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# Chapter 1-4 Book TImeline and Outline for Exam 1 HIST 386T

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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by afoto001 on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 386T at Old Dominion University taught by Thomas Isenhour in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 343 views. For similar materials see Evolution of Modern Science in General Science at Old Dominion University.

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Date Created: 09/16/15

Chronological Significance of Event in Science Science is the mathematical description of nature 30000BCE Tally sticks used to record information based on counting marks on a stickbone 12000 BCE The spread of agriculture caused the nding of botany chemistry medicine trephination midwifery embalming combined with magic amp art 600500 BCE Thales 0f Miletus discovered Philosophy 610546 BCE Anaximander proposed continuous cycle of creation and destruction in universe 570500 BCE Pythagoras formed a secret society that sought power through mathematics amp didn t discovery Pythagorean theorem but gained recognition by using mathematical proofs to solve problems 500428 BCE Anaxagoras has the idea that everything made up of countless seeds infinite and imperceptible amp that the seeds make up everything and cannot be created nor destroyed 515 BCE Parmenides all movement was illusion philosophy based on contradictions 490430BCE Zeno defended Parmenides with a set of mathematical paradoxes EX Paradox of walking across a room or Achilles and a Tortoise all based on infinities 490430 BCE Empedocles proposed all things made up of four elements 4603 70 BCE Democritus coined term atom which were the building blocks of all things got credit for Anaxagoras idea amp that motion was the nature of things 4603 70 BCE Hippocrates emphasized observation 428348 BCE Plato believed that we can never gain more than partial knowledge by observation firm believer in experimentation for actual proofs perception only an illusion but can gain knowledge that approaches the ideal 387 BCE Plato s academy opened and flourished for 900 years until Emperor Justinian closed it in 529 CE claimed pagan institutionquot 384322 BCE Aristotle dominated western world for over 2000 years with his scientific findings 300 BCE Euclid famous mathematician that systemized the known geometry of the time into his 13 volume text Elements of Geometry 310230 BCEAristarchus idea that the Earth went around the Sun by estimating weights idea denied because it contradicted Aristotle s science 290212 BCE Archimedes the first mathematical physicist 9955 BCE Titus Lucretius Carus translated most Greek Science in a master poem called On the Nature of the Universe 85165 CE Claudius Ptolemy set out to correct Aristotle s astronomy but wanted to maintain the principle of circular movement in the heavens amp by using epicycles that were themselves combinations of circles upon circles he did so 129200 CE Claudius Galenus both emphasized observation along with Hippocrates Galen emphasized dissection to gain medical skill and knowledge his anatomy worked well his physiology was faulty amp 1500 years Galen dominated anatomy amp physiology 200294 CE Diophantus the father of algebra amp first Greek to recognize fractions as numbers but had no knowledge of zero or negative numbers 721815 CE Jabir father of Chemistry wrote 20 books on discoveries and emphasizing eXperimentation and practical application of Chemistry 780850 CE AlKwarizmi founder of systematic in publication of Arithmetic introduced the decimal system 903986 CE AlSufi published Book of Fixed Stars in which he described Andromeda preempting the idea of galaXies 1000quot CE AlBiruni described the Milky Way as a collection of stars AlHaytahm published the Book of Optics 10481131 CE Omar Khayyam determined the length of the year to be 36524219858156 days amp predicted eclipses accurately 12251274 CE Thomas Aquinas integrated Aristotle s ideas into Christian theology in his massive 12 volume Sumam Theological accepted Aristotle s cosmology 1258 CE House of Wisdom destroyed by Mongols place of many scholars and center of education in Arab World 14731543 CE Nicholaus Copernicus the result of his insistence of scientific measurement as a source of truth may well have been the starting point of the coming Scientific Revolution He created his own calendar by continuous mathematically correct eXperimental evidence Believed in a heliocentric solar system because it was the only way mathematics were correctly evaluated and based his findings in his book On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres 15461601CE Tycho Brahe built many of his own instruments was a collector Observed a Super Nova measured a comets orbit which led to question immutability Proved the Earth is moving by measuring Stellar Parallax during different times of the year Finalized that the Earth was not the center of the universe based on his data 15481600 CE Giordan Bruno believed and taught Copernicus s findings but was burned at the stake for doing so 15641642 CE Galileo Galilee completely disregarded Aristotle s views and completely replaced them by using thorough experiments to prove his information 15711630 CE Johannes Kepler discovered that the sun was the center of the solar system controlled the motion of the planets and went in an elliptical orbit also proving the movement of the Earth PRESCIENCE Ancient Civilizations Founded Astronomy in order to predict the times of the seasons for planting and harvest Founded Engineering based on geometry to sanction of the lands for ownershipcommence Decimal System arrives due to counting of fingers amp toes Babylonians used bases of 60 maybe for lunarmenstrual rotations Julian Calendar 365 days each year amp adds 1 day every 4 years leap year Gregorian Calendar Fixes Julian calendar by skipping leap year every 100 years by keeping leap year every 400 years Mining founded the discovery of materials for tools amp weapons which created Stone gt Bronzegt Iron Egyptians developed geometry amp applied engineering pyramids Babyloniansi discovered extensive astronomy and geometry amp used simple algebra advanced at the timequot Mesopotamia medicine amp astrology practiced Fhoeniciansi tables of weights developed own calendar India advanced math discovered zero amp was recorded in sacred texts advanced in medicine amp begun scientific philosophy China advanced geometry arithmetic and algebra developed mechanics in botany and chemistry and optics FHYTHAGOREAN THEORM DISCOVERED REPEATDELEY But superstition and magic brought all of the ancient civilizations above to a hindrance Greeks Science solely on theory and no on experimentation Science used as a practical tool amp explanation as to the behavior of nature DOWNFALLZ combined religion and science amp tried to combine their views into material world vs spiritual world Dualismi both worlds exist Materialism Denies spiritual world SCIENCE assumes rules that nature is not arbitrary but follows consistent laws Thales of Miletus 624546BCE Philosophy foreordained the conflict between science and fundamentalism STILL OCCURS TODAY amp Carried information from one area to another Believed magnets had souls amp that water was the universal substance Fythagoreans vowed secrecy of their knowledge and took no individual credit for discoveries Some discoveries included Whole numbers were their rulers and that anything geometric should be able to be represent by whole number integers or the ration of two numbers Solving geometry and number theory problems One member proved the eXistence of irrational numbers by finding the root of 2 is irrational proof by contradiction39 went against their core ideal bullet 1 and perhaps killed Circle represented harmony unity unbroken perfection infinity no end no beginning Aristotle lntellectual interests very broad spanned logic physics psychology natural history amp philosophy this led to him being the first comprehensive scientist Rejected the notion of infinity quotZenoquot a vacuum of space amp restricted zero because his universe was fixed and implied the absence of GOD Purpose fueled his universe and made him believe that change arises in four parts 1 Material cause brought things into eXistence 2 Formal Cause determined by shape pattern essence 3 Efficient Cause makes the thing what it is 4 Final Cause purpose to which it is put Defined Three Kinds of Movement 1 Qualitative change in the state of things2 2 Quantitative things increase or decrease 3 Change of Location ordinary movement HIS CHANGE OF BEING WENT Like this GODgtAngelsgtHumanitygtNaturegtSatangtNonbeing amp was based on four great principals 1 Flentitude there is change but no meaningful natural history 2 Gradation links or steps are organized from highest to lowest in precisely graded order 3 Continuity no missing links on the rungs on the Chain 4 lmmutability the whole of creation is full complete and immutable until the Day of Judgment Was Qualitative in his analysis of nature Archimedesi was the first mathematical physicist amp solved the law of the lever using formal logic Discovered the Law of buoyancy by observing that the water raised when he sat in a tub Built Great War machines EXI catapults parabolic mirror Calculated Pie Also determined the area within irregular shapes by drawing small triangles in the shape and adding up the area of the triangles Science would have been more advanced if they used Archimedes as a founder versus Aristotle Copernicus Created his own calendar by continuous mathematically correct eXperimental evidence Believed in a heliocentric solar system because it was the only way mathematics were correctly evaluated and based his findings in his book On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres Adopted Ptolemy s epicycles eccentrics and other devices Only way his book was preserved was to add in an excerpt saying that he didn t blatantly disregard the church s findings Kepler hired by Tycho to analyze data Was a Godly man who believed in the splendid harmony of the triune cosmos Gave up the perfect circle assumption and moved toward elliptical motion because some type of force acted on the planets the farther away it was the sun the weaker the force became Published laws of elliptical motion which confirmed that the sun was at the center of the solar system and controlled the motions of the planets Galileo Galilee found quantitative relationships between height speed and distance for falling objects that were backed by eXperimentation completely disproved many of Aristotle s findings and gave an alternative theory as to what was actually correct Galileo build his own telescope and discovered craters on the moon dark spots on the sun phases of Venus Understood the principles of ordinary relativity Galileo was Quantitative in his analysis of nature Chronological Significance of Event in Science Science is the mathematical description of nature 30000BCE Tally sticks used to record information based on counting marks on a stickbone 12000 BCE The spread of agriculture caused the nding of botany chemistry medicine trephination midwifery embalming combined with magic amp art 600500 BCE Thales 0f Miletus discovered Philosophy 610546 BCE Anaximander proposed continuous cycle of creation and destruction in universe 570500 BCE Pythagoras formed a secret society that sought power through mathematics amp didn t discovery Pythagorean theorem but gained recognition by using mathematical proofs to solve problems 500428 BCE Anaxagoras has the idea that everything made up of countless seeds infinite and imperceptible amp that the seeds make up everything and cannot be created nor destroyed 515 BCE Parmenides all movement was illusion philosophy based on contradictions 490430BCE Zeno defended Parmenides with a set of mathematical paradoxes EX Paradox of walking across a room or Achilles and a Tortoise all based on infinities 490430 BCE Empedocles proposed all things made up of four elements 4603 70 BCE Democritus coined term atom which were the building blocks of all things got credit for Anaxagoras idea amp that motion was the nature of things 4603 70 BCE Hippocrates emphasized observation 428348 BCE Plato believed that we can never gain more than partial knowledge by observation firm believer in experimentation for actual proofs perception only an illusion but can gain knowledge that approaches the ideal 387 BCE Plato s academy opened and flourished for 900 years until Emperor Justinian closed it in 529 CE claimed pagan institutionquot 384322 BCE Aristotle dominated western world for over 2000 years with his scientific findings 300 BCE Euclid famous mathematician that systemized the known geometry of the time into his 13 volume text Elements of Geometry 310230 BCEAristarchus idea that the Earth went around the Sun by estimating weights idea denied because it contradicted Aristotle s science 290212 BCE Archimedes the first mathematical physicist 9955 BCE Titus Lucretius Carus translated most Greek Science in a master poem called On the Nature of the Universe 85165 CE Claudius Ptolemy set out to correct Aristotle s astronomy but wanted to maintain the principle of circular movement in the heavens amp by using epicycles that were themselves combinations of circles upon circles he did so 129200 CE Claudius Galenus both emphasized observation along with Hippocrates Galen emphasized dissection to gain medical skill and knowledge his anatomy worked well his physiology was faulty amp 1500 years Galen dominated anatomy amp physiology 200294 CE Diophantus the father of algebra amp first Greek to recognize fractions as numbers but had no knowledge of zero or negative numbers 721815 CE Jabir father of Chemistry wrote 20 books on discoveries and emphasizing eXperimentation and practical application of Chemistry 780850 CE AlKwarizmi founder of systematic in publication of Arithmetic introduced the decimal system 903986 CE AlSufi published Book of Fixed Stars in which he described Andromeda preempting the idea of galaXies 1000quot CE AlBiruni described the Milky Way as a collection of stars AlHaytahm published the Book of Optics 10481131 CE Omar Khayyam determined the length of the year to be 36524219858156 days amp predicted eclipses accurately 12251274 CE Thomas Aquinas integrated Aristotle s ideas into Christian theology in his massive 12 volume Sumam Theological accepted Aristotle s cosmology 1258 CE House of Wisdom destroyed by Mongols place of many scholars and center of education in Arab World 14731543 CE Nicholaus Copernicus the result of his insistence of scientific measurement as a source of truth may well have been the starting point of the coming Scientific Revolution He created his own calendar by continuous mathematically correct eXperimental evidence Believed in a heliocentric solar system because it was the only way mathematics were correctly evaluated and based his findings in his book On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres 15461601CE Tycho Brahe built many of his own instruments was a collector Observed a Super Nova measured a comets orbit which led to question immutability Proved the Earth is moving by measuring Stellar Parallax during different times of the year Finalized that the Earth was not the center of the universe based on his data 15481600 CE Giordan Bruno believed and taught Copernicus s findings but was burned at the stake for doing so 15641642 CE Galileo Galilee completely disregarded Aristotle s views and completely replaced them by using thorough experiments to prove his information 15711630 CE Johannes Kepler discovered that the sun was the center of the solar system controlled the motion of the planets and went in an elliptical orbit also proving the movement of the Earth PRESCIENCE Ancient Civilizations Founded Astronomy in order to predict the times of the seasons for planting and harvest Founded Engineering based on geometry to sanction of the lands for ownershipcommence Decimal System arrives due to counting of fingers amp toes Babylonians used bases of 60 maybe for lunarmenstrual rotations Julian Calendar 365 days each year amp adds 1 day every 4 years leap year Gregorian Calendar Fixes Julian calendar by skipping leap year every 100 years by keeping leap year every 400 years Mining founded the discovery of materials for tools amp weapons which created Stone gt Bronzegt Iron Egyptians developed geometry amp applied engineering pyramids Babyloniansi discovered extensive astronomy and geometry amp used simple algebra advanced at the timequot Mesopotamia medicine amp astrology practiced Fhoeniciansi tables of weights developed own calendar India advanced math discovered zero amp was recorded in sacred texts advanced in medicine amp begun scientific philosophy China advanced geometry arithmetic and algebra developed mechanics in botany and chemistry and optics FHYTHAGOREAN THEORM DISCOVERED REPEATDELEY But superstition and magic brought all of the ancient civilizations above to a hindrance Greeks Science solely on theory and no on experimentation Science used as a practical tool amp explanation as to the behavior of nature DOWNFALLZ combined religion and science amp tried to combine their views into material world vs spiritual world Dualismi both worlds exist Materialism Denies spiritual world SCIENCE assumes rules that nature is not arbitrary but follows consistent laws Thales of Miletus 624546BCE Philosophy foreordained the conflict between science and fundamentalism STILL OCCURS TODAY amp Carried information from one area to another Believed magnets had souls amp that water was the universal substance Fythagoreans vowed secrecy of their knowledge and took no individual credit for discoveries Some discoveries included Whole numbers were their rulers and that anything geometric should be able to be represent by whole number integers or the ration of two numbers Solving geometry and number theory problems One member proved the eXistence of irrational numbers by finding the root of 2 is irrational proof by contradiction39 went against their core ideal bullet 1 and perhaps killed Circle represented harmony unity unbroken perfection infinity no end no beginning Aristotle lntellectual interests very broad spanned logic physics psychology natural history amp philosophy this led to him being the first comprehensive scientist Rejected the notion of infinity quotZenoquot a vacuum of space amp restricted zero because his universe was fixed and implied the absence of GOD Purpose fueled his universe and made him believe that change arises in four parts 1 Material cause brought things into eXistence 2 Formal Cause determined by shape pattern essence 3 Efficient Cause makes the thing what it is 4 Final Cause purpose to which it is put Defined Three Kinds of Movement 1 Qualitative change in the state of things2 2 Quantitative things increase or decrease 3 Change of Location ordinary movement HIS CHANGE OF BEING WENT Like this GODgtAngelsgtHumanitygtNaturegtSatangtNonbeing amp was based on four great principals 1 Flentitude there is change but no meaningful natural history 2 Gradation links or steps are organized from highest to lowest in precisely graded order 3 Continuity no missing links on the rungs on the Chain 4 lmmutability the whole of creation is full complete and immutable until the Day of Judgment Was Qualitative in his analysis of nature Archimedesi was the first mathematical physicist amp solved the law of the lever using formal logic Discovered the Law of buoyancy by observing that the water raised when he sat in a tub Built Great War machines EXI catapults parabolic mirror Calculated Pie Also determined the area within irregular shapes by drawing small triangles in the shape and adding up the area of the triangles Science would have been more advanced if they used Archimedes as a founder versus Aristotle Copernicus Created his own calendar by continuous mathematically correct eXperimental evidence Believed in a heliocentric solar system because it was the only way mathematics were correctly evaluated and based his findings in his book On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres Adopted Ptolemy s epicycles eccentrics and other devices Only way his book was preserved was to add in an excerpt saying that he didn t blatantly disregard the church s findings Kepler hired by Tycho to analyze data Was a Godly man who believed in the splendid harmony of the triune cosmos Gave up the perfect circle assumption and moved toward elliptical motion because some type of force acted on the planets the farther away it was the sun the weaker the force became Published laws of elliptical motion which confirmed that the sun was at the center of the solar system and controlled the motions of the planets Galileo Galilee found quantitative relationships between height speed and distance for falling objects that were backed by eXperimentation completely disproved many of Aristotle s findings and gave an alternative theory as to what was actually correct Galileo build his own telescope and discovered craters on the moon dark spots on the sun phases of Venus Understood the principles of ordinary relativity Galileo was Quantitative in his analysis of nature Chronological Significance of Event in Science Science is the mathematical description of nature 30000BCE Tally sticks used to record information based on counting marks on a stickbone 12000 BCE The spread of agriculture caused the nding of botany chemistry medicine trephination midwifery embalming combined with magic amp art 600500 BCE Thales 0f Miletus discovered Philosophy 610546 BCE Anaximander proposed continuous cycle of creation and destruction in universe 570500 BCE Pythagoras formed a secret society that sought power through mathematics amp didn t discovery Pythagorean theorem but gained recognition by using mathematical proofs to solve problems 500428 BCE Anaxagoras has the idea that everything made up of countless seeds infinite and imperceptible amp that the seeds make up everything and cannot be created nor destroyed 515 BCE Parmenides all movement was illusion philosophy based on contradictions 490430BCE Zeno defended Parmenides with a set of mathematical paradoxes EX Paradox of walking across a room or Achilles and a Tortoise all based on infinities 490430 BCE Empedocles proposed all things made up of four elements 4603 70 BCE Democritus coined term atom which were the building blocks of all things got credit for Anaxagoras idea amp that motion was the nature of things 4603 70 BCE Hippocrates emphasized observation 428348 BCE Plato believed that we can never gain more than partial knowledge by observation firm believer in experimentation for actual proofs perception only an illusion but can gain knowledge that approaches the ideal 387 BCE Plato s academy opened and flourished for 900 years until Emperor Justinian closed it in 529 CE claimed pagan institutionquot 384322 BCE Aristotle dominated western world for over 2000 years with his scientific findings 300 BCE Euclid famous mathematician that systemized the known geometry of the time into his 13 volume text Elements of Geometry 310230 BCEAristarchus idea that the Earth went around the Sun by estimating weights idea denied because it contradicted Aristotle s science 290212 BCE Archimedes the first mathematical physicist 9955 BCE Titus Lucretius Carus translated most Greek Science in a master poem called On the Nature of the Universe 85165 CE Claudius Ptolemy set out to correct Aristotle s astronomy but wanted to maintain the principle of circular movement in the heavens amp by using epicycles that were themselves combinations of circles upon circles he did so 129200 CE Claudius Galenus both emphasized observation along with Hippocrates Galen emphasized dissection to gain medical skill and knowledge his anatomy worked well his physiology was faulty amp 1500 years Galen dominated anatomy amp physiology 200294 CE Diophantus the father of algebra amp first Greek to recognize fractions as numbers but had no knowledge of zero or negative numbers 721815 CE Jabir father of Chemistry wrote 20 books on discoveries and emphasizing eXperimentation and practical application of Chemistry 780850 CE AlKwarizmi founder of systematic in publication of Arithmetic introduced the decimal system 903986 CE AlSufi published Book of Fixed Stars in which he described Andromeda preempting the idea of galaXies 1000quot CE AlBiruni described the Milky Way as a collection of stars AlHaytahm published the Book of Optics 10481131 CE Omar Khayyam determined the length of the year to be 36524219858156 days amp predicted eclipses accurately 12251274 CE Thomas Aquinas integrated Aristotle s ideas into Christian theology in his massive 12 volume Sumam Theological accepted Aristotle s cosmology 1258 CE House of Wisdom destroyed by Mongols place of many scholars and center of education in Arab World 14731543 CE Nicholaus Copernicus the result of his insistence of scientific measurement as a source of truth may well have been the starting point of the coming Scientific Revolution He created his own calendar by continuous mathematically correct eXperimental evidence Believed in a heliocentric solar system because it was the only way mathematics were correctly evaluated and based his findings in his book On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres 15461601CE Tycho Brahe built many of his own instruments was a collector Observed a Super Nova measured a comets orbit which led to question immutability Proved the Earth is moving by measuring Stellar Parallax during different times of the year Finalized that the Earth was not the center of the universe based on his data 15481600 CE Giordan Bruno believed and taught Copernicus s findings but was burned at the stake for doing so 15641642 CE Galileo Galilee completely disregarded Aristotle s views and completely replaced them by using thorough experiments to prove his information 15711630 CE Johannes Kepler discovered that the sun was the center of the solar system controlled the motion of the planets and went in an elliptical orbit also proving the movement of the Earth PRESCIENCE Ancient Civilizations Founded Astronomy in order to predict the times of the seasons for planting and harvest Founded Engineering based on geometry to sanction of the lands for ownershipcommence Decimal System arrives due to counting of fingers amp toes Babylonians used bases of 60 maybe for lunarmenstrual rotations Julian Calendar 365 days each year amp adds 1 day every 4 years leap year Gregorian Calendar Fixes Julian calendar by skipping leap year every 100 years by keeping leap year every 400 years Mining founded the discovery of materials for tools amp weapons which created Stone gt Bronzegt Iron Egyptians developed geometry amp applied engineering pyramids Babyloniansi discovered extensive astronomy and geometry amp used simple algebra advanced at the timequot Mesopotamia medicine amp astrology practiced Fhoeniciansi tables of weights developed own calendar India advanced math discovered zero amp was recorded in sacred texts advanced in medicine amp begun scientific philosophy China advanced geometry arithmetic and algebra developed mechanics in botany and chemistry and optics FHYTHAGOREAN THEORM DISCOVERED REPEATDELEY But superstition and magic brought all of the ancient civilizations above to a hindrance Greeks Science solely on theory and no on experimentation Science used as a practical tool amp explanation as to the behavior of nature DOWNFALLZ combined religion and science amp tried to combine their views into material world vs spiritual world Dualismi both worlds exist Materialism Denies spiritual world SCIENCE assumes rules that nature is not arbitrary but follows consistent laws Thales of Miletus 624546BCE Philosophy foreordained the conflict between science and fundamentalism STILL OCCURS TODAY amp Carried information from one area to another Believed magnets had souls amp that water was the universal substance Fythagoreans vowed secrecy of their knowledge and took no individual credit for discoveries Some discoveries included Whole numbers were their rulers and that anything geometric should be able to be represent by whole number integers or the ration of two numbers Solving geometry and number theory problems One member proved the eXistence of irrational numbers by finding the root of 2 is irrational proof by contradiction39 went against their core ideal bullet 1 and perhaps killed Circle represented harmony unity unbroken perfection infinity no end no beginning Aristotle lntellectual interests very broad spanned logic physics psychology natural history amp philosophy this led to him being the first comprehensive scientist Rejected the notion of infinity quotZenoquot a vacuum of space amp restricted zero because his universe was fixed and implied the absence of GOD Purpose fueled his universe and made him believe that change arises in four parts 1 Material cause brought things into eXistence 2 Formal Cause determined by shape pattern essence 3 Efficient Cause makes the thing what it is 4 Final Cause purpose to which it is put Defined Three Kinds of Movement 1 Qualitative change in the state of things2 2 Quantitative things increase or decrease 3 Change of Location ordinary movement HIS CHANGE OF BEING WENT Like this GODgtAngelsgtHumanitygtNaturegtSatangtNonbeing amp was based on four great principals 1 Flentitude there is change but no meaningful natural history 2 Gradation links or steps are organized from highest to lowest in precisely graded order 3 Continuity no missing links on the rungs on the Chain 4 lmmutability the whole of creation is full complete and immutable until the Day of Judgment Was Qualitative in his analysis of nature Archimedesi was the first mathematical physicist amp solved the law of the lever using formal logic Discovered the Law of buoyancy by observing that the water raised when he sat in a tub Built Great War machines EXI catapults parabolic mirror Calculated Pie Also determined the area within irregular shapes by drawing small triangles in the shape and adding up the area of the triangles Science would have been more advanced if they used Archimedes as a founder versus Aristotle Copernicus Created his own calendar by continuous mathematically correct eXperimental evidence Believed in a heliocentric solar system because it was the only way mathematics were correctly evaluated and based his findings in his book On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres Adopted Ptolemy s epicycles eccentrics and other devices Only way his book was preserved was to add in an excerpt saying that he didn t blatantly disregard the church s findings Kepler hired by Tycho to analyze data Was a Godly man who believed in the splendid harmony of the triune cosmos Gave up the perfect circle assumption and moved toward elliptical motion because some type of force acted on the planets the farther away it was the sun the weaker the force became Published laws of elliptical motion which confirmed that the sun was at the center of the solar system and controlled the motions of the planets Galileo Galilee found quantitative relationships between height speed and distance for falling objects that were backed by eXperimentation completely disproved many of Aristotle s findings and gave an alternative theory as to what was actually correct Galileo build his own telescope and discovered craters on the moon dark spots on the sun phases of Venus Understood the principles of ordinary relativity Galileo was Quantitative in his analysis of nature

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