Review Sheet for Test 1
Review Sheet for Test 1 HNES 250
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Dosso on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HNES 250 at North Dakota State University taught by Elizabeth Hilliard in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see Nutrition science in Nursing and Health Sciences at North Dakota State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Chapter 1 I Convert pounds to ounces and to kg and grams llb 1602 llb 045kg llb 45359g lkg lOOOg 102 2835g I Examples of macronutrients and micronutrients Carbs Fats Proteins I What elements make up CHO Protein Fat CHO Carbon Hydrogen amp Oxygen Protein Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen amp Nitrogen Fat Long Chains of Carbon amp Hydrogen with very little Oxygen I Be able to calculate kilocalories from a meal given the amount of CHO Pro fat and alcohol Ex 1 pc Bread 1 tablespoon Peanut butter 16g CHO 4kcallg 79 protein 4kcallg 9 g fat 9kcallg Total Cal 416 47 99 173kcas I Be able to calculate percent fat in a menu itemgiven the amount of CHO Pro and fat in a menu item Percent fat total fat kcals divided by total kcals for that meal and then multiply by 100 I Ex total kcal for meal l73kcals 0 9 g fat 81 kcal fat 0 81 173 100 fat 468 I What is the difference in the AMDR RDA AI UL and EAR AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges I He percent of each macronutrient that you should consume to maintain a healthy diet I Carbs 4565 I Fat 2035 I Protein 1035 RDA Recommended Dietary Allowances I This is based on 98 of the population and varies between male and female AI Adequate Intakes I This is What healthy people usually consume UL Tolerable Upper Intake Levels I This is the maximum you can have before side effects can occur EAR Estimated Average Requirements I This is only based on 50 of the population I Different types of research studies amp Characteristics of quality research studies Slide 33 Epidemiological Studies I Observing the types and amounts of food consumed and how healthy the people are Casecontrol studies I Comparing people who share a disease and those who don t considering first that they are the same age and gender this is to avoid bias Animal Studies I Preventing consumption of specific nutrients to observe effects on health Human intervention trials I Changing a preexisting behavior such as fresh fruit vs supplements I Identify reliable sources of nutrition information CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey BRFSS Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System I gtgov org edu are usually good sources I Energy density vs nutrient density Energy Dense means having a lot of energy but little nutrient value This would be our fats sugars and carbs Nutrient Dense means having a lot of nutrient value with little energy This would be fruits and vegetables I What is the body s main form of stored energy Glycogen I What can we learn from the agouti mice study Diet can have a lot of in uence on how genes are expressed Agouti mice have short lives are obese and yellow in color I Scientists added methyl donors to the diet of the mother prior to conception and the agouti gene was no longer expressed instead the mouse turned out normal Nutriogenomics How environment nutrition and genes interact with one another Chapter 2 I What is required on a food label How many kcalories is it based on slide 43 Total Kcal Total Fat 0 Saturated trans cholesterol Sodium TotaICarbs Fibersugars Protein Vitamins amp Minerals Name and Address of manufacturer Structural and functional claim some approved some not Net contents in weight or volume Number of servings per container Percent daily value Ingredient list I What are the differences between the current Nutrition facts panel and the proposed nutrition facts panel The proposed panel will emphasize the amount of calories as well as the number of servings I Who regulates food labeling in the US FDA Food and drug administration I What are the Dietary Guidelines for Americans What do they recommend general recommendation and foods to consume and limit These are the guidelines that say what we should eat and how much in order to maintain optimal health They are renewed every 5 years I Prepared foods convenience foods are usually high in what nutrients Fat and sodium Usually Energy dense and not very nutritious I The pictorial view of the US dietary guidelines is what shape My plate I What are discretionary calories in MyPlate Added fats sweets and alcoholic beverages I From lecture What is Fruit and Veggies More Matters What does it recommend More fruits and veggies I From lecture What is the DASH diet What does it recommend 810 servings of fruits and vegetables per day High sh Low fat dairy I What are structure function claims on a label Claims of nutrient value such as saying that calcium is good for strong bones I What are the de nitions of for the methods of processing grains Be able to determine they type of bread that is a whole grain Bread can be enriched meaning only the endosperm refined meaning it has extraadded nutrients or whole grain meaning using the entire grain except the husk I What are the components of a healthy diet Consuming the correct amounts of the 5 food groups on Myplate on a daily basis I Nutrient density vs energy density How do nutrient dense foods help you meet your nutritional needs Foods that have lots of calories but lack nutrients are energy dense I Ex Oreos Foods that have lots of nutrients but lack in energy are nutrient dense I Ex Fruits Our bodies need the nutrients to maintain our health Chapter 3 I Why do we eat What is the difference between appetite and hunger Appetite is craving a particular food Hunger is the physical need to eat because of hormonal and neural communication in your body I How do blood glucose levels affect hunger When blood glucose is low our body uses stored glycogen for energy As that supply depletes we need to consume food to increase our energy supply again What organ triggers us to want food Hypothalamus How does our body signal satiety The stomach produces ghrelin which tells your brain that you are full There are also stretch receptors which say the stomach has expanded and is becoming full What is the difference between digestion and absorption Digestion is the breakdown of food into nutrients Absorption is the absorbing of these nutrients for use in the body Digestion also includes transporting remaining food through the body and excreting it out What are the accessory organs of digestion Gallbladder Pancreas and Liver Where does digestion beginhow It begins in the mouth with mastication and chemical digestion from saliva What are enzymes Peristalsis Chewing Chyme Enzymes are molecules that increase the rate of chemical reactions or makes them easier Peristalsis is transportation via muscle contraction used in the esophagus and GI tract Chewing or mastication is mechanical digestion to break down food Chyme is a ball of food after its been churning and breaking down in the stomach What macronutrients begins digestion in the mouth Carbohydrates Where what part of the small intestine does most absorption take place Duodenum In what organ does most of the water absorption occur Large Intestine What is cholecystokinin what does it do CCK is secreted in the duodenum and stimulates the secretion of bile from the gallbladder and enzymes from the pancreas What does the galbladder and liver produce that aids in digestion What is bile Where is it produced Where is it stored How does it help with digestion and absorption The liver makes bile and the gallbladder stores bile When you eat a fatty meal bile is released to help breakdown fats Having extra bile in the gallbladder allows you to digest lots of fat at one time I If you don t have a gallbladder your liver just continuously releases bile and will help breakdown fat but if you eat a fatty meal your body won t have that extra build up of bile to help with all the fat Once the fat is broken down thoroughly it can be more easily absorbed later for useful nutrients What roles does the pancreas have in digestion Insulin and glucagon are produced in the pancreas I Changes in blood glucose affect the production of insulin and glucagon The pancreas also produces certain enzymes and bicarbonate that are useful in digestion What process does the body use to break down food Chemical and mechanical digestion such as I Mastication I Churning I Using enzymes and acid to breakdown food What does gastrin do Gastrin is the hormone that indicates hunger and prepares the stomach for food by secreting gastric acid HCL It is activated on an empty stomach What is the difference between the circulatory and lymphatic systems What nutrients do they carry The circulatory system transports nutrients via blood in veins and arteries It transports oxygen carbon dioxide and hormones The lymphatic system returns tissue uid to the blood it absorbs fats and fatsoluble vitamins and has defenses against disease and other organisms What is GERD What causes it How is it treated Gastric Esophageal Re ux Disease It is a problem with the lower esophageal sphincter GERD is common in pregnancy Symptoms would include heartburn and acid indigestion What is celiac disease What is the dietary treatment Celiac disease is an allergic reaction to gluten because of a sensitive small intestine The only real treatment is to remove gluten from your diet What causes peptic ulcers Anything that causes the lining in the stomach esophagus or small intestine to break down One example would be Helicobacter pylori H pylori An ulcer is an open sore so a peptic ulcer is an open sore in the stomach esophagus or small intestine
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