On Liberation Midterm Notes
On Liberation Midterm Notes CORE-UA 400 - 080
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CORE-UA 400 - 080
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Halsey Hazzard on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CORE-UA 400 - 080 at New York University taught by Jini Watson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 195 views. For similar materials see Texts and Ideas: On Liberation in Education and Teacher Studies at New York University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Midterm Format (March 9 2016) - Quotation Recognition (4x5pts) o Author, title, significance o 2-3 sentences - Short Answer (3x15pts) o Concise, definitions, relationships, evidence, significance o 1-2 paragraphs - Short Essay (1x35) o 2 choices of topic o Clear, concise, argument with evidence from text o 2-3 pages Plato’s Republic CONTEXT: - Written around 935 BCE - Takes form of a dialogue between Socrates and his followers, notably Glaucon CONCEPTS - Question of justice: what is it? Is it attainable? How does it work in society? - Mutual need as origin of society—humans are political beings - Society is best organized into three levels: philosopher-kings or Guardians, soldiers/auxiliaries, and the working class - These roles in live can and should be determined from early childhood - City/polis as macrocosm of the human soul - The three roles correspond to traits: wisdom, courage, and desire/temperance - Plato’s Ship of Fools: if no one knows their role in life, chaos results VOCAB: **justice - (Greek dikaiosyne) broader sense than we think of today- goodness **polis - sovereign city-state, not large; can also be taken to mean society soul - (Greek psuche) self or personality craft - (Greek techne) technical ability/vocation/sciences/trade politeia - organization/public life of city (original greek title of The Republic) organicism: a that society is a sovereign whole and humans are parts, all are needed for success. Opposite of Aggregate, where all parts are seen as separate THE BOOK OF EXODUS CONTEXT: - Exodus is 2 nd of 5 Mosaic books (Genesis, Exodus, Levicticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy)- - Bible Organized book/chapter/verse (written in prose) - Events date 1500-1280 BC, text dates to 6 century - Covenant – goes from general specifically Israelites, CONTENT: - God liberates Israel from Egypt - God journeys with Israelites too Mt. Sinai - God establishes covenant - Israelites break the covenant but God reestablishes it - God takes up residence amongst the Israelites CONCEPTS: - Old testament ethics: eye for an eye, early property law - Ethical dilemma: tension between kindness to aliens and empire- building - Relationship between divine and political liberation - Exodus narrative has many historical/contemporary resonances VOCAB: **Exodus – from Greek ‘exodos’ (from ex – “out of” + hodos “way” BARTOLOME DE LAS CASAS – A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (Excerpt) CONTEXT: - Las Casas was a friend to Columbus, accompanied him in the new world - Brought scripture into his defenses of the natives - Became first appointed “defender of natives” CONCEPTS: - Natives’ humanity framed by their being “ideal Christians” - Barbarity of Spanish Christian - Hypocrisy of Las Casas for patronizing the natives - Complicated nature of Las Casas argument given his stance on the slave trade VOCAB contact zones – social spaces where disparate cultures meet, often in highly asymmetrical relations like colonialism, slavery, etc. encomienda – (from Spanish encomendar – “to entrust”) legal system by which Spanish crown offered grants to settlers in America; depended on exploitation of indigenous for items/labor in exchange for “protection” and evangelization WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE - The Tempest CONTEXT: - Earliest performance of Tempest Nov 1 1611 - Originally classified as comedy romance/tragicomedy CHARACTERS: - Ariel – airy spirit, embodied panopticon, “secret police” - Prospero – foil for Sycorax (when Prospera, gap closes further, evokes fallen woman archetype) - Caliban – savage/deformed slave, grotesque o Relationship to Prospero parallels colonized/colonizer - Miranda: usually an object of attraction (name means “worthy of admiration”) o Proposal to Ferdinand- is she desperate or empowered? o After proposal, is marginal even in the terms of her own engagement CONCEPTS: - Location ambiguous, leads to potential for varied colonial narrative allegories - Relationship of language/education to power TERMS: hegemony: ideological domination, which “manifests itself in two ways-as ‘domination’ and ‘intellectual and moral leadership’ (Gramsci) **dialectical: independent, mutually constructed/constructive power system between two entities **subaltern: colonial subject (‘below’ + ‘other’) **civilization: ‘an achieved state or condition of organized social life’ (Raymond Williams) homosocial: social bonds between members of the same sex (usually men) exile – state of being banned from one’s own county for political or punitive reasons captivity – the state or period of being held/imprisoned/enslaved/confined OLAUDAH EQUIANO – The Interesting Narrative CONTEXT: 1789 – Narrative first published Seen as precursor to many following slave narratives “most influential” 18 century English narrative written by African Not first; but significant for its lack of direct tie to a white English benefactor CONTENT: - Detailed description of culture in Equiano’s hometown - Equiano’s capture and sale into the horrors of slavery - eventual manumission - conversion to Methodism and involvement with abolition CONCEPTS: - relationship of literacy to liberation - new world economic dependence on chattel slavery - Creole, complications surrounding mixed-race identity in Caribbean - Legal liberation is not always complete liberation VOCAB: race: social construct used to separate people by paying attention to superficial markers like skin tone the Black Atlantic: the Atlantic Ocean as a unit for recognizing the intermixed and impermeable culture that occurred due to slavery’s oceanic circulations **trope of the talking book: literary scenes in slave narratives in which the enslaved subject tries to access a book that does not identify the subject as a reader – alienation of slaves from literature **slavery: Equiano specifically refers to chattel slavery: legal sanctioning of human beings as personal property – economy surrounding slavery/slave trade empire building **human trafficking: transfer/harboring/transportation/recruitment of persons by threat or coercion for purpose of exploitation internalised racism – A form of systematic oppression by which people of color develop beliefs/behaviours complicit with white supremacy colourism: prejudice based on skin color (light>dark) **manumission: formal release from slavery or servitude JEAN-JAQUES ROUSSEAU – Discourse on Inequality CONTEXT: - Rousseau: (1712-1778) Novelist, political theorist, educational theorist, philosopher - Born in Geneva, highly focused on it but eventually banned from Switzerland - Main ideas: o History has not always given us progress o Radical democracy – people/citizens are only true sovereign o Individual state, self-interest common good CONTENT: - Draws heavily on Plato’s style of conceptual reasoning - Moves to return to natural state of man in order to find root of societal ill - Builds conceptual history of mankind, outlining humanities fall CONCEPTS: - Challenged existing regimes - Civil society relationship to nature - Education should develop society - Idea of “prepolitical” man - City or state as artificial - Humanity peaked in “youth” stage, before agriculture was introduced - Humans have an unchanging core with a malleable exterior - Decline: o Establishment of Law + the right of property (rich vs. poor) o Institution of Magistrates (strong vs. weak) o Transformation of Legitimate into arbitrary power (master vs. slave) VOCAB: th **The Enlightenment – period of intellectual change, social/political reform in 17 - 18 century Europe and America focusing on the emancipation of human thought from superstition and tradition **Natural Law: self-preservation + pity/compassion MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT – Vindication of the Rights of Woman CONTEXT: - Engages with other enlightenment thinkers - Women comes after her successful Vindication on the rights of Man, is controversial CONCEPTS: - denaturalizes the assumptions that women are artificial/inferior/irrational - Critiques male cultural institutions as well as women themselves - Disagrees with Rousseau that perfectibility is problematic - Sees rationality/reason as the means for enlightenment - Argues everyone should have the right to education for the betterment of themselves/society VOCAB: th th **abolitionism: social movement formed in Americas/Western Europe in 18 /19 century which led to the legal prohibition of the institution of slavery **discourse: term from Foucault that refers to specialised ways of speaking and writing that reveal social order and reflect power relations (ie religious, medical, historical, literary) gender: social construct by which a society defines as “feminine” or “masculine” one particular set of characteristics and assigns them to females and males, respectively
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