SOCIOLOGY MIDTERM1 OUTLINE
SOCIOLOGY MIDTERM1 OUTLINE Sociology 1101: Introductory Sociology
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Sociology 1101: Introductory Sociology
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christina Smith on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 1101: Introductory Sociology at Georgia State University taught by Professor Banton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Sociology in Social Sciences at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
SOCIOLOGY MIDTERM 1 OUTLINE CHAPTER 1: The Sociological Perspective and Research Process Sociological Imagination: The vivid awareness of the relationship between personal experience and the wider society. C. Wright Mills term for the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society Highincome countries: Nations with highly industrialized economies Technologically advanced industrial administrative and service occupations, and relatively high levels of national and personal income. Middle Income Countries: Nations with industrializing economies particularly in urban areas and moderate levels of national and personal income. Low Income Countries: Primarily agrarian nations with little industrialization and lowincome level of national and personnel income. Industrialization: The process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture and handmade products to an emphasis on manufacturing and related industries. Urbanization: The process by which and increasing proportion of a population lives in cities rather than in rural areas. Positivism: A belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry. Social Darwinism: Herbert Spencer’s belief that those species of animals, including human beings, best adapted to their environment survive and prosper, whereas who’s poorly adapted die out. Social Facts: Emil Durkheim’s term for patterned ways of acting, thinking and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over each person. Anomie: Emile term for a condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society. Theory: A set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and predict social events. A supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained. Functionalist Perspective: The sociological approach that views society as a stable, orderly and systematic. Society is composed of interrelated parts that work together to maintain stability within society. Dysfunctional acts and institutions threaten this stability. Conflict Perspectives: The sociological approach that views groups in society as engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources. Social Inequality Social arrangements benefit some groups at the expense of others. Symbolic Interactionism Perspectives: The sociological approach that views society as the sum of the interactions of individuals. Behavior is learned in interaction with other people. How people define a situation becomes the foundation for how they behave Quantitative Data: Looking at the amount of quantity in data. Qualitative Data: Looking at the quality of data. Sociology: The study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society. (groups) The study of social problems. Study of human society and reaction Society: A large social group that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and cultural expectations. Labor Union: An organized association of workers, often in a trade or profession, formed to protect and further their rights and interests. Tenure: Job security Social Constructs: Theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality. Cultural Moral Values Beliefs S.E.S: Socio Economic Status A combined measure that attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education to determine class location. Compulsory Heterosexuality: Is the idea that female heterosexuality is both assumed and enforced by a patriarchal society. Heterosexuality is then viewed as the natural inclination or obligation by both sexes. Paradigm: A typical example or pattern of something; a model. Micro Sociology: Looking at a small scale or group. Macro Sociology: Looking at a large scale or group. Manifest Function: Recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern EX: in school, teachers educate the students on literature and grammar. Latent Function: Unrecognized and unintended consequences EX: In school, teachers educate the students on how to be a person in society. Postmodernist: Societies characterized by post industrialization, Consumerism, and Global Communication bring into question existing assumptions about social life and the nature of reality. CHAPTER 3: Socialization Ageism: Prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age, particularly against older persons Agents of socialization: Are the individuals, groups and institutions that create the social context in which socialization takes place. Anticipatory socialization: Is the process, facilitated by social interactions, in which nongroupmembers learn to take on the values and standards of groups that they aspire to join, so as to ease their entry into the group and help them interact competently once they have been accepted by it. Gender socialization: The process of learning the social expectations and attitudes associated with one's sex. Generalized Other: George Herbert Mead’s term for the child’s awareness of the demands of the society as a whole or of the child’s subculture. An individual’s concept of other people. Id: Sigmund Freud’s term for the component of personality that includes all of the individuals basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification. Looking glass self: Charles Horton Cooley’s term for the way in which a person’s sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others. Mass media: Large scale organizations that use print or electronic means to communicate with large numbers of people. Peer group: A group of people of approximately the same age, status, and interests. Primary socialization: Acceptance and learning of a set of norms and values established through the process of socialization. Typically the family initiates this. Racial socialization: Informal education whereby they transmit to and instill in their children knowledge of the values, aesthetics, spiritual beliefs and all other things that give cultural orientation to existing while black in America. Reciprocal socialization: The process by which the feelings thoughts, appearance, and behavior of individual who are undergoing socialization also have a direct effect on those agents of socialization who are attempting. Re Socialization: The process by which one's sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are reengineered. This process is often deliberate, through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution. Roletaking: A person mentally assumes the role of another person or groups in order to understand the word from that person or group’s point of view. Secondary socialization: Refers to the process of learning what is the appropriate behavior as a member of a smaller group within the larger society. Selfconcept: The totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves. Significant others: A person whom someone has an established romantic or sexual relationship with. Social devaluation: Belief that a group or person has less social value than others. Socialization: The act of adapting behavior to the norms of a culture or society Sociobiology: The study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society. Superego: The part of a person's mind that acts as a selfcritical conscience, reflecting social standards learned from parents and teachers. Tertiary socialization: The process of learning that takes place of when adults move into new settings where they must accept certain ideas or engage in specific behaviors that is appropriate to that specific setting. Total institution: Erving Goffman’s term for a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and come under the control of the officials who run the institution. S.Q.R.R.R. Survey Question Read Review Read CHAPTER 2 CULTURE Contact: Humans need this to develop psychologically and socially. Ethnocentrism: The practice of judging others cultures inferior compared to your own. Symbol: Anything that meaningfully represents something else. Superego Conscience: Sigmund Freud’s term for the conscience, consisting of the moral and ethnical aspects of personality. Culture: Knowledge, language, values, customs, values, and material objects that are passed from person to person, generationtogeneration in a human group. Socialization: The lifelong process of social interaction through which people acquire (are taught) selfidentity, and skills needed for. CHAPTER 4 Social Groups and Social Control Macro Level Perspectives: Social Interaction: People act toward or respond together in the foundation for all relationships. Social Structure: Complex framework of societal institutions (economy, politics) ad social practices rules and social roles) that make up a society and that organize and establish limits on peoples behavior. “Skeleton” Functionalist Theorists emphasize that social structure is essential because it creates order and predictability. Components of Social Structure Status: A socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations rights and duties Status Set: All the statuses that a person occupies at a given time. Ascribed status: The social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life. It is a position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned. Achieved status: A concept developed by the anthropologist Ralph Linton denoting a social position that a person can acquire on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen. It is the opposite of ascribed status. It reflects personal skills, abilities, and efforts. Agrian society: Societies that use the technology of largescale farming, including animaldrawn or energy powered plows and equipment, to produce their food supply. Master status: Is the social position that is the primary identifying characteristic of an individual. Status Symbol A material sign that informs others of a person’s specific status. Types of Roles Role: A set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status. Role conflict: A situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time. Ex: Feeling pulled in different directions. Takes place within two or more statuses. Role Strain: Occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies. Role exit: A situation in which people disengage from social roles that have been central to their selfidentity. Helen Rose Fuchs studied this process. Role expectation: A group or society’s definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played. Role performance: How a person actually plays a role. Role Ambiguity: When the expectations associated with a role is unclear. Groups Social Group: People who interact frequently and share a common identity. Primary Group: Small group in which members engage in facetoface emotion based interactions. Secondary Group: A larger more specialized group in which member engage in a more impersonal relationship. Formal Organization: A highly structures group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals. Social Institutions A set of organized beliefs and rules that establish how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs. Functionalist Views: Replacing Members Teaching new Members Producing, distributing, and consuming goods Preserving Order Providing and Maintaining a sense of purpose Conflict Views: Do not believe that social Institutions work for the common good of everyone. Hunting and Gathering Society Societies that use simple technology for hunting animals and gathering vegetation. Horticultural and Pastoral Societies Pastoral society: Based on technology that supports the domestication of large animals to provide food. Horticultural society: An organization devoted to the study and culture of cultivated plants. Such organizations may be local, regional, national, or international. Some have a more general focus, whereas others are devoted to a particular kind or group of plants. Agrarian Society Use technology of large scale farming, including animaldrawn or energy powered plows and equipment. Industrial Society Refers to a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labor. Postindustrial Society Technology supports a service and informationbased economy. Division of labor: How the various tasks of society are divided up and performed. Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Mechanical Solidarity: Term for the social cohesion of preindustrial societies, which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds. Organic Solidarity: Social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence. Tonnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft Gemeinschaft: Categories that were used by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies in order to categorize social ties into two dichotomous sociological types that define each other. Gesellschaft: A large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little longterm commitment to the group or consensus. The Social Construction of Reality The process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience. SelfFulfilling Prophecy A false beliefs or prediction that produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true. Ethnomethodology The study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves. Dramaturgical analysis Erving Goffman’s term for the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theoretical perspective. Script: A playbook that the actors use to guide their verbal replies. Impression management: A conscious or subconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event. FaceSaving Behavior: Erving Goffman’s term for the strategies people use to rescue their performance when they experience a potential or actual loss of face. Formal Organization: A fixed set of rules of intraorganization procedures and structures. Nonverbal communication The transfer of information between persons without the use of words. Establishes the relationship among people in terms of their responsiveness Personal space: The immediate area surrounding a person that the person claims as private. CHAPTER 5: Social Groups and Social Control Aggregates and Categories Aggregate: A collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common. Category: A number of people who may never have met one another but share a similar characteristic, such as education level, age, race, or gender. Types of Groups InGroup: A group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity. Outgroup: A group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility. Reference Group A group that strongly influences a person’s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member. Network A web of social relationships that links one person with other people and, through them, with other people they know. Group Size Small Group: Small group in order to become acquainted with each other and to interact simultaneously. Dyad: A group composed of two members. Triad: A group with exactly 3 members Group Leadership Leadership: The ability to influence what goes on in a group or social system. Instrumental Leadership: Group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks. Expressive Leadership: Leadership that provides emotional support for members. Leadership Styles Authoritarian Leaders: Leaders who make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members. Democratic Leaders: Leadership who encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus. Laissez Faire Leaders: Minimally involved in decisionmaking and encourage group members to make their own decisions. Group Conformity The process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with norms established by a society subculture, or other group. Group Think The process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise. Types of Formal Organizations Normative: Organizations that we join voluntarily in hopes to gain personal satisfaction. Coercive: Associations that people are forced to join. Utilitarian: Organizations that we join voluntarily and can provide a material reward. Bureaucracies An organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personnel matters. Rationality: Traditional methods of social organizations, characterized by informality and spontaneity, are gradually, replaced by efficiently administered formal rule and procedures. Ideal Type: An abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon. The informal Side of a Bureaucracy Composed of those aspects of participant’s daytoday activities and interactions that ignore the official rules of the bureaucracy. Problems of Bureaucracy Goal Displacement: A process that occurs in organizations when the rules become an end in themselves rather than a means to an end, and organizational survival becomes more important than achievement of goals. Bureaucratic personality: A psychological construct that describes those workers who are concerned with following correct procedures than they are with getting the job done correctly. Conformity The process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with norms established by a society subculture, or other group. Groupthink Members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise. Iron law of Oligarchy The tendency to become a bureaucracy ruled by the few. Comparing Race and Ethnicity Race: A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics. Ethnic group: A collection of people distinguished by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics. Dominant and Subordinate Groups Dominant Group: A racial or ethnic group that creates power and resources in society. Subordinate group: Members are disadvantaged and subjected to equal treatment and discrimination by the dominant group. Prejudice Prejudice: A negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of specific racial, ethnic or other groups Stereotypes: Overgeneralizations about the characteristics of a group. Racism: Set of attitudes and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of another group Theories of Prejudice FrustrationAggression Hypothesis: Replying with aggression in efforts to achieve a highly desired goal. Scapegoat: A group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others. Authoritarian Personality: Characterized by excessive conformity submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, and a high level of superstition. Discrimination: Actions or practices of dominantgroup members that have a harmful effect on another group. Genocide: The deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation Individual Discrimination: Behavior consisting of oneonone acts by member of the dominant group Institutional Discrimination: Daytoday practice of organizations and institutions that participate indiscrimination. Functionalist Perspective Assimilation: Processes by which member of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture. Structural Assimilation: When member of the subordinate groups gain acceptance by member of the dominant group. Psychological Assimilation: Change in racial or ethnic selfidentification on the part of an individual. Ethnic Pluralism Ethnic Pluralism: Coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society. Segregation: Social separation of categories of people by race etc. Conflict Perspectives The Caste Perspective: Racial and ethnic inequality as a permanent feature of the US society. Class Perspectives: Emphasize the role of the capitalist class in perpetuating racial inequality. Internal Colonialism: When members of and ethnic group are conquered and forcibly placed under the dominant group. Split Labor Market Theory The division of the economy into two areas of employment. 1. Primary sector higher paid 2. Secondary sector lower paid Perspectives on Race and Gender Gender Racism: Interactive effect of racism and sexism on the exploitation of women Racial Formation Actions of the government substantially define social and ethnic relations in the United States. Systemic: Affects everything at the same time. Systematic: Affects all social institutions but not at the same time. Social Institutions: 1. Government 2. Military 3. Education 4. Religion 5. Economy 6. Healthcare Components of a Bureaucracy: 1. Hierarchy of Authority 2. Division of Labor 3. Written Rules and Regulations 4. Impersonality 5. Over Favoritism CHAPTER 10 OF SOCIOLOGY Sexualization: The act or processes whereby an individual or group is seen as sexual in nature or person to become aware of their sexuality. Objectification: The processes whereby some people treat other individuals as if there were object or things not human beings. Sex: The biological in anatomical differences between females and males. Primary Sex Characteristics: The genitalia use in the reproductive process. Secondary Sex Characteristics: The physical traits that identify an individual’s sex. Intersex Person: And individual who is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that does not correspond to the typical definitions of a male or female. “Hermaphrodites” Transgendered Person: An individual whose gender identity does not match the persons assigned sex. CrossDresser A male who dresses as a woman or a female who dresses as a man but does not alter his or her genitalia. “Transvestite” Sexual Orientation: An individual’s preference for emotionalsexual relationships with members of the different sexes, the same sex, or both. Homophobia: Extreme prejudice and sometimesdiscriminatory actions directed at gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and others who are perceived as not being heterosexual. Gender: The culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with femininity and masculinity. Gender Role: The attitudes behaviors and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process. Gender Identity: A person’s perception of the self as male or female. Body Consciousness: How a person perceives or feels about his or her body. Sexism The subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumption of superiority towards the other sex. Patriarchy Men control a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures. Matriarchy A hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural political and economic structures by women. Postindustrial Society: Technology supports as a service and information based economy. Horticultural Pastoral Societies: People are able to go to own food because of hand tools. Domestication of large animals to provide food. Women do most of the farm work. Agrarian society: Developed about 8 to 2000 years ago Gender inequality and male dominance become institutionalized. Industrial Societies: Factory or mechanized production has replaced agriculture as a major form of economic activity. Postindustrial Societies: Ones in which technology support as a service and informationbased economy. Gender Bias: Behavior that show favoritism toward one over the other. Pay Gap: The disparity between women and men’s earnings. Comparable Worth: The belief that wages ought to reflect the work of a job, not the gender or race of the work of the worker. Feminism The belief that men and women are equal and should be valued equally and have equal rights. PERSPECTIVES Functionalists: Macro level analysis of women and men’s roles. Traditional gender roles ensure that expressive instrumental tasks will be performed. Human capital model. Conflict: Power and economic differences between men and women. Unequal political and economic power heightens genderbased social inequalities. Feminist Approaches: Feminism should be embraced to reduce sexism and gender inequality. 1. Liberal Feminism 2. Radical Feminism 3. Socialist Feminism 4. Multicultural Feminism CHAPTER 7: CLASS & STRATIFICATION Absolute Power: The power held by the sovereign of an absolute monarchy. Alienation The state or experience of being isolated from a group or an activity. Capitalist Class: The “middle class”. Caste System: A class structure that is determined by birth. Class Conflict: The tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. Class System: Denoting a category of people having a definite status in society, which permanently determines their relation to other groups. Feminization of Poverty: Describes the idea that women represent disproportionate percentages of the world's poor. Income: Money received, especially on a regular basis, for work or through investments Intergenerational Mobility: Changes in social status between different generations within the same family. Intragenerational mobility: Refers to a person's social movement within their lifetime. Job Deskilling: To become less proficient in skill needed for a job. Life Chances: Theory of the opportunities each individual has to improve their quality of life. Meritocracy: The holding of power by people selected on the basis of their ability. PinkCollar Occupations: Occupations worked by a majority of women. Power: The ability to do something or act in a particular way, especially as a faculty or quality. Prestige: Respect for someone or something on the basis of a perception of their achievements. Relative Poverty: Individual standards of living differ between countries and over time. Social Mobility: When individuals or groups move within a social hierarchy with changes in income, education, and occupation. Social Stratification: Based upon peoples occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power.
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