Brain and Behavior-Study Guide-Exam 3 (Final)
Brain and Behavior-Study Guide-Exam 3 (Final) Psyc 300
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Brain and Behavior Final Exam Chapter 8 Development Building the CNS Gross development adding cells Day 1 Fertilization gametes meet Day 2 zygote divides Day 15 embryonic disc Day 21 neural groove bendsfolds Day 24 neural tube forms Days 25100 neural tube lengthens bends and thickens LQCortex Development Cell birth Stem cells self renewing can give rise to more stem cells or progenitor cell Progenitor cells depending on location and timing can become neural or gial blasts Then they are no longer self renewing Specialized functions oligodendria interneuron schwann astrocyte glial Cell migration Neurons are layeredi each layer must migrate through previous layers This exposes neurons to different chemical environments and timings cells follow radial glial cells Cell differentiation Basic plan for neuron precursor cell or blast that could be many types of cells specialized on site commits to one type of role based on environment exposure Cell maturation Axons very quickly dramatic changes tropic molecules like a lighthouse grows in this direction fast from minutes to hours Dendrites slow months Synaptogenesis adding cells Synapti c pruning subtracting it a connection isn t being used synapses and neurons are lost Prevent this with complex cognition to maintain circuits Cell death look at volume of grey matter cell body it dramatically decreases to 20 years myelinationlaxons white matter Exceptions language left and spatial right some grey matter increases here This is an exception because generally we are pruning synapses Myelogenesis large volume of brain comes from myelination Primary areas myelinated first Secondary cortex myelinated next Tertiary cortex high level processing from multiple sensory systems are myelinated last Ex multiple sclerosis attacks random areas Action potential wont make it because there s no myelination Behavioral Develfopment Motor 2 months orientation move toward an object they want 4 months power grasps touch close hand put away 10 months pincer grasps fine motor control small objects directing movement Ex Cheeno Cognitive Piaget Stage 1 Sensorimotor development of basal ganglia Birth18 months Concurrent discrimination forming simple association Stage 2Pre0perational language 18 months6 years ar L QDelayed non matching to sample choose the new stimulus rule Stage 3 Concrete Operational non abstract 711 years Conservation of mass which has more fluid they re equal pour into cylinder think its more See world through images One stimulus dimension height Stage 4 Formal Operational scientists 12 years LQ Transitivity smaller associations then ask abstractions ex Elvis taller than Madonna Madonna is taller than Marilyn Manson Marilyn Manson is taller than Ozzie ls Madonna or Ozzie taller Try to understand the world around them This can be seen in rates and pigeons Effect of Environment Prenatal Gibb et al 20013 Pregnant rats Dams Condo housing enriched environment ropes ramps other rats Petting regular shoebox with brushing Shoebox standard housing How do these conditions change the baby rats brain in adulthood Effect on the complexity of dendrites in CNS lnfancy Kuhl 1999 used phoniums smallest unit of language ba ba ba When you say pa the EEG brain waves change so they can tell the difference Mismatch negativity MMN 6 months can recognize many phoniums from many languages 12 months recognize fewer only recognize own language Childhood Elbert et all 2001 Stringed instruments Cortical map of the pinky when touched If you start at an earlier age much more blood is recruited to a larger area of the brain when pinky is touched Evn less cortical activation if they don t play an instrument Childhood Kim et el 1997 Language acquisition fMRl Bilingual young from birth overlapping of language areas Bili ngual adult two language processing areas not overlapping Plasticity Reorganization of language Kennard Principal 1930 Early brain damage results in more recovery than damage later in life Human data 0 1 years not a lot of recovery 15 years ability to support left hemisphere damage Language survives cost impaired visual spatial function right hemisphere represents language right hemisphere damage language survives cost visuospatial function left hemisphere represents language 5 years plasticity decreases can t compensate for damage Rodent Models Medial Frontal Damage Control no damage Day 1 damage Day 10 Damage Golgi stain shows you synapses and dendrites day 10 has more Water maze how long does it take them to get out Mechanisms in adulthood tharee legged dog solutionmaking due with what you have If you lose one modality you can use something else New circuit solution nerve growth factor NGF increases dendrites and spine Rats retrieve food item but Differently Doesn t cross blood brain barrier Neuron Replacement Solution inject stem cells into heroin induced Parkinson39s patients basal ganglia But they can develop tolerance to this Vision Stimulus Electromagnetic spectrum visible 400700nm hue wavelength longer or shorter determines color Saturation purity of wavelength Brightness intensity of wavelength changed by amplitude of wave Structu re Eye translates cues from environment into neural codes cornea clear portion iris openscloses pupil opens spot adjusted by iris lens flips image fovea high concentration of sensory neurons processing info mostly cones retina back of eye 3 Photoreceptorslsensory neurons cone cells process color info rod cells process contrast and movement uneven distribution of these cells separation of information 2 bipolar cells 1 ganglion cell light goes through three layers of sensory neurons bipolar ganglion photoreceptors reflected off the back then synapse on one another and leave blind spot connective wiring to sensory receptors leave Pathways Retinohypothalamic pupillary reflex opens to let more light in sleep blue wavelengths quotTectopulvinar cicades snaps eye to next point Processes motion info to move eye to next part of visual field Geniculostriate color form and motion Detects at nasal portion and LO periphri crosses overat optic chiasm if tumor occurs at chiasm you ll lose periphri P Channel takes up a at o fcortex cones color detail LGN where synapses are 3456 MChannel doesn t take up as much cortex rods movement contrast Lateral geniculate nucleus12 Striate cortex mapping upside down and LRRL blobs processes info on color and form interblob regions motion Dorsal streams motionaction exiting striate cortex where LlP process info related to directing eye movements AlP pocess info about directing movements Ventral stream recognizing object what ill towards back FFA faces PPA scenes Funcnon Form LQ Retinal ganglioncells in the LGN receive info from retina On center cells if you shine a light on center of receptive field we can record that it fires very fast If you shine it on the outside periphri you inhibit it This allows you to detect any orientation of lines Overlapping receptive fields the receptive fields overlap so extensively that any two fields look at almost the same part of the world Primary Visual cortex LQSimple cells if there s no stimulus there s a low baseline response if you apply horizontal will fire very fast action potential if you apply diagonal or vertical no response you need enough LGN cells activated to activate simple cells LQComplex cells respond to lines of a certain orientation that are moving Heirarchal relationship ganglion simple cells complex cells cells must be activated at close temporal intervals Depend on temporal summation Color tri chromatic theory photoreceptors are sensitive to certain wavelengths cones face of retina Blue green and red cones opponent process theory Red Red cone stimulus excites redigreen ganglion signals red if excitation is removed it signals green LQYelow Red cone stimulus green cone stimulated summation can cancel eachothler out to signal yellow Blue blue cone stimulated inhibits yellowblue ganglion signals blue Green Pathology Bitemporal hemianopia damage disruption at the optic chaism loss of periphri tunnel vision slow progressing so people are unaware LQApperceptive agnosia lack of knowledge H lnability to recognize objects damage to ventral stream Associative agnosia can copy and match but can t tell you what it is language is intact but can t pull it all together Object agnosia Prosopagnosia can describe face but can t recognize faces compensatory voice hairstyle body type Secrets of the Mind Video LQDerek Steen Phantom Limb Syndrome feel the presence of a limb that isn t there His arm would tingle when he shaved the left side of his face Body image what is constructed in your mind map of surface of bod y in brain right side represents left and vice versa Representation of face by hand Derek s neural pathways had been restructured The sensory input for arm is invaded by face space You could have phantom anything besides brain painkillers and hypnosis didn t work but a mirror box did LQ Graham Young blindsight can see although you are blind He can see to the left but is blind to the right in both eyes he can see movement to the right visual cortex is gone so he doesn t see consciously but his other pathway allows him to detect Movement LQPeggy Palmer has visual neglect due to stroke in parietal lobe the left side is ignored evenin Memory David Kapgres illusion thinks parents are imposters thinks house is an imitation refers to self as other David image is identified in temporal lobes the message isn t getting to amygdala to give emotion there s a separate auditory pathway so he doesn t do it on the phone John Scharon temporal lob epilepsy thinks he is God everything seemed surreal after seizure Chggterr127 Causes of Behavior Evolutionary Influences lnnate releasing mechanism environmental stimulus that causes a behavior to be triggered Fixed action pattern this behavior due to evolution not learned Usually fundamental survival behavior eating avoiding predation caring for offspring Genetically programmed ex Gull feeding baby will peck mother regurgitates Recognizes red on orange beak ex Baby facial expressions even blind children snow appropriate racrai expressions ex Spider spinning web more complex sequence of movements essential to getting Food Environmental In uences Classical conditioning associating conditioned and unconditioned stimulus Conditioned taste aversion ex Too much to drink and get sick You associate that taste with being sick Operant conditioning responseoutcome association application of something good or bad Posi tive increase Negative decrease Removal Positive decrease NegatiVe increase Skinner believed you could make a child become anything based on experience and learning but this ignores innate behaviors mar cia Effect Condifinn airman M i r mm airgas ratg lieLI light kool aid ungnndi anad group sick of they learned they d learn stimuli Separately and the shock and sick groups WQI r the same the light and tone were associated with shock not sickness The koolaid avor was associated with sickness not shock and tones We don t cross two systems because of preparednessbelongingness this can be taught to birds with the color of water Preparedness Application wolves eating sheep electric fences don t stop them but tainting the meat with something that will make them sick does Emotional Behavior Autonomic nervous system involved in preparing body for stress Sympathetic flight or flight and counteract parasympathetic rest and digest Spinal cord damage higher leads to less emotions further down means higher activity CNS Amygdala Stimulation immense fear and anxiety Lesions lose all fear Hoovery Busey syndrome increase sexual behavior eat Everything Prefrontal Cortex Connections lots of connections in and out Both in and out to amygdala Damage significantly influences emotion Frontal lobotomy decreases emotional intensity decreases regulation Motivated Behaviors Regulatory behaviors bring body back into line eating drinking shivering maintaining homeostasis and life Nonrenglatory behavios no setpoint to satisfy aggression sex exploration short term energy store blood glucose liver glycogen increase and decrease glucose pancres lrnsulin decrease level of glucose Glcagen increase level of glucose Long term energy store tissue triglycerides gycerglj anglggtgg 39 E far 2715 u u 1 Ls q r g r u lg 7AfqJ lag L 233 31332 a f w1 as 39 393 quot901 r J39 aL0rs environmental factors humans adjust size of meal with same adjass f 7 A39a I I 395 mungu g quot2 E 2 2 quot i i r E f39 l 7 kir vkquot quot1 rsquot 39 quota xr ragarquot r1fr1 513 39s 3921 3 ail 39 39 I 1 7 u uu uusuu nnullulul UIIHVUIUIL uupilvyu Ul IEULIILI LIFIi JU galn more T a a nsz39 v n 4 1quot v rn regan amn n a n l rni g Ir T nn n T ii wr r L391hri39sa a p a rrq l r r39 9aaa w gd uea iii d EJ yalll J I 7 39 P a 1 quotquot 39h l 2 5 31 e v A quot 1tf T W quot a f f 9 y39 r I 39 L Meth flation is the process that works to suppress gene expression ln an experiment examining the ability of children to discriminate speech sounds of various language Werker and Tees found that children could discriminate but the ability declines over the first vear of life Children who have brain injuries to language areas in the first couple years show no severe language disturbances Neuronal maturation involves dendrite growth and svnapse formation Cells find their appropriate location by following a road laid down by radial glial cells The nonmatching to sample task described in your text is thought to measure the functions of temporal lobes Which of the following is NOT associated with brain growth up to age 16 increase in the number of neurons Studies have shown that children are able to solve the concurrent discrimination task prior to the nonmatchino to sample task The brain can cope with injury more easily during neurodenesis Generally speaking axons tend to grow much faster than dendrites CHAPTER 9 PE Vision The colored part of the eye is called the Cells in the interblob regions in the visual cortex are important for On center cells are excited by light that falls in the center of their receptive field In the optic chiasm info from the nasal retinas cross whereas info from the temporal retinas stay in the same side Patients described as having optic ataxia could not make visually guided movements The portion of the eye that has the highest visual acuity is called the fovea t Eager in the retina from outermost CHAPTE 39i FE 5 ff39 S 1LE39 3133 2555 rim r g r Margr 39 t 39l39rK Di e ij i m iii Elgqg fghi3373 323 39 3Itf r39 quot33f quot b ehgt39 The E 3 t 3 1 21 521 Ii quotiii53 P335325 iii2 t 39 39 n I g 7 r i 77 v39 K 7 lcl lg urrt E r 7 t I 9 na v 7 W 7 y u Damage to the ventromedial hypothalum leads to overeatinq in animals It l were receiving brain stimulation and I suddenly felt anxious and fearful the site would be the amygdala Taste aversion learning appears to take onlv one trial of learnino The tact that many people who have spinal cord injury have a decrease in perceived emotion supports the James Lanqe theory of emotion a
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