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Chapter 5 Study Guide

by: Haley J Schuhl

Chapter 5 Study Guide PSY 223

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Psychlogy > PSY 223 > Chapter 5 Study Guide
Haley J Schuhl
GPA 3.59
Social Psychology
Glenn Reeder

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The final study guide out of 3 for Exam 2!
Social Psychology
Glenn Reeder
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 663 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 09/16/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR CHAPTER 5 Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination LEARNING OBJECTIVES GUIDELINES FOR STUDY You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 5 1 Define and distinguish the concepts of stereotyping prejudice and discrimination Explain What is meant by modern and implicit racism and explain how each is measured empirically pp 154159 Look at key terms section for definitions Modern and implicit racism are a lot more common now than is old fashioned racism which was pretty blatant and obvious In comparison modern racism is more hidden and only comes out when the person thinks it39s socially acceptable a racist joke among close friends Implicit just means that its unconscious or unintentional Ways they have measured these types of racism is by looking at the severity of punishments for white and black defendants 2 Discuss recent psychological findings regarding the processes of interracial perception and interaction pp 159161 Findings have discovered that divides between racial groups tend to be more vast and may promote stronger feelings of hostility fear and distrust than the divides based on other social categories such as gender appearance or age The fear of being racist and the relative lack of contact between ethnic groups cause greater anxiety than in other interactions 3 Discuss the role of ambivalent sexism and double standards When it comes to understanding discrimination based on gender pp 161165 Ambivalent sexism speaks to the way in which most stereotypes about women are positive in comparison to those about men but they are less valued in important domains such as business and politics This relative positivity makes it seems beneficial to the stereotyped group to be treated differently than the other group 4 Discuss the implication of Beyond Racism and Sexism Age Weight Sexuality and Other Targets pp 165166 There are numerous other factors that might cause someone to be stereotyped The example in the book is that nearly identical resumes were sent out to 1800 job postings The only difference between the two was that one listed volunteering for a gay campus organization and that applicant was about 40 less likely to get invited for an interview 5 Discuss being stigmatized pp 166167 Being stigmatized is persistently being stereotyped perceived as deviant and devalued in society because of your membership in a particular social group or because of a particular characteristic This can be felt without any overt acts of discrimination instead people may just perceive you inaccurately because of one aspect such as skin color 6 Explain stereotype threat pp 167 170 It39s the experience of concern about being evaluated based on negative stereotypes about one39s group An individual who is worried about the negative perceptions others might have about them 7 Explain the different ways in which stereotypes form Describe the human tendencies toward social categorization dehumanization and the formation of ingroupoutgroup distinctions and discuss the repercussions of these tendencies pp 170175 We categorize people into groups for the same reason that we categorize other things so we can make sense of our surroundings and better understand the world The main issue is that people want to feel better about Themselves so they tend to value people who are members of groups that they are a part of This is where we get our ingroupoutgroup distinctions Something as small and insignificant as hair color can cause us to root on one athlete more than another We like to think that our groups are the best but this leads to treating outsiders as less than human dehumanization and cause negative discrimination that further divides two different groups 8 Explain how prejudice differs from stereotyping Describe the significance of realistic con ict theory as well as the Robbers Cave study for understanding prejudice pp 175 176 Prejudices are inherently negative While stereotyping is also a version of drawing a conclusion based on superficial knowledge there are both positive and negative stereotypes The Robbers Cave study was the Sherif study that divided a group of 11 year old boys into two teams They become close within their group and a friendly competition of baseball turned hostile This hostility as a result of competition is the realistic conflict theory holding true people don39t tend to like others who are in competition against them because it39s more beneficial for your ego for you to succeed and for the others to foil 9 Explain social identity theory and how it accounts for ingroup favoritism Discuss cultural differences in social identity processes as well as the role of ideology when it comes to understanding prejudice pp 176178 Social identity theory says that people favor ingroups in order to enhance their selfesteem We have personal and social identities based on groups we belong to so people can either boost their selfesteem with personal accomplishments or they can also do it by celebrating the accomplishments of their groups Some exTreme cases of ingroup favoriTism cause people To beliTTle Them in order To feel beTTer abouT us OTher culTures such as Those ThaT really value collecTivism are more likely To value Their connecTedness and inTerdependence and more prone To ingroup favoriTism 10 Discuss the role of cultural factors in social identity and prejudice Explain how individual motives affect issues related to prejudice and status pp 179181 Some of The more collecTivisT culTures showed less ingroup favoriTism Than individualistic culTures They were more ToleranT of ouTgroup members We learn a loT abouT norms and rules by jusT absorbing whaT we see all around us 11 Examine the impact of socialization and social role theory on the development of gender stereotypes Discuss the stereotype content model pp 181183 Boys aren39T born auTomaTically liking blue and girls aren39T born liking pink They learn Their appropriaTe gender roles by how people acT and reacT around Them Even a parenT who doesn39T wanT To force TradiTional gender roles on Their child mighT look uneasy when Their son plays wiTh a Barbie buT give words of encouragemenT while he plays wiTh his HoT Wheels They mighT noT even know They39re doing iT buT children are learning how To acT as Their gender from The Time They39re born Small naTural differences are magnified To The poinT ThaT people Think There are huge fundamenTaI differences beTween men and women 12 Explain how stereotypes distort perceptions and resist change ppl83l84 One of The ways sTereoTypes resisT To change is ThaT They have a selffulfilling prophecy Type of phenomena going on LeT39s say an elemenTary school Teacher grew up Thinking ThaT girls are beTTer aT English classes while boys are naTurally beTTer aT science and maTh AfTer all even in 2015 There are significanle less women Than men in maTh and science professions He39s goT This sTereoType in The back of his mind so when liTTle Sally is sTruggling wiTh maTh he aTTribuTes iT To her gender buT when Tommy is sTruggling he Thinks oh he jusT needs more individual helpquot so Tommy improves in maTh However wiThouT The exTra help Sally is sTill sTruggling and The Teacher Thinks iT39s really True girls aren39T good aT maThquot 13 Describe the ways in which stereotypes are perpetuated including illusory correlation attributional processes subtyping and confirmation bias pp 184185 The illusory correlaTion is when people overesTimaTe The degree To which Two Things are relaTed even if They39re only sligthy correlaTed or maybe noT aT alll When we see someone ThaT doesn39T fiT inTo one of our sTereoType ideas we Tend To Think of Them as an excepTion To The rule insTead of someThing ThaT proves The rule To be false Like we learned in previous The chapTer people sTick To Their opinions even when They are presenTed wiTh conTradicTing informaTion belief perseverance STereoTypes are perpeTuaTed when we see an example of one of our prejudices which sTand ouT To us as proof of our ideas being valid confirmaTion bias l4 Explain automatic stereotype activation pp 185186 We don39t have to believe a stereotype for it to Trigger illusory correlations and selffulfilling prophecies that will bias how we thing feel or even behave toward group members They can act with control in most situations but may have automatic stereotypingquot because we are primed to think that way 15 Identify factors that can impact Whether or not stereotypes in uence social judgment Discuss the question of Whether stereotyping is automatic or intentional and consider the implications of this issue for realworld events such as the police shooting of Amadou Diallo pp 186189 People who feel that their selfesteem is being threatened are more likely to show implicit unintentional stereotyping I think that there is a lot of both automatic and intentional stereotyping I would prefer to think that in the story of Amadou Diallo the police didn39t cognitively think to themselves he39s pulling something out of his pocket it must be a gun because he39s a young black malelquot Instead I hope that the high pressure situation and adrenalin caused them to act with automatic stereotypes that caused them to shoot the unarmed man 16 Discuss the Hoodie and the Gun Revisiting the Trayvon Martin Killing pp 189190 In the book it say that social categorization distrust of outgroup members confirmation biases illusory correlations and automatic stereotype activation may have triggered the initial suspicion of Martin that eventually led to the confrontation 17 Discuss intergroup friendships and extended contact pp 190193 Developing friendships across groups is one of the best way to reduce intergroup prejudices Extended contact is when you don39t personally have any outgroup friends but at least one of your friends do which can produce positive intergroup benefits 18 Explain the contact hypothesis and the conditions that enable intergroup contact to reduce prejudice Describe the jigsaw classroom and how it can reduce prejudice pp 193194 When people of different groups work together towards a common goal they will reduce the strength that their prejudices have over them The Jigsaw classroom is a method in which teachers group students together often from diverse backgrounds and assign them something that causes them to work together to complete it When people have to work together and cooperate they reduce their prejudices 19 Discuss trust belonging and reducing stereotype threat pp 194196 Individuals who feel some level of trust or belonging are much less likely to feel the negative effects of stereotype threat It39s also been shown that if the individuals are given a chance to talk about what is important to them writing an essay about the importance of family or their greatest achievement before a standardized test can cause them to score higher because they aren39t dealing with stereotype threat 20 Discuss exerting selfcontrol pp 196198 ExerTing selfconTrol is like flexing a muscle In The book iT says ThaT you have a limiTed pool of energy and flexing your selfconTrol muscle depleTes The energy The more you flex The muscle The harder iT is To flex iT again however This faTigue will cause iT To geT sTronger so you39ll be able To flex iT more Times in The fuTure once The energy geTs refilled 21 Explain how changing cognitions cultures and motivations can reduce stereotyping and prejudice pp 198199 Our generaTion is quiTe a biT more openminded compared To generaTions before us Hopefully children growing up Today will be more influenced by posiTive accepTing ideas Than They will be by The sTereoTypes ThaT They mighT learn from peers WiTh our online world we are able To gain undersTanding abouT oTher culTures Key Terms ambivalent sexism p 161 A form of sexism characTerized by aTTiTudes abouT women ThaT reflecT boTh negaTive and reseanul beliefs and feelings buT also seemingly affecTionaTe and chivalrous while possibly paTronizing contact hypothesis p 190 The Theory ThaT direcT conTacT beTween hosTile groups will reduce ingroup prejudice under cerTain circumsTances when They are working TogeTher Towards a shared goal noT while compeTing discrimination p 155 Behavior direcTed againsT persons because of Their membership in a parTicular group illusory correlation p 184 An overesTimaTe of The associaTion beTween variables ThaT are only sligthy or noT aT all correlaTed wearing your lucky haT doesn39T acTually correlaTe wiTh your favoriTe sporTs Team winning implicit racism p 157 Racism ThaT operaTes unconsciously and uninTenTionally ingroup favoritism p 176 The Tendency To discriminaTe in favor of ingroups over ouTgroups ingroups p 172 Groups wiTh which an individual feels a sense of membership belonging and idenTiTy jigsaw classroom p 193 A cooperaTive learning meThod used To reduce racial prejudice Through inTeracTion in group efforTs modern racism p 157 A form of prejudice ThaT surfaces in sulee ways when iT is safe socially accepTable and easy To raTionalize outgroup homogeneity effect p 172 The Tendency To assume ThaT There is greaT similariTy among members of ouTgroups Than members of ingroups outgroups p 172 Groups with which an individual does not feel a sense of membership belonging or identity prejudice p 155 Negative feelings Towards persons based on their membership in a particular group racism p 155 Prejudice and discrimination based on a person39s racial background or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one racial group over another realistic con ict theory p 176 The theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources relative deprivation p 176 Feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared with others sexism p 155 Prejudice and discrimination based on a person39s gender or institutional and cultural practice that promote domination of one gender over another social categorization p 171 The classification of persons into groups on the basis of common attributes social dominance orientation p 174 A desire to See one39s ingroup as dominant over39 other groups and a willingness to adopt cultural values that facilitate oppression over the other groups social identity theory p 177 The theory that people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their selfesteem social role theory p 181 The theory that small gender differences are magnifies in perception by the contrasting social roles occupied by men and women stereotype p 155 A belief or association that links a whole group of people with certain traits of characteristics stereotype content model p 174 A model proposing that the relative status and competition between groups influence group stereotypes along with the warmness and kindness for the other group stereotype threat p 167 The experience of concern about being evaluated based on negative stereotypes about one39s group stigmatized p 166 Being persistently stereotypes perceived as deviant and devalued in society because of membership in a particular social group or because of a particular characteristic subliminal presentation p 186 A method of presenting stimuli so faintly or39 rapidly that people do not have any conscious awareness of having been exposed to them superordinate goal p 175 A shared goal Thoi can be achieved only through cooperation among individuals or39 groups system justi cation theory p 174 A Theory that proposes that people are motivated at least in part to defend and justify the existing social political and economic conditions Sample Multiple Choice Questions keyed to each Learning Objective The ABCs of social psychology are affect behavior and cognition Put the three major concepts of Chapter 5 in this ABC order by considering whether they correspond to affect behavior or cognition a Stereotyping prejudice discrimination b Prejudice discrimination stereotyping c Discrimination prejudice stereotyping d Stereotyping discrimination prejudice ANS B REF The Nature of the Problem Persistence and Change OBJ 1 KEY Conceptual Racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally is called a modern racism b implicit racism c benevolent racism d ambivalent racism ANS B REF The Nature of the Problem Persistence and Change OBJ 1 KEY Factual Research indicates that Caucasian individuals concern about appearing prejudiced during interracial interactions can a lead them to try to avoid such interactions altogether b lead them to sit closer to AfricanAmerican conversation partners in the effort to make a good impression c lead them to go out of their way to demonstrate how often they think about and notice racerelated issues d All of these ANS A REF The Nature of the Problem Persistence and Change OBJ 2 KEY Conceptual Affectionate feelings toward women based on the belief that women need protection are referred to as sexism a ambivalent b patronizing c benevolent d hostile ANS C REF The Nature of the Problem Persistence and Change OBJ 3 KEY Factual In their study of sexism in 19 different countries Glick et al 2000 found that countries with the greatest degree of political and economic inequality exhibited a the highest levels of both hostile and benevolent sexism b the lowest levels of both hostile and benevolent sexism c high levels of hostile sexism but low levels of benevolent sexism d low levels of hostile sexism but high levels of benevolent sexism ANS A REF The Nature of the Problem Persistence and Change OBJ 3 KEY Factual A stereotype exists in many cultures that men are better than women at math Ramya is about to take a diagnostic achievement test in math According to research on stereotype threat under which of the following conditions is Ramya most likely to perform poorly on the test Ramya does not believe that the test is an accurate measure of math ability Ramya is asked to indicate her gender at the beginning of the test Ramya does not include math as an important part of her identity Ramya has been raised in a cave by a mathematical genius and is unaware of the cultural stereotype concerning gender and math P PP ANS B REF The Nature of the Problem Persistence and Change OBJ 6 KEY Applied Social categorization is advantageous because it a leads to more accurate social perception b encourages us to take longer to make judgments about others c frees up cognitive resources d is generally based on realistic assumptions ANS C REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 7 KEY Factual All of the following result from social categorization except a overestimation of differences between groups b underestimation of differences within groups c increased confidence that differences between groups are biologically based d increased tendency to notice behaviors inconsistent with group stereotype ANS D 19 REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 7 KEY Conceptual The belief they re all the same best epitomizes which of the following concepts a Minimal group effect b Outgroup homogeneity effect c Ingroup heterogeneity effect d Contrast effect ANS B REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 7 KEY Applied Being asked to think about one s mortality tends to a decrease ingroup bias b increase ingroup bias c have no impact on ingroup bias d promote intergroup harmony ANS B REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 7 KEY Conceptual 20 The stereotype content model of Cuddy Fiske and colleagues groups stereotypes along the 21 two dimensions of a intelligence and morality b competence and warmth c directness and indirectness d dehumanization and impulsivity ANS B REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 7 KEY Factual Which of the following is an example of a superordinate goal A girl trying to set a new school record for running the mile Two friends playing tennis against each other A man trying to pick up a woman at a bar Athletes who normally compete against each who are now on the same relay team ANS D REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 8 KEY Applied P PP 22 23 24 25 A junior high coach decides to separate his basketball players into an A team and a B team These two teams regularly play each other and compete for rewards such as time at the drinking fountain and use of the new basketballs The Robbers Cave experiment would suggest that the coach s new arrangement is likely to a promote team unity b lead to animosity between the A team and the B team c encourage the development of leadership skills d lead to less vigorous practices ANS B REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 8 KEY Applied Latrell is not satis ed with his 5 million annual salary because he feels that other basketball AllStars are paid far more money Latrell s dissatisfaction is most likely the result of a realistic con ict theory b ingroup favoritism c outgroup homogeneity d relative deprivation ANS D REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 8 KEY Applied Which of the following has been demonstrated through the use of minimal groups a Competition for limited resources is necessary for ingroup favoritism b Ingroup favoritism will not occur in trivial laboratory groups c Ingroup cohesion is necessary to produce ingroup favoritism d Mere categorization is sufficient to produce ingroup favoritism ANS D REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 9 KEY Conceptual Which of the following is not predicted by social identity theory a Selfesteem is derived from positive ingroup associations b Threats to selfesteem tend to decrease ingroup favoritism c Expressions of ingroup favoritism tend to increase selfesteem 26 27 28 29 d Selfesteem is increased to the extent that the ingroup is perceived as better than the outgroup ANS B REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 9 KEY Conceptual According to socialrole theory gender differences in social behavior are the result of a the unequal genderbased division of labor b unrealistic expectations about how men and women should behave c biologically based differences in social dominance d the forces of natural selection ANS A REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 11 KEY Conceptual All of the following are mechanisms that perpetuate stereotypes except a illusory correlations b the jigsaw classroom c subtyping d selffulfilling prophecies ANS B REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 12 KEY Conceptual Selffulfilling prophecies perpetuate stereotypes by a increasing the likelihood that perceivers create subtypes b eliciting stereotypeconfirming behavior from targets c threatening individual selfesteem d reducing ingroup favoritism ANS B REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 12 KEY Conceptual Gunner thinks that Jews are particularly funny He overestimates the association between being a standup comedian and being Jewish because both characteristics are very distinctive from the normal population This demonstrates a a contrast effect b the outgroup homogeneity effect c an illusory correlation d socialrole theory ANS C REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 13 KEY Applied 30 31 32 33 The fundamental attribution error may promote stereotypes because a observers see stereotypeconsistent behavior as dispositional b it is so prevalent that it is unaffected by personal motivations c the more a stereotype is violated the more observers cling to that stereotype d we often perceive members of outgroups as having ulterior motives ANS A REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 13 KEY Conceptual Stereotypes appear to bias perceptions a even when we don t endorse them b for outgroup members but not for ingroup members c only when we are aware that the stereotype was activated d only when the stereotype was unconsciously activated ANS A REF Causes of the Problem lntergroup Motivational Cognitive and Cultural Factors OBJ 15 KEY Factual Which of the following is not one of the conditions deemed ideal for contact to serve as a treatment for racism a Equal status b Cooperative activities c Personal interaction d Pleasant environmental conditions ANS D OBJ l7 REF Reducing Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination KEY Conceptual Aronson s jigsaw classroom work is similar to Sherifs Robbers Cave experiment because both illustrated how a social roles can in uence the use of stereotypes b superordinate goals can reduce prejudice c social identification with a group can increase ingroup favoritism d overcoming feelings of relative deprivation can decrease prejudice ANS B OBJ l8 REF Reducing Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination KEY Conceptual 34 Research by Bodenhausen 1990 on the cognitive functioning of morning people vs 35 night people demonstrates that the in uence of stereotypes depends on the a personal information a perceiver has about a target b motivation of the perceiver c age of the perceiver d cognitive resources available to the perceiver ANS D OBJ 20 REF Reducing Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination KEY Conceptual According to the selfregulation of prejudiced responses model motivated individuals may learn to control their prejudices effectively over time a internally more b internally less c externally more d externally evenly ANS A OBJ 21 REF Reducing Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination KEY Factual


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