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Developmental Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Julia Williamson

Developmental Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 10400

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Psychlogy > PSYC 10400 > Developmental Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide
Julia Williamson
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About this Document

Exam 2
Introduction to Developmental Psychology
Dr. Kathryn Caldwell
Study Guide
Developmental Psycology
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Williamson on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 10400 at Ithaca College taught by Dr. Kathryn Caldwell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
Study Guide – Exam 2 Introduction to Developmental Psychology: Infancy and Early Childhood Infancy  What does the developing premature baby need?  How should we think about nature and nurture in the developing brain of the fetus, infant, and beyond? o Nativist - nature - Development unfolds according to biological program; the infant comes equipped with functions of sensation/perception o Empiricist – nurture – experience with environment is key to development/maturation of the abilities  What is the role of synaptic exuberance and synaptic pruning in the developing brain? o Synaptic exuberance – during prenatal development; in infancy and again, in adolescence when the brain triples its weight in the first two years of life o Synaptic pruning - neurons that do not become interconnected become unnecessary and die of  What is the diference between a sensitive period and a critical period for development? o Critical period – a time when a particular type of development must happen if it is ever going to happen o Sensitive period – a time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen or most easily happens  What accounts for the significant brain growth that we see in the first 2 years of life? o Experience  What is the Apgar scale and what do the scores mean? o Is used to assess health (and reaction to stress of birth; any breathing difficulties) and of the newborn at 1 and 5 min after birth  Rate (0,1,2) on each area:  Heart rate (absent, <100, >100)  Respiration efort (absent, weak, strong)  Muscle tone (none, some, active)  Body color ((blue to pink)  Reflexes (reaction when stimulated)  Scores:  7-10 – good  5 – may be developmental issues  3 – emergency, baby may not survive  What is the general progression of height and weight in the first year of life in North American babies? o Weight  Newborn 7.5 lbs  4 months 15 lbs  1 year 22 lbs  2 years 26-32 lbs o Height  Newborn 20 in  1 year 30 in  2 years 32-35 in  What are the reflexes of a newborn baby? o Sucking reflex and rooting (turning towards touch)  What is the dynamic systems theory of motor development? o Perception motivates action o Motor skills are solutions to the infants goals of perceiving and acting on the world o Moving through space informs perception o Genetic instructions alone don’t determine maturation…environmental afordances motivate and stimulate opportunities to combine actions  What are key milestones for gross and fine motor skills in the period of infancy? o Gross  Within a few weeks can hold head erect.  Rolling over around 3-5 months  Sit supported in a lap around 2 months  Most can sit unsupported by 6-7 months.  Crawling appears between 8 and 10 months.  Infants can walk holding on to furniture by 9 months  Many can walk alone by 1 year. o Fine  By three months infants can coordinate movements of limbs.  Infants can grasp an object by 11 months. (Pincer grasp)  By age two, infants can drink from a cup without spilling.  What is the diference between sensation and perception? o Sensing is not perceiving o Sensation = receiving information and energy from the outside world o Perception = interpreting (and eventually understanding) what is sensed  What are the sensory capacities of a newborn (taste, touch, smell, vision, hearing) discussed in class? o Vision  Habituation-dishabituation (sucking stops with new interesting stimuli, heart rate drops with new stimuli)  Eye tracking devices – test length of time gazing and where they’re gazing o Hearing  Recognize mom’s voice, can’t hear soft sounds, less sensitive to low pitches, sound localization still developing o Touch – highly developed, can feel pain o Smell + taste – finely tuned sense of smell, can detect mom’s scent o Intermodal perception – learning to integrate information from 2 or more senses, born with it but develops over first year of life with experience  How does vision develop in the first year of life? o For a while, a baby can only see within the arms length of a person holding them  What do infants prefer to look at? o Infants prefer to look at faces  What is the visual clif study and what does it suggest about the development of depth perception during infancy? When does it happen and what is involved in the development of fear of the “clif”? o The visual clif study watched heart rate of infants at the moment that they perceived the height through the glass  Do newborns feel pain? o Yes  Key Terms: o Neuron  – the cells of the brain and nervous system o Dendrite - branch out as part of experience increasing synapses o Synapse - number of connections between neurons increases o Myelin and myelination - a fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds transmission of nerve impulses. The production of the myelin sheath is called myelination or myelinogenesis. o Synaptic exuberance - during prenatal development; in infancy and again, in adolescence when the brain triples its weight in the first two years of life o Synaptic pruning - neurons that do not become interconnected become unnecessary and die of. o Intermodal perception - Integrating information from 2 or more senses. Exists in basic form at birth and develops over first year of life o Neuroplasticity - Genes determine the mapping of brain development. Environment plays a powerful role too in “sculpting” the brain. Ongoing changes in the brain with experience o Afordances - experience in the environment  Piaget’s theory of cognitive development o Children actively construct their knowledge o Content and quality of knowledge increases  Schemes, assimilation, and accommodation o Schemes: actions or mental representations that organize knowledge o Assimilation: understand an experience in terms of their current scheme (way of thinking/doing) o Accommodation – change existing ways of thinking/doing to integrate new stimuli or events  Piaget – a stage theorist- believed in qualitative changes in cognition vs. simply quantitative development, like information processing theories argue o Development may be a steady gradual unfolding vs. stage-like qualitative changes o Object permanence may occur as early as 3-4 months (Baillargeon, 2012); maybe even present at birth (Spelke, 2011) o Imitation occurs earlier than Piaget suggested o Core knowledge approach (Spelke) – believe that core knowledge of object permanence, number sense, and language are innate  What are some of the major developments of the sensorimotor period? (Piaget) st o 1 month – simple reflexes - initially, just reflexes…then building on reflexes to create schemes for interacting with the world o 1-4 months – primary circular reactions, first habits o 4-8 months - Secondary circular reactions  Repeated actions, acknowledging others responses  Learning that something does something new o 8-12 months - Coordination of secondary circular reactions  Goal directed behavior  Object permanence - understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard or touched. Baillargeon believes it may occur as early as 3-4 months and Spelke says may be present at birth o 12-18 months – Tertiary circular reactions – testing o 18-24 months - mental representation  Beginning of thought  Deferred imitation = occurs after a time delay of hours or days o “Scientific” play  What it means when we say infants are born “citizens of the world” when it comes to language – know about the research on changes during first year of life in ability to hear all sounds o Chomsky believes we have an inborn capacity – LAD (language acquisition device) o We move from language generalists to language specialists o Patty Kuhl, Polka and Werker  Looked at babies 6-8 and 10-12, younger infants were able to discriminate the nonnative contrasts than older infants  Critical period for language acquisition – synaptic pruning  Cephalocaudal and proximodistal principles o Cephalocaudal – development proceeds from the head down o Proximodistal – development proceeds from the core out  Brain development after birth – anything we discussed about brain development in class is fair game! o Attention: gets better after year 1 to 2  Joint attention: emerges around 7-8 months, learn from engaging with others o Learning and memory  Infant can store (implicit) memories as early as 3 months  Long term (explicit) memories – not much prior to age 3 (infantile/childhood amnesia)  Dynamic systems theory of motor development/perceptual development o Perception motivates action o Motor skills are solutions to the infants goals of perceiving an acting on the world o Moving through space informs perception o Genetic instructions alone don’t determine maturation…environmental afordances motivate and stimulate opportunities to combine actions  Diference between fine and gross motor skills o Fine motor skills  3 months – coordinate limbs  11 months – pincer grasp  2 years – can drink from a cup without spilling o Gross motor skills  Rolling over 3-5 months  Sit unsupported 6 months  Crawling 8-10 months  Walking while holding onto furniture 9 months  Walk alone around 1 year  Skipping crawling probably isn’t a problem  Stranger anxiety –what is it and when does it develop o Bowlby’s attachment theory, phase 3 is specific attachments – stranger anxiety appears around 6-12 months  Erikson’s stages for infancy o What are the conflicts/issues to be resolved at each stage?  Stage 1: trust vs. mistrust  Depends on whether needs for food, warmth, and nurturing are met  Stage 2: autonomy vs. shame and doubt  Closer to 2ndyear – does child feel safe exploring, moving out on their own a bit  Research on infant’s development of self (mirror and rouge study) o Self awareness – occurs around 12 months for some infants, really evident by 17-24 months o Mirror and rouge – recognizing that the color was on their own face and not just the one in the mirror o Around this time, there’s a shift in independence and autonomy – more use of “no” and authority in “yes”  Findings from Harry Harlow’s study of monkeys and attachment to surrogate mother (from class) o Preferred the fuzzy one  Strange Situation procedure – and how to classify children’s attachment styles/types base on their behavior o Strange situation  Mother and baby alone in unfamiliar room  Mom and baby play with toys  Unfamiliar adult enters  Mom leaves  Mom comes back  Mom leaves baby one  Stranger comes back instead of mom o Patterns:  Securely attached: cry and easily consoled when mom returns  Insecure - resistant (ambivalent): refuse to be consoled  Insecure – avoidant: not upset or phased at all  Insecure – disorganized: confused, fearful  What developmental outcomes are correlated with diferent attachment styles? o Children who were insecurely attached to mothers during infancy exhibited problem behaviors in elementary school and poor social skills o Criminal behavior in adults is related to early childhood attachment (Magid & McKelvey, 1987) o Does being in daycare afect attachment security? o Insecure attachment does not necessarily predict poor outcomes for adults. o More securely attached children- related to positive long-term outcomes in relationships and self-confidence  Kagan’s view on temperament and attachment – how genetics play a stronger role earlier on, and environment/parenting plays stronger role in child outcomes over time… o Kagan asserts, for example, that "insecurely attached" infants may merely be temperamentally less able to cope with maternal separation and strangers. o Kagan also argues that what we see in an infants behavior may be a result of socialization within a culture (parenting behaviors) - Kagan points to cross-cultural research that indicates that some forms of socialization teach infants to suppress their fears in unfamiliar places.  Special topic reading on crying: what is Sunderland’s view on the risks of allowing infants to “cry it out”? o Crying releases cortisol in the adrenal glands, if they are left to cry and cry the level of cortisol remains high o Over a prolonged period, cortisol can reach toxic levels that may damage key structures and systems in a developing brain.  Cortisol is a slow-acting chemical that can stay in the brain at high levels for house and in clinically depressed people for days or even weeks Early Childhood  What aspects of brain development correspond with gross and fine motor skills, balance, and even emotion-regulation? o Understand role of myelination in brain and in the still developing corpus callosum  Connects the 2 sides of the brain  Helps with motor skills and balance  Allows for communication between hemispheres  During early childhood the corpus callossum begins to develop – much more myelination of the nerves, much faster reaction time  Note: females have larger corpus callosum- going along with the finding that they have more “balanced” language functions on both sides. This also probably accounts for why females have better dexterity in these play years – they have better communication between the 2 sides of the brain, allowing for better fine motor coordination. o Developing prefrontal cortex of the brain  What is executive function and how does it relate to prefrontal cortex development?  The prefrontal cortex contributes to: o Regulating sleep o Paying attention and sitting still o Planning and analyzing; higher cognitive functioning o Regulating and controlling emotions and impulses  What preschool-aged children can and can’t do as far as emotion-regulation and impulse control goes o Sometimes inability to control impulses and regulate emotions looks like a child who grabs toys, throws tantrums.  In early childhood, children are meant to be highly active!  Erikson’s stage for early childhood o What is the crisis/issue to be resolved at this stage? o Early childhood is the stage of Initiative-vs. -Guilt stage - the period during which children experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action o How developing “conscience” plays a role in initiative vs. guilt  Preschoolers need the love and support of parents (attachment) as well as the increasing support for their developing autonomy and independent exploration.  Preschoolers with restrictive, overprotective parents may end up feeling more frustration, and shame and guilt  Preschoolers whose parents are punitive when accidents or mistakes happen may feel more guilt and less initiative.  Piaget’s Preoperational stage and characteristic ways of thinking: o Symbolic function substage (ages 2-4) – characteristics of thought  Language development  Can mentally represent objects  Can think into the future  Pretend play, can consider several possibilities at once  Egocentricism - Lack awareness of others’ perspectives  Animism - belief that inanimate objects can act o Intuitive thought substage (ages 4-7) - characteristics of thought  Primitive reasoning - confident in reasoning though not logical  Centration (centrated thinking) - the process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects  Lack of Conservation ability  Theory of mind – what is it? What does it look like during early childhood? o An understanding that the self and others have emotions, perceptions, intentions, and thought- develops; preschool children can begin to understand that people have motives and reasons for their behavior. o At ages 2-3 - limited understanding of emotions, perceptions and intentions - Limited Theory of Mind; understand perceptions, emotions and desires (mostly pertaining to self) o Age 4 (understanding “false beliefs” exist) - Developing Theory of Mind, understand we can have “false beliefs” o 5 and beyond - Acquired Theory of Mind, deeper perspective-taking; true friendships begin to form o ”mean monkey” study (shown on video) and how it tested/demonstrated theory of mind! o Implications for true friendship, lying and deception!  Vygotsky’s Social-Constructivist Theory o Importance of social environment for learning - Social context and education very important for cognitive development o Zone of Proximal Development – the idea that a child is always ready to learn more than they currently can do – with help from an adult or more experienced peer. He believed it was important to assess the indiv. Child’s current ability and then teach to the level just above that – using adult help or a more experienced peer. o Scafolding - the process providing only the support needed, as the child learns, backing of as they begin to a concept on their own, and allowing them more independence as this develops o Role of private speech for young children - talking out loud to oneself – as a way or organizing, planning, self-regulating and emotional regulation  Discussion about when is the best time to begin learning to read and write – and diferent perspectives on this covered in class o Knowing letters, speed of letter and word naming, phonological awareness in kindergarten correlated with reading success in first and 2dgrade. o # of letters kids knew in kindergarten correlated with reading achievement in HS  How children think about themselves and describe themselves during early childhood – first in physical terms (phase 1), then in psychological terms (phase 2) o Preschoolers begin to form their self-concept (their identity, or their set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual). o 3-4 years. Children this age tend to describe themselves in terms of physical characteristics, abilities and things they have – rather than psychological attributes. o Age 4-5: Begin to develop emotional terms about self and others. (Theory of mind is no doubt contributing to this)  Emotion coaching vs. emotion dismissing parenting and how these play role in emotion- regulation and development in children o Emotion coaching - from parents helps child learn emotion-regulation o Emotion-dismissing – ignores or tries to change negative emotions  What is gender identity and gender constancy and when do they develop? What are gender roles? o Gender identity develops around age 3 – sense of being male or female o Gender constancy – the understanding that one will always be a boy or girl, develops later o As gender becomes more established and more understood as a constant, children come to take on the gender “roles” of their culture (expectations about how to act, think, feel) of their gender more and more  How children relate to peers and play in early childhood (as discussed in class) o What is parallel play? Social play? Constructive play? o Peers and even friends are becoming more and more important during early childhood. As the child develops awareness of thoughts of others, less egocentric, able to play better together o Before this – toddlers playing together are engaged in more parallel play –side by side but not really playing together so much o Constructive play – which combines symbolic play with practice play – for ex: an elaborate game of chase that involves a dragon and the children from the village.  Diferent parenting styles (Baumrind’s research) and the outcomes associated with each o Authoritarian - controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold, and whose word is law; they value strict, unquestioning obedience from their children and do not tolerate expressions of disagreement. Children of authoritarian parents tend to be obedient, quiet, and less happy. o Authoritative - firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but tries to reason with their children giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way. This supportive parenting encompasses parental warmth, proactive teaching, and calm discussion during disciplinary episodes, and interest and involvement in children's peer activities. Children of authoritative parents tend to fare best: they are independent, friendly with their peers, self-assertive, and cooperative. o Neglectful –Parents are not very involved. Children of neglectful parents tend to have low self-worth and self-competence, poor-self-control, immature; and as adolescents tend to be more likely to be truant or delinquent o Indulgent - parents tend to be very involved but don’t place many demands or expectations on child; low discipline. Let their kids do what they want (permissive). Warm but not firm. Their children tend to be low in self-control, have poor peer relationships because they have not learned to respect others, they are not very prosocial, more domineering, noncompliant, egocentric  Some of the long-term consequences (correlates) of childhood maltreatment discussed in class


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