Culture Psychology Exam Study Guide
Culture Psychology Exam Study Guide PSY3301
U of M
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY3301 at University of Minnesota taught by Lauren Mitchell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide OVERVIEW OF EXAMS General Information This and subsequent exams will begin at 4PM. This midterm will be 40 questions, and it will be in a multiple choice (scantron) format. You will have until 5:15PM to complete the exam unless other arrangements have been made. Important Notes You will be tested on material from both lecture and required readings. You should be able to recall the main points and/or finding(s) of the readings but not small details. You will NOT be tested on the optional articles. All the others are fair game. From timetotime during lectures, I have noted when it would be wise to review a certain topic – those items will most likely be on the exam. STUDY GUIDE BY TOPIC Theories & Methods How did we define culture for this class? Belief systems and value orientations that influence customs, norms, practices, social institutions and psychological processes. System of shared meaning. Characteristics of culture: fluid and stable, shared by groups but also carried out by individuals, variable across and within groups Why are psychologists so resistant to studying cultural variation in psychology? Goals: Want to understand human behavior (Look at the environment, not just the individuals) Know definitions, examples, general orientation, and theoretical perspective of relativism, universalism, and absolutism. Refer to the Adamopoulous and Lonner (1994). Absolutism: Assume that there is an underlying common ‘true’ nature to all human beings that can be identified, described, and used to explain the products of their activity . Assumes that human behavior only exist and function within a given sociocultural environment . This approach favors laboratory studies that minimize context and are low in realism Relativism . It is better to be more appropriate to concentrate on describing human beings as they exist and function within their sociocultural environment . Focusing primarily on the context . It assumes humans seek meaning and construct, rather than discover, reality Universalism . Recognize the importance of cultural context, but also assumes there is some ‘universal’ behavior; Universalism try to attempts to balance these 2 perspectives . This theory assumes that it should be possible to establish broad commonalities in human nature that reflect a deeper reality than the scientists’ own conceptual categories If a hypothetical study is presented, be prepared to know which of the above theories (i.e., relativism, universalism, and absolutism) is being used. Group quiz: PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide 1. True or false: Culture is very rigid and hardly ever changes. FALSE 2. Lauren defines ________ as “systems of shared meaning.” CULTURE 3. What is the only way to get extra credit in this course? GROUP QUIZZES 4. Race, ethnicity, and gender are all examples of cultural dimensions. List three more from this slide. SEXUAL ORIENTATION, SES, RELIGION, POLITICS, ABILITY, IMMIGRATION STATUS 5. Which of the three perspectives from Adamopoulos & Lonner involves treating cultural variables as noise to be eliminated from research? ABSOLUTISM 6. Albert (1988) identified five reasons why we don’t study culture more often. List one. REDUCTIONISTIC SCIENCE, LACK OF CULTURAL CONTACT, FEAR OF REINFORCING STEREOTYPES, REJECTION OF AMERICAN GOAL OF ASSIMILATION, DOMINANT POWER OF US 7. A common, foodrelated metaphor for American assimilation is the ______. MELTING POT 8. In this class, you need to write _____ journal entries or service learning reflections. They are worth _____ points each. 10; 7 9. Which form of psychology focuses on comparing behavioral phenomena across cultures? CROSS CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY 10. A problem with crosscultural research is that “cultural differences” thought to underlie observed group differences are often not _______. MEASURED What are the advantages of conducting crosscultural research? Cultural research? What are challenges or shortcomings? Challenges for studying culture: . Sampling & recruitment: Representativeness, Access Convenience samples vs. representative samples, e.g: College students Challenges for conducting crosscultural research . Non categorical variables ( too many categories, e.g: Too many race) Advantages: . Crosscultural Etic (more diverse to every culture) Universalist Quantitative Nomothetic (large results, little bit of data from each of them) (surface level: from a lot of people) . Cultural Emic (more specific to one culture) Relativist Qualitative (Very valuable) Idiographic (Take a lot of data from a few amount of people) Understand the concepts of etic and emic. Etic: looking for universals across cultures. Crosscultural, universalist, generalizability is a concern Emic: trying to understand psychological phenomena specific to a culture. Cultural relativism. Often qualitative methods, idiographic. Hypotheses may be generated during research process. Especially useful when there aren’t preexisting theories or farmworkers or data. E.g: Apple & oranges . Etic: weight, size, thickness of skin, price. ‘Apples are lighter than oranges’ .Emic: flavor, texture. ‘Apple are more.. aplley than oranges?’ PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide What type of methodology (e.g., quantitative, qualitative) is associated with etic, emic, etc.? Quantitative: Etic Qualitative: Emic Who are typical research participants? Are they representative of the general population? College students Confounding variables: e.g: library & nonstudents (many were also homeless) Representative of nonstudents: can easily recruit minority participants from community clinics, but they will have more psychological disorders than the regular population If a hypothetical study is presented, be prepared to know which of the above methods/methodological approaches is being used. What is mixed methods research? What are the strengths & weaknesses of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches? Mixed methods research: mix with Quantitative & Qualitative Research Qualitative: Deals with descriptions (Colors, textures, smells, taste etc) . Data can be observed but not measured Quantitative: Deals with numbers (length, height, area, volume, weight etc) . Data which can be measured What were Betancourt and Lopez’s main points/critiques? (readings) Independence & interdependence – is something we can measure about a culture, that might help explain differences. Has gotten a lot of research attention. Self & Identity When can we first identify a sense of self in children? How? Develops by about age of 2 Requires social interaction to develop Continuity over space & time Research shows that human infants are capable of recognizing themselves in a mirror between the ages of about 18 to 24 months. This research involves putting a colored dot on the infant’s nose and then placing a mirror in front of the infant. If the infant touches the spot on its own nose, this is taken as a sign of selfrecognition Be familiar with independent selfconstrual vs. interdependent selfconstrual, particularly in terms of important features, the role of others, and the basis of one’s selfesteem. Independent: Bounded and autonomous self Emphasize uniqueness, separateness, individuality Self has meaning through personal, internal attributes Socialization seeks to foster independence Squeaky wheel gets the grease – standing out is a virtue Interdependence Connections between self and others Emphasize context and environment Self has meaning through social relationships & roles PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide Socialization seeks to foster connection and interrelatedness Nail that sticks out is hammered down – sticking out is frowned on Know collectivism/individualism and how they relate to the two types of selfconstruals. o What level of analysis (individual vs. societal) is implied when cultural psychologists refer to collectivism/individualism? How about independent/interdependent selfconstrual? Individuals (More focus on oneself) (Individual) Collectivism (More focus on relationship) (Societal) Independent and interdependent selfconstrual individuals are seen in what types of cultures (Eastern vs. Western, individualism vs. collectivism)? East Asian are usually more collectivistic than Americans A problem with the way it’s usually done is we assume because someone is from East Asia, they have interdependent selfconstruals. Not bothering to measure the correct underlying variable. Just because Japan was once highly collectivistic doesn’t mean any sample of Japanese people will be highly interdependent and not independent. Be familiar with Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. In what stage does identity work happen? Identity development means figuring out who you are Marcia expanded Erikson’s work and came up with the identity status model. What are components of the typology? How do exploration and commitment work for each status? Moratorium (Still trying to figure) Foreclosure (Decided even before we try to figure or try new things) Diffusion (Have not try anything yet) PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide What is ethnic identity? How does Phinney’s model map on to Marcia’s model of identity? How might ethnic identity impact mental health? One’s selflabel Affective components: feelings of belonging, attitudes toward group Cognitive components: knowledge about group, understanding of implications of ethnicity for oneself Ethnic Identity has become more important as globalization increases What are selfdefining and microgenetic life story narratives? Life story narratives (can be one event, or whole life story) Selfdefining: highly emotional, frequently thought about, considered very important Microgenetic: Through relevant to the question, not a major impact on your identity, but lots of thee can be add up over time. E.g: small events everyday, over time, there might be a lot of events What are examples of structure, content, and meaning in narratives? Structure: first or third person, past or present tense, beginning, middle, end Content: what the story is about – family, friends, career decisions. Emotional tone – flat or lots of emotional language like “excited” “infuriated” “so, so happy” Meaning: lessons the author learns, where they see it fitting in the broader sweep of their life What story themes did Syed & Azmitia identify in their study of times when students felt aware of their race/ethnicity? Experience of prejudice: Racist, derogatory remarks, social exclusion, behavioral discrimination Awareness of difference: realization of ethnicity, awareness of privilege, marginality, lack of belonging, ethnicity is more than skin color Awareness of underrepresentation: Was in the minority, was in the majority Connection to culture: Appreciating culture, involvement in cultural practices, feeling accepted, “being home” Which racial/ethnic groups tended to tell which types of stories? Asian Americans and Latinos had many experience of prejudice stories, but Asian American’s tended to be more social exclusion: being picked on for “being weak” whereas Latinos – hostile comments or racist behavior. Mixedethnicity participants’ stories of awareness of difference tended to be about realizing their ethnicity – first time they became aware of having more than one ethnic background. White students’ awareness of difference stories tended to be about becoming aware of privilege, and realizing ethnicity has deeper meaning than skin color. Both related to less stereotypic/racist beliefs. PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide Language What is the SapirWhorf Hypothesis? Language influences cognition Linguistic difference between cultures are associated with cultural differences in thinking Based on the empirical studies presented in lecture, what do we know about the extent to which cultures differ in color perception? When faced with difficult discriminatory task, people unconsciously look for another means of deciding, in this case by using the color naming strategy English speakers were found to be less accurate in this colorperception task, in that they showed biased toward grouping colors according to the words green and blue. That is, objectively, C is the most different from A and B (in other words, B is closer to A than to C) (CLICK FOR CIRCLE), however, an English speaker often would identify A as the most different from the other two and describe BC as the closest pairing. The Tarahumara speakers were more accurate because they more often made their choice based on similarity in hue. They did not have a word to distinguish between green and blue. One word: siyoname. On the other hand, the English speakers were making judgments based on the categories of color (green and blue). Describe the findings from the study on Spanish and German speakers and their associations with “key” and “bridge.” What can this tell us about language and culture? Language expresses and creates cultural reality: words reflect individuals’ attitudes and beliefs, and also those of others. One of the forms of shared meaning that culture can take. Perhaps language is not a causal variable in the strict sense, but one that intersects with and bears a mutual influential relation with culture. In other words, there is a cyclical relationship between culture and communication. On one hand, culture influences the structure and functional use of language. But on the other hand, language can also be used to maintain and reinforce that culture. Know the basic history of Nicaraguan Sign Language. Children is the one who create and develop the language Changes in grammar appear first in children, spread to adolescents, but not adults Most fluent signers are the youngest, most recent learners Preadolescent sensitive period for language acquisition What is linguistic imperialism? Introducing ASL (American Sign Language) to populations of deaf people in other countries, supplanting existing local sign languages Which sector of the Nicaraguan Sign Language population was driving new changes to the language? New schools in the capital – enrollment in the hundreds, enough for a community & culture to develop Meeting at a young age, 45 years old, many years of contact Multiple cohorts together – children and adolescents and adults Students continued contact outside school hours, teenagers getting together on weekends Language shapes, and is shaped by culture – the context of hanging out allowed language to emerge, but also having a language made it more interesting to hang out! Be familiar with Barna’s barriers to intercultural communication. Sensitizing persons to the kinds of things that need to be taken into account, instead of developing PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide behavior and attitude stereotypes. Individual differences in each encounter, changes occur regularly, making research information obsolete. EX: Young adults who don’t go to college on average have children earlier. One factor to take into account when talking to a nonstudent might be considering whether they are a parent. Something to consider for college students, too! (Understanding assumptions and values.) Development Be familiar with Bronfrenbrenner’s Ecological systems theory. What do the different levels refer to? Individual: sex, age, health, etc. Microsystem: family, school, peers, neighborhood play area, health services Mesosystem: interactions among them Exosystem: neighbors, family friends, mass media, social welfare services, legal services Macrosystem: attitudes & ideologies of the culture. EX: power distance. WHAT IS POWER DISTANCE – FROM HALBERSTADT & LOZADA? Accept and expect inequality in status relationships – obedience, authority, rulefollowing – or equality across statuses, democracy, more discussion & permeability across hierarchies. How might different levels of power distance shape child development? Topdown conversations vs. turntaking. Chronosystem: time Define and be able to identify examples of socialization, zone of proximal development, and scaffolding. Socialization . Teaching children what emotions are appropriate, how to express them in socially acceptable ways, what emotions mean; getting them ready to interacting with others in the society Zone of proximal development . We assume that infants can’t control their emotions. Their ZPD is nonexistent – there is nothing that is close to within their grasp, so we don’t try to teach them. As they get older, we use strategies like counting & breathing to manage frustration, selftalk to manage fear, etc. We start typically in early toddlerhood, because our cultural belief is that this is the right time for children to start managing their emotions. . Abilities that are very close to the child, they only need a little bit of help, assistance to be successful) Scaffolding . Someone like brother giving a bit of help to the child to reach the goal to do things) What are deficiency models? Why are they problematic? Assumptions that minority families provide a poorer, deficient environment means that researchers only look at variables like aggression, delinquency, attention deficits, etc. and rarely study things like resiliency and emotional development. Problematic: Growing movement to work from the assumption that cultures and lifestyles different from white middleclass mainstream are not pathological, deviant, or deficient, but legitimate and valuable in their own right. More nuanced: not one right way to do things, every way has strengths and weaknesses. Group quiz #2 1. Development includes patterns of change and _______ over time. STABILITY 2. A child’s parent having a conversation with the child’s pediatrician is an example of which level of Bronfenbrenner’s model? MESOSYSTEM PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide 3. A child is having trouble starting to draw a giraffe, so you say, “I’ll draw the head, and then you do the neck.” With this little nudge, she manages to draw the giraffe. This is an example of what Vygotskian process? ______ SCAFFOLDING 4. __________ models of minority development implicitly assume that cultures different from the mainstream White middleclass are pathological, deviant, or full of problems. DEFICIENCY 5. ___________ is the adoption of elements of one culture by members of a different culture, without permission, and removing or distorting their original meaning. APPROPRIATION 6. Judy Kegl made a point not to introduce ASL to the Nicaraguan deaf community because she was concerned about _______. LINGUISTIC IMPERIALISM. 7. Phinney identifies three possible ethnic identity statuses. Name them. UNEXAMINED, MORATORIUM, ACHIEVED 8. Syed and colleagues (2010) found four major themes in student’s narratives about times when they were aware of their race/ethnicity. Name one theme. EXPERIENCE OF PREJUDICE, AWARENESS OF DIFFERENCE, AWARENESS OF UNDERREPRESENTATION, CONNECTION TO CULTURE 9. We learned about a study in which Japanese and American preschoolers were asked not to peek at a wrapped gift for 3 minutes. The researchers used this method to compare the impulse control of these two groups. What kind of research is this? CROSSCULTURAL, ETIC 10. Markus and Kitayama (1991) suggest that people who have a sense of self that is closely connected to others, and who find their sense of meaning through social relationships and roles, have an _________ selfconstrual. INTERDEPENDENT Emotion Be able to tell the difference between the JamesLange and SchachterSinger theories of emotion. JamesLange Theory . Environment – Physiological arousal—Emotion . The autonomic nervous system creates physiological events such as muscular tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and dryness of the mouth. Emotions, then, are feelings which come about as a result of these physiological changes, rather than being their cause. . E.g: You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. You notice these physiological changes and interpret them as your body's preparation for a fearful situation. You then experience fear. SchachterSinger theory . Physical arousal – Cognitive Interpretation of environment – Emotion . An event causes physiological arousal first. You must then identify a reason for this arousal from the environment and then you are able to experience and label the emotion. . E.g: You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. Upon noticing this arousal you realize that is comes from the fact that you are walking down a dark alley by yourself. This behavior is dangerous and therefore you feel the emotion of fear. Identify the seven “universal” emotions discovered by Ekman and colleagues. 1. Happiness 2. Surprise 3. Sadness 4. Anger 5. Disgust 6. Fear PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide 7. Contempt How were these emotions discovered? Ekman's infamous test of emotion recognition was the Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) stimulus. It consisted of 110 black and white images of Caucasian actors portraying different emotions plus neutral expressions. Are there emotions that exist in some cultures but not others? Not culture specific High crosscultural agreement for six basic emotions – both in literate and illiterate cultures What are cultural display rules? Culturally prescribed rules that govern how, when, and where a person should express emotions, and how intensely. . Rules of social appropriateness . Learned early in life; automatic/ unconscious practice by adulthood How would you study them? Whites in the U.S. rate emotional expression in public as more appropriate than Latino Americans. Ekman & Friesen did a study with Japanese and White Americans. . People with independent selfconstrual experience more egofocused (such as pride, anger) than otherfocused emotions (such as shame or guilt). What were the main findings of Cohen and colleagues’ work on people from the North and South US? Male southerners were more physiologically aroused (as indicated by their testosterone level), and they gave stronger shocks to a different confederate. So this is another example of how individuals reared in different cultures may have a different emotional experience to the same situation. Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Racism What distinction does Tatum draw between prejudice and racism? Prejudice: preconceived judgment or opinion, based on limited information (believes) Racism: system of advantage based on race Review the McIntosh (1988) and Deutsch (2002) checklists. What are other examples of systematic oppression besides racism? Hetronormativity (sex) Ageism (talking down to old folks) Ableism (handicap) Sexism Classism Note: You are NOT responsible for the various statistics found in lecture slides that indicate the prevalence of racism (i.e., in the law, hiring, health care, etc.), but you are expected to know general patterns. There are more femal & more diverse races Understand the definitions of individual, institutional, and cultural racism, and recognize examples of PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide each. Individual . Can be chronic and can manifest at a more interpersonal level Institutional . Racism persists because a network of practices skew opportunities and life chances along racial lines. People of different races are assigned to different spaces and therefore allow grossly unequal access to . Blacks are sentenced to prison more frequently than Whites for the same conduct. Cultural racism . When one racial group enjoys the power to define cultural values and subsequently marginalize those that do not (have power) . Examples • Popular culture • Representation of racial minorities in media, magazines, distribution of toys, etc. • Ethnic themed parties on college campuses • Online dating sites What are microaggressions, and how might they be related to racial/ethnic minorities’ mental health? What is the relationship between racial discrimination and physical and mental health? Be familiar with the two approaches to coping with racism (approach vs. avoidance). What were the primary findings of Sohad Murrar’s study on minorities in the media? Gender Be familiar with the definitions and examples of sex, gender roles, gender identity, and gender expression. What are the differences between sex and gender? How does the intersection of race and gender help us to understand experiences with discrimination and gender role expectations and stereotypes? What is double jeopardy? Understand the universal gender stereotypes associated with men and women; see findings from the William and Best (1982, 1990) studies. What is sexual objectification? What is unwanted sexual attention (UWSA)/sexual harassment (SH), and when do young girls report experiencing UWSA/SH? Gender differences in reactions to UWSA/SH? Be generally familiar with the impact of SH in workplace. Sexuality What is gender assignment? Be able to define and identify examples of heteronormativity. What does intersex mean, and how is it different from transgender? What is the process of transitioning, and what are some examples of steps it might include? What is the difference between sexual orientation, and sexual orientation identity? Know the definitions for each of the examples of sexual orientation identities we discussed in class (gay man, lesbian, queer, etc.). Be familiar with the stages of the Cass model, primarily the beginning and ending stages. Also be able to explain the major critiques of the model we discussed. What health and wellbeing risks do LGBT individuals face as a result of heteronormativity? What is Minority Stress? What are examples of distal and proximal stressors? How do they fit into Minority Stress Theory? PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide Group Quiz #3: What is the term for negative stereotypes held about one’s own group? INTERNALIZED OPPRESSION Modern racism functions on three levels. Name ONE level. INDIVIDUAL, INSTITUTIONAL, CULTURAL A study by a Wisconsin graduate student revealed that watching a TV show portraying a wide range of characters from one minority group led to greater feelings of warmth toward that group. What group was it? ARABS or MUSLIMS The ____ _____ _____ portrays Asian Americans in a positive light, but research suggests that it can be harmful to Asian Americans. MODEL MINORITY MYTH What were the two styles of coping strategies we discussed, in relation to racial discrimination? APPROACH and AVOIDANCE Eagly defines _________ as shared expectations that apply to individuals on the basis of their socially identified sex. GENDER ROLES Gender ___________ is one’s sense of oneself as male, female, or transgender. IDENTITY Gender ________ includes behaviors, appearance, dress, and interests that communicate one’s gender to others. EXPRESSION ________ is the tendency to tune in to information that reinforces and supports preexisting notions or stereotypes. SELECTIVE ATTENTION Advertisements often _______ women, removing their human characteristics and value and separating her body from her humanity. OBJECTIFY Women of color face ___________, or a combination of racism and sexism that often leads to more frequent and severe harassment. DOUBLE JEOPARDY
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