conservatism/Liberalism (Stability) Alcohol consumption (Stability) Happiness/Well Being (Plasticity) Success in the workplace (Plasticity) know the answer: The five factor model represents a combination of _Lexical_and Statistical__ approaches to studying personality taxonomies. (lexical?, statistical?, theoretical?) Week 5, Lecture 2: Biology & Personality (continued into Week 6, lecture 1) Know the definition and roles/function (discussed in class) for the following terms: Brainstem: It coordinates motor control signals sent from the brain to the body, also controll life supporting autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system, e.g: Breathing, blood pressure, digestion Limbic System: its in the middle of the brain (under the cortex), its largely responsible for the generation of basic motivational and emotional states Hypothalamus: a comparator, comparing expectations (predictions) to actual experience. It accomplishes this by receiving highly processed information from the cortex, which allows it to firm an integrated map of the world. …and the four “F”s - Upper Segment of the hypothalamus: controls behaviors that are necessary when really important things (food, danger, a mate) are in the immediate environment . Fighting . Fleeing . Feeding . Mating Thalamus: receiving a sensory signal which is then directed to the relevant cortical area. It plays a role in controlling the motor systems of the brain which are responsible for voluntary bodily movement and coordination Hippocampus: comparator (context, memory, spatial mapping) Amygdala: - defense system, vigilance and avoidance, attends to positive and negative - important for responding to threat/vigilance Nucleus accumbens: - An important part of the dopamine system and controls motivation to purse rewards - Incentive reward system (approach, dopamine) Frontal lobe: involved in planning and executive control Know about the experiment “Lesions used by Bard to isolate the hypothalamus as an emotional center” (the slide about the forebrain removal) Know which brain systems correspond to each of the Big Five (the slide that says, “Functions associated with the Big Five” extraversion/reward , neuroticism threat/punishment, agreeableness theory of mind - Emotional, Limbic . Neuroticism . Extraversion (Limbic system) . Agreeableness (Cortex) - Voluntary, Cortical . Agreeableness . Openness/ Intellect (Limbic system, cortex, white matter) . Conscientiousness (Cortex) Know which neurotransmitters are theoretically associated with Stability and Plasticity - Serotonin (Stability) . Regulates stability of motivations and emotions . Enhances self control . Suppresses hypothalamus - Dopamine (Plasticity) . Frontal Cortex: working memory, executive attention, intelligence . Limbic System: Incentive reward & approach behavior Understand the 2D:4D ratio: - there is a reliable gender differences in which males have a smaller 2D: 4D ratio than female (their second finger is shorter than their fourth finger) - Sexes, individuals of either sex with lower 2D:4D ratios have been found to be less agreeable and more aggressive Know these terms and their roles: Neurotransmitters: - Each neurotransmitters acts on multiple receptors, and has different effects depending on which receptor is activated, on which kind of neuron - Drugs work by increasing or decreasing the action/effectiveness of neurotransmitters Hormones: - Chemical messengers that are secreted directly into the blood, which carries them to organs and tissues of the body to exert their functions. - There are many types of hormones that act on different functions & process: include, development & growth Epinephrine: (adrenaline) - A chemical that narrows blood vessels and open airways in the lungs - Hormone in bloodstream, neurotransmitter elsewhere - Used as drug that treat cardiac arrest & allergies - Sympathetic Nervous System Dopamine: - Motivation, motor control, communicating with activities maybe rewarding (e.g: eating when hungry activates dopamine receptors, which is experienced as pleasurable) - Parkinson’s - Cocaine (block Dopamine reuptake) Serotonin: - Especially important for emotional states (Low levels are associated with sad & anxious moods, food craving, & aggressive) - Block the reuptake of serotonin - Used to treat depression, eating disorders, obsessivecompulsive disorders & obesity Testosterone: - The principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid - For men, it plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle, bone mass, and the growth of body hair Oxytocin: - A mammalian hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain - For women, it is released mainly after distension of the cervix and vagina during labor, and after stimulation of the nipples, facilitating birth and breastfeeding, respectively What are the two basic motivational/emotional systems and how do they relate to the “Four Classes of Stimuli”? Know the findings discussed regarding traits and behaviors linked to testosterone and oxytocin, respectively. Week 6, Lecture 1 (and Lecture 2) – Behavioral Genetics Phenotype: - The phenotype is the form of that organism and its functioning and behavior, which results from the interaction Genotype: - Specific pattern of DNA or genes - The code guides the construction and functioning of the organism Phenotypic variation: Differences in physical form and behavioral patterns among/across individuals Genotypic variation: Differences in code across people Heritability: - Degree to which variation in the phenotype is caused by variation in the genotype - There must be phenotype variation that is due to genetic variation Heritability coefficient: - Not everything ‘in the genes’ is ‘heritable’ - It’s not the case that some of your height is due to genes and some is due to your environment. It is only differences between people that are described by heritability. what A, C, and E stand for in the ACE model know that A, C, and E sum to 100% (since E includes error variance) in addition to knowing what heritability IS, know what it ISN’T Know what Differential Susceptibility is Be able to fill in the blank: the heritability of most traits appears to ___________ when people leave their family environments and go out into the world as adults (a. increase, b. decrease, or c. stay the same) Week 7, Lecture 1: Evolutionary Psychology and Personality What are the 4 conditions of natural selection? Understand the distinction between adaptations and byproducts Understand the Four levels of analysis for thinking about/describing/studying a trait or behavioral phenomenon. Basic definition of natural selection What are the four conditions of natural selection? What are the theoretical tradeoffs for each of the big five traits? Definitions: EEA Sexual Selection intersexual competition intrasexual competition fluctuating selection (and how this applies to personality variation) differential parental investment (& how it relates to male/female mate preferences) Know the findings of Schaller & Murray, very broadly: Which personality trait levels were predicted by history of infectious disease in a population? In which direction (positively or negatively correlated)? What were the findings of Eagly and Wood regarding crosscultural differences in gender inequality and gender differences in mate preferences? What were the findings of the fake polygraph study that examined selfreported number of sexual partners in males vs. females? What is Cohen’s d and how is it used in gender/sex differences research? • Fill in the blank: for most traits, withingender variance (e.g., the how much a trait varies WITHIN males) is _____________ (much smaller, much larger, equal) compared to betweengender variance. Know the sex differences across the Big Five/Big Five Aspects across cultures. What is the one trait that seems to replicate across cultures in terms of showing a sex difference in magnitude? Understand how gender differences in affiliation and dominance are thought to be related to gender differences in sex hormones. (Tendandbefriend vs. Fightorflight) Week 7, Lecture 2: Personality Development Terms: mean level stability rank order stability Social Investment Model Maturity Principle which traits increase/decrease over the course of development agreeableness extraversion neuroticism openness conscientiousness During which times in development does personality appear to change the most? The least? How do trait levels of Stability (the higher order factor) appear to influence personality change?
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