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Knowledge Checklist for Test 3

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by: Shea Repins

Knowledge Checklist for Test 3 Psych 415

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Completed Knowledge Checklist for test 3
Systems and Theories
Edwin Brainerd
Study Guide
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"Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class"
Lera Leuschke DDS

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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shea Repins on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 415 at Clemson University taught by Edwin Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Systems and Theories in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
Knowledge Checklist Three Psychology 4150 Chapter 9   Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences I. The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism Descartes: “Animals don’t think, they act on reflexes, just like machines” “humans still have  reflexes, still think/reason and have free will” A. Background 1. Watson: “Behaviorism is a direct outgrowth of studies in animal  behavior....” 2. animal psychology product of evolutionary theory 3. the most important antecedent of behaviorism 4. influenced by Romanes (anecdotal method) and Morgan (law of  parsimony; experimental method) B. Rats, ants, and the animal mind 1. Willard Small 1900: introduced the rat maze 2. John Watson 1903 dissertation: “Animal Education: The Psychical Development of the White Rat” 3. Charles Henry Turner, an African American: 1906 paper on ant  behavior.   Dr. Brainerd is also an expert in this field thanks to his informal  experiments in the basement of Hardin Hall ­Ants ability to go through obstacles, brainard found ants cannot  cross a chalk line  4. Margaret Floy Washburn a. Titchener’s first doctoral student b. taught animal psychology at Cornell c.  1908: The Animal Mind  1  comparative psychology book published in U.S. 5. Interest in animals continues with investigation of Clever Hans a. government investigation headed by Carl Stumpf; found no  fraud or deceit b. conclusion: Hans receiving some type of information from  1 questioners  c. further experiments suggested that Hans was receiving cues  from the audience  such as leaning forward and or von Osteen himself. Clever hands­horse raised in Germany by William vanwoosten. Tutored the horse as it was  growing up. Taught it how to count, do math. Horse became an international phenomenon and  put on dislays of his intelligence. C. Animal research is still a hard area work in. 1. Not popular with administrators because of cost and smell 2. Last hired and first fired Hard field in which to gain promotion or national reputation.  Many told to switch to better known applied areas such as education Remains on the frnges bc administrators don’t like animals, hard to make a reputation for  yourself, hard to make advancement in the field   II. Edward Lee Thorndike (1874–1949) A. Thorndike’s life 1. read James’s Principles, later studied with James 2. planned research with children but prohibited 3. ran chickens in James basement much to the delight of the James children 4. After a failed relationship went to Columbia. 1898: Ph.D. from Columbia  University with Cattell a. used cats and dogs b. “Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the  Associative Processes in Animals  B .    Connectionism 1. learning as connections between stimuli and response 2. mechanism: behavior reduced to S­R elements How can the SR bond be strengthened or weakend? 3 laws for strengthening it: Readiness, Excersise, and effect  C .    The puzzle box 1. quantitative measures of learning a. number of errors b. time lapse 2. stamping in/out  3. trial and error or “trial and accidental success” learning   D. Laws of learning 2 1. law of effect: “Acts that produce satisfaction in a given situation become  associated with that situation; when the situation recurs, the act is likely to  recur.”  Acts that produce “dissatisfaction in a given situation will lead to a  stamping out of the S­R bond and will be less likely occur in that situation. a. Thorndike’s law of reward or punishment.  Single most  important law in psychology. Mechanistic law not mentalistic as many, including Watson,  believed.  Mechanical because strongest S­R bond occurs. Thorndike could demonstrate only the “satisfaction” part of this  law. Outweighs importance of other laws. Says the consequences on  your behavior are what strengthen the SR bond 2. law of exercise or law of use and disuse: “The more an act or response is  used in a given situation, the more strongly the act becomes associated with  that situation.”  Thorndike’s law of practice or habit.  He was unable to  demonstrate this law conclusively  Thorndikes concept of habit: more you do something, stronger the SR bond becomes 3. law of readiness :  The animal must be in a state of readiness for the S­R  bond to be strengthened.  Later called the “OK Reaction.”  This was  Thorndike’s motivational law.  He failed to prove this law too. Law of motivation : You need to be in a receptive condition for the SR bond to form, cant be fatiqued/bored 4. Thorndike’s research: reward more effective than mere repetition E. Comment 1. beginning of the ascension of learning theory 2. his objectivism influenced behaviorism 3. Thorndike’s laws of learning were to be this most modern and advanced for the next 30 years though they were overlooked by many other theorists III. Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849­1936) A. Pavlov’s life 1. intended to study for the priesthood 2. read about Darwin, chose to study animal physiology 3. Extremely poor but developed the Russian peasant work eithic 4. total dedication to research bought animals and equipment with meager  salary 5. Critical of Stalin but survives purges 3 6. Famous temper that would quickly flare up and die down,  Still beloved by  graduate student and laboratory staff. 7. allowed women and Jewish students to work in his laboratory 8. 1904 Nobel Prize for work on digestion B. Conditioned reflexes: “Reflexes that are conditional or dependent on the formation of an association or connection between stimulus and response.” 1. Pavlov’s three research areas a. function of coronary nerves b. primary digestive glands c. conditioned reflexes  (most relevant to psychology) i. first preparation was external stomach ii. later used tube in salivary glands 2. serendipitous finding when studying natural reflex of salivation a. to study digestive glands in dogs, Pavlov surgically diverted  gland so salvia could be collected outside dog’s cheek b. dogs salivated when food placed in mouth c. noticed that dogs soon salivated at sight of food or sound of  feeder’s footsteps d. unlearned salivation reflex now conditioned (connected) to  stimuli associated with food delivery e. Pavlov turned his attention to studying how this comes about  3 .     psychic reflexes a. Occurred in individual animals because of experience or  conditioning b. Unlike physiological reflexes that occurred in all animals  innately c. Had Pavlov not turned his attention to these reflexes he would have been unknown today/ 4. gave Descartes credit for concept of reflex Physiological reflexes: Controlled by nervous system, innate, and common to all  members of the species 2nd reflex he didn’t anticipe-Psychic reflexes: only in individual animals through the result of experience! Realizes it is a very important discovery 5. salivating to the food in mouth is innate: unconditional reflex  6. salivating to the sight of food is learned: conditional reflex  Disatorus discovered: Dogs salivating to the sights of lab coats/other stimuli besides food All responses work by classical conditioning 7. painstaking research and control of unwanted variance. 8. The tower of silence 4 9. Classical conditioning is much more important than most teachers realize.   Basis of emotional behavior in humans 10. Be sure that you can identify components of a classical conditioning study  including the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, the  unconditioned response and the conditioned response  C. A note on E.B. Twitmyer (1873­1943) 1. American 2. 1902: dissertation on reflexes 3. 1904: presentation at APA  a. topic: knee­jerk reflex b. findings: knee­jerk elicited by other stimuli present when the  original stimulus (tap of hammer just below knee) c. suggested this as topic worthy of further research d. no one in audience expressed interest e. findings ignored f. due to Zeitgeist, Twitmyer’s inexperience, inability to  continue his work, scheduling of his talk just before lunch, James’ failure  to allow time for comments, or some combination of these reasons,  Twitmyer missed out on making one of the most significant findings in the history of psychology IV. Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857­1927) 1. may have been assassinated at Stalin’s request 2. Associated reflexes: “Reflexes that can be elicited not only by  unconditioned stimuli but also by stimuli that have become associated with the  unconditioned stimuli.” 3. interested in the motor conditioning response whereas Pavlov concentrated  on conditioning glandular responses 4.   his basic discoveries: associated reflexes Stalin requested him to psychologically assess him and he told stalin that he was the worst paranoid personality ive ever seen Tower of silence: built just for Pavlov, large tower with 3 foot thick stone walls, set on a bed of sand, a moat around it, His studies are one of the few that have been replicated/repeated successfully Pavlov was one of the few people to openly criticize stalin and live because stalin saw promise in pavlovs classical conditioning and stalin thought he could use it to control people 5 Adversiting uses classical conditioning all the time: ex. Sexual images create a positive emotion and make you want to buy that thing 6 Chapter 10   Behaviorism: The Beginnings I John B. Watson (1878­1958) born in greenville B. Overview 1. Watson credited the work of others as originators of behaviorism 2. saw himself as bringing together the emergent ideas 3. Willing and enthusiastic spokesperson for the new school of behaviorism C. Watson’s life 1. delinquent behavior in youth because of mother’s extreme religion and fathers deplorable behavior 2. determined to be a minister to fulfill mother’s wish a. enrolled at Furman University: studied philosophy, math,  Latin, Greek.  Told people he didn’t graduate from Furman  because of last exam. (turned in blue book upside down on  purpose) He really did graduate 3. 1900: enrolled at the University of Chicago a. planned to pursue graduate degree in philosophy with Dewey b. attracted to psychology through work with Angell c. 1903: at age 25 earned PhD from University of Chicago 4. 1908: offered professorship at Johns Hopkins University a. reluctant to leave University of Chicago b. new job offered promotion, salary raise, and opportunity to  direct the psychology laboratory 5. 1913: “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It” (launched behaviorism) 6. 1914: Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology a. argued for acceptance of animal psychology b. described advantages of animal subjects c. discussed importance of ridding psychology of the remnants  of philosophy 7. 1919: Psychology From the Standpoint of a Behaviorist a. most complete account of behaviorism to date b. argued methods and principles of animal research are  appropriate for study of humans 8. 1920: forced resignation from Johns Hopkins University a. marriage deteriorated and led to divorce due to his infidelities b. fell in love with Rosalie Rayner, graduate assistant c. astonished when forced to resign d. married Rosalie but still banished from academia e. Titchener one of the few academics who reached out to  comfort him 7 9. second career: applied psychology in advertising a. mechanistic view of humans, controlled by emotions b. Watson was so successful that he was paid $50,000 a year  when full professors often made less than $2,500 a year. 10. 1925: Behaviorism; introduced plan to perfect the social order which could  cure all the problems of society and the world 11. 1935: his wife died; he became a recluse 12. 1957: at age 79 awarded APA citation for his vital and fruitful work a. refused to go inside to receive award b. Watson afraid that he would show his emotions and cry c. son accepted it in his place 13. burned all of his papers prior to his death V. The Reaction to Watson’s Program A. His major points 1. the science of behavior 2. a purely objective experimental branch of natural science 3. both animal and human behavior are studied 4. discard all mentalistic concepts 5. use only behavior concepts 6. goal: prediction and control of behavior VI. The Methods of Behaviorism A. Adoption of the methods of the natural sciences B. Verbal reports C. Conditioned reflex method VII. The Subject Matter of Behaviorism A. Items or elements of behavior 1. goal: understand overall behavior of the total organism 2. acts versus responses a. act: complex behaviors b. response act accomplishes some result c. capable of being reduced to simple, lower­level motor or  glandular responses 3. explicit versus implicit responses a. explicit is overtly observable b. implicit happen inside organism (ex., glandular secretions) (1) must be potentially  observable (2) must be observable through  the use of instruments 4. simple versus complex stimuli a. complex stimulus situation can be reduced to simple,  8 component stimuli b. example of simple stimuli: light waves striking retina 5. specific laws of behavior a. identified through analysis of S­R complexes b. must find elementary S­R units 6. major topics: instinct, emotion, thought 7. all areas of behavior: must use objective S­R terms B. Instincts 1. 1914: Watson described 11 instincts 2. 1925: eliminated the concept of instinct a. an extreme environmentalist and radical behaviorism b. denied inherited capacities, temperaments, talents c. children can become anything one desires, a view that gives  us one of the most famous quotations in psychology: “Give me a  dozen healthy infants and my own specified world in which to  raise them and…….” d. a factor in his popularity with the American lay public 3. seemingly instinctive behavior is actually a socially conditioned response 4. psychology can only be applied if behavior can be modified  C. Emotions 1. fear, love, and rage are not learned emotional response patterns to stimuli a. loud noises or sudden lack of support lead to fear b. restriction of bodily movements leads to rage c. caressing, rocking, patting lead to love D. Albert, Peter, and the rabbits 1. Albert study demonstrated conditioned (learned) emotional responses 2. Watson: adult fears are learned, do not arise from Freud’s unconscious  conflicts 3. Mary Cover Jones a. Counter conditioned little Albert and Peter who was  conditioned to fear white rabbits.  Her method was later modified  and used by Joseph Wolpe who became famous for  counterconditioning.   E. Thought processes 1. traditional view: a. thinking occurs in the brain with an absence of muscle  movements b. not accessible to observation and experimentation 2. Watson’s view: a. thinking is implicit motor behavior such as counting on  fingers b. involves implicit speech reactions or movements c. reduced it to subvocal talking d. same muscular habits as used for overt speech 9 e. thinking = silent talking to oneself VIII. Behaviorism’s Popular Appeal A. Watson called for a society based on scientifically shaped and controlled behavior 1. free of myths, customs, and convention 2. The Religion Called Behaviorism (Berman, 1927): read by Skinner  B. Emphasis on childhood environment and minimization of heredity  C. Conditioned reflex experiments 1. implied emotional disturbances in adulthood due to conditioned responses  during earlier years 2. implies proper childhood conditioning precludes adult disorders D. Experimental ethics 1. based on behaviorism 2. part of a plan to improve society 3. a framework for research 4. elaborated by Skinner IX. An Outbreak of Psychology A. Product of a public already attentive to and receptive of psychology and Watson’s  considerable charm and vision of hope for behavioral change and the betterment of  society  X. Criticisms of Watson’s Behaviorism­­­The Battle of Behaviorism! A. William McDougall (1871­1938) 1. 1924: debate with Watson a. agreed data of behavior are a proper focus for psychology b. argued data of consciousness also necessary c. questioned Watson’s tenet that human behavior is fully  determined d. critical of Watson’s use of the verbal report method 10 11 12 Chapter 11   Behaviorism: After the Founding A. Overview 2. 1924: Titchener conceded that Watsonian behaviorism had engulfed the  United States 3. 1930: other varieties of behaviorism emerged B. The Stages of Behaviorism 1. 1913­1930: Watsonian behaviorism.  Major figure Watson himself 2. 1930­1960: Neobehaviorism.  Major figures: Hull, Tolman, & Skinner a. core of psychology is the study of learning b. most behavior can be accounted for by the laws of  conditioning c. psychology must adopt the principle of operationism 3. 1960­present: sociobehaviorism and the return to cognitive processes.  Major  figures: Bandura & Rotter              Operationism C. Purpose and definition 1. a key feature of Neobehaviorism 2. purpose: a. to render the language and terminology of science more  objective and precise b. to rid science of pseudo­problems 3. text definition: “the doctrine that a physical concept can be defined in precise  terms relating to the set of operations or procedures by which it is determined” 4. basic principle: “ the validity of a finding or construct depends on the validity  of the operations used to achieve that finding XI. Edward Chace Tolman (1886­1959) A. Career 1. studied engineering at MIT 2. Harvard PhD in 1915 3. graduate school a. trained as Titchenerian structuralist b. became acquainted with Watsonian behaviorism 4. professional experience a. 1918 hired by the University of California at Berkeley (1) taught comparative  psychology (2) conducted research on  learning in rats 13 (3) formed his own form of  behaviorism after becoming  dissatisfied with Watson’s   B .    Purposive behaviorism 1. 1932: Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men a. rejected introspection b. had no interest in any presumed internal experiences unless  accessible to objective observation c. purposiveness (1) defined in objective  behavioral terms (2) all behavior is directed  toward some goal (3) “behavior reeks of purpose” C. Intervening variables 1. the initiating causes as well as the results of behavior must be observable and  operationally defined.  Hunger can’t be seen (an intervening variable) but the  initiating causes (hours without food) can be seen and the results (eating fast and  eating a lot) can be seen. 2. causes are independent variables a. environmental stimuli b. psychological drives c. heredity d. previous training e. age 3. resultant behaviors a. a function of the five causes (independent variables) b. relationship expressed in a mathematical formula 4. intervening variables a. connect the stimulus situation with the observed response (1) S­O­R, (2) not S­R b. useful only if clearly related to both the observable  independent variable and the observable behavior (1) allowed Tolman to  operationally define  unobservable, internal states c. initially called this approach “operational behaviorism” D. Learning theory 1. learning was central in Tolman’s purposive behaviorism. 2. rejected Thomdike’s law of effect 14 a. reward has little influence on learning b. proposed a cognitive explanation of learning in its place 3. repeated performance of a task strengthens the learned relationship between  environmental cues and the organism’s expectations a. called these relationships “sign Gestalts” (1) are learned (2) cue expectancy associated  with a particular choice point  either leads or does not lead to  reinforcement  4 .     cognitive map a. a pattern of sign Gestalts b. animal learns a cognitive map, not a set of motor habits (place versus response learning) E. Comment 1. a forerunner of the cognitive movement 2. intervening variables a. engendered scientific respect for operationally defining  internal states 3. the rat as an important research subject a. 1930’s­1960’s primary subject for neobehaviorists b. assumption that one could generalize from rats to other  animals and humans c. simple, easy to study, readily available XII. Clark Leonard Hull (1884­1952)  Major goal was to develop a mathematical equations to  predict behavior  A. Hull’s life 1. Early challenges a. ill health b. poor eyesight c. polio at age 24 2. early work revealed continued interest in using objective methods and  developing useable laws a. concept formation b. effects of tobacco on behavioral efficiency c. tests and measurements d. applied area: Aptitude Testing (1928) e. practical methods of statistical analysis f. invented a machine for calculating correlations g. hypnosis and suggestibility:  10 years, 32 papers, 1 book:  Hypnosis and Suggestibility (1933) 3. 1929: research professor at Yale 4. interested in developing a theory of behavior based on Pavlov’s laws of  15 conditioning a. 1927: reads Pavlov b. 1930’s articles about basic conditioning and its usefulness in  understanding complex higher­order behaviors 5. 1943:  Principles of Behavior, an ambitious theoretical attempt to account for  all behavior 6. 1952: A Behavior System, the final form of Hull’s theory B. The spirit of mechanism a. the hypothetico­deductive method (1) establish postulates (2) deduce experimentally  testable hypotheses (3) submit them to experimental test (4) is the method necessary for  psychology to be a science C. Hull’s behavioral equation  1 .     drive a. an intervening variable b. defined as a “stimulus arising from a state of tissue need that  arouses or activates behavior” c. drive reduction is the only basis of reinforcement d. Usually measured by length of deprivation e. Changes with time and internal state of the subject.    2. Habit strength is measured by the number of trials in which drive reduction  has occurred.  Each case of drive reduction leads to a permanent increase in habit  strength.   3. Incent (K) also increased the likelihood of behavior occurring if the reinforcer  value was high.  Added because of the Crespi Study.  Named K for Ken Spence, a favored graduate student. 4. Some things decreased the likelihood of behavior: a. Reactive Inhibition which increased whenever a behavior was  emitted regardless of reinforcement or not.  Decreased as time  passed.  Like boredom or fatigue b. Conditioned inhibition which occurred anytime a response  was made and no reinforcement occurred.  Each unreinforced trial  lead to a permanent decrease in the likelihood of behavior. 16 c. Oscillating factor which varies over time and from subject to  subject.  Somewhat of a copout admitting that was really hard to  predict.   D. Learning  1. has a key role in Hull’s system 2. focuses on principle of reinforcement (Thorndike’s law of effect) 3. law of primary reinforcement: “When a stimulus­response relationship is followed by a reduction in a bodily need, the probability increases that on  subsequent occasions the same stimulus will evoke the same response” E. Comment 1. Hull was a major figure in behaviorism during the 1940s and 1950s.   Behaviorism could be divided into two camps, those who waited to disprove  Hull’s latest work and those who waited to confirm it. 2. Semester­long behavioral courses were taught on Hull and his behavioral  equations and his postulates  3. pronounced effect on psychology through a. the amount of research generated and provoked b. the achievements of his students and followers c. defending, extending, and expounding objective behaviorism 4. called a “theoretical genius” XIII. B.F. Skinner (1904­1990) A. one of the most influential psychologists in the 20  Century 1. beginning in 1950’s, the major embodiment of behaviorism 2. large and loyal group of followers 3. developed and wrote about subjects that had considerable impact a. behavioral control b. behavior modification c. utopian society (Walden Two) d. Beyond Freedom and Dignity, a national bestseller 4. became a celebrity in his own right B. Skinner’s life 1. recalled early childhood environment as affectionate and stable  2. same small community and school as attended by parents 3. built things as a child and worked with and observed animals 4. used his early life experiences as a base for his system of psychology 17 a. a product of past reinforcements b. seemingly predetermined, lawful, and orderly c. his experiences traceable to environmental stimuli 5. unhappy undergraduate career at Hamilton College (NY) 6. 1925: Hamilton College (NY): degree in English, no courses in psychology,  Phi Beta Kappa.  Nearly expelled for attitude and pranks. 7. worked at writing for two years after favorable feedback from Robert Frost 8. depressed by lack of success as a writer and in romance 9. read about Pavlov’s and Watson’s experimental work 10. 1931: PhD from Harvard 11. dissertation: a reflex is a correlation between S and R 12. 1938: The Behavior of Organisms; covered basic points of his system 13. 1953: Science and Human Behavior; basic textbook for his system. Also  wrote Walden II, which describes life in a community based on behavioral  principles (Token Economy).  14. toward end of life a. lived in a controlled environment b. enjoyed writing­a source of positive reinforcement c. published an article “Intellectual Self­Management in Old  Age” d. described his feelings of dying with leukemia in a radio  interview 15. 1990: vigorously attacked the growth of cognitive psychology in a paper  delivered at the Boston meeting of the American Psychological Association eight  16. 1990 (final article): “Can Psychology Be a Science of Mind?” 17. Died in 1990 at the age of 86. Wrote his autobiography, at the request of  friends, several years before his death,  “Particulars of My Life.” C. Skinner’s behaviorism 1. in some ways a regeneration of Watsonian Behaviorism 2. although as rigorous as Hull, important contrasts exist a. Hull emphasized the import of theory b. Skinner advocated a system with no theoretical framework (1) not averse to all theorizing (2) warned against premature  theorizing 3. devoted to the study of responses 4. concerned with describing behavior rather than explaining it  5. dealt only with observable behavior 6. the task of scientific inquiry a. to establish functional relationships b. between experimenter­controlled stimulus and the organism’s  response 7. no presumptions about internal entities a. the “empty organism” approach 18 b. internal physiological and mental events exist but not useful to science 8. single­subject design a. large numbers of subjects not necessary  b. statistical comparisons of group means not necessary c. a single subject provides valid and replicable results (1) cannot predict behavior of a  particular individual from  knowledge of the average  individual (2) Journal of the Experimental  Analysis of Behavior  established because mainstream  journals did not accept an n of  one. D. Operant Conditioning 1. contrasted with respondent (Pavlovian) conditioning, which is elicited by a  specific observable stimulus 2. operant behavior a. occurs without an observable external stimulus b. operates on the organism’s environment c. the behavior is instrumental in securing a stimulus such as  food  d. more representative of everyday learning e. most effective approach to science of behavior: the study of  the conditioning and extinction of operants 3. studied bar pressing in the Plexiglas “Skinner box”: the rate of response 4. law of acquisition: “the strength of an operant behavior increases when it is  followed by the presentation of a reinforcing stimulus” a. key variable: reinforcement b. practice provides opportunities for additional reinforcement c. differs from Thorndike’s and Hull’s positions (1) Thorndike and Hull:  explanatory (2) Skinner: strictly descriptive (3) Hull: internal drives,  Skinner: empty organism E. Schedules of reinforcement: Conditions involving various rates and times of  reinforcement  1. reinforcement is necessary in operant behavior 2. reinforcement schedules a. continuous  19 b. intermittant (1) fixed or variable time of  delivery or rate  (2) ratio (of responses)  3. Schedules discovered accidentally because of food pellet shortage.  Skinner  tried to save food pellets by using intermittent reinforcement schedules instead  continuous reinforcement schedules and the pattern and rate of behavior  chanced in unique but predictable patterns.  Another important serendipitous  finding. 4. Schedules more like real life: salary on intermittent schedule 5. Intermittant schedules take longer to extinguish F. Successive Approximation (AKA shaping) 1. lever pressing is simple behavior, most operant behavior more complex 2. See examples from IQ Zoo at chapter’s beginning 3. With shaping, behaviors that come closer and closer to the target operant  behavior are reinforced 4. Skinner says that is how children learn language G. Aircribs, teaching machines, and pigeon­guided missiles 1. 1945: aircrib a. brought Skinner public notoriety b. mechanized environment invented to relieve menial labor c. not commercially successful d. daughter reared in it with no ill effects 2. teaching machine a. invented in the 1920’s by Pressey, not enthusiastically  received (1) surplus of teachers (2) no public pressure to  improve learning b. resurgence of interest in 1950’s when Skinner promoted  similar device (1) excess of students (2) public pressure to improve  education so U.S. could  compete with Soviet Union  space c. 1968: The Technology of Teaching: Skinner summarized his  work in this field d. after the 1960s, computer­assisted instructional methods  became dominant 3. pigeon­guided missiles a. developed by Skinner during WWII 20 (1) guidance system to steer  bombs from warplanes to  ground targets (2) pigeons housed in missile  nose­cones (a) trained through prior conditioning to peck at target  image (b) pecking affected angles of missile’s fins (c) resultant adjustments kept missile on target (d) pigeons very accurate (e) military not impressed H. Walden Two (1948)—a behaviorist society  1. program of behavioral control 2. a technology of behavior 3. application of laboratory findings to society at large 4. novel of a 1,000­member rural community 5. behavioral control through positive reinforcement 6. outgrowth of Skinner’s midlife depression, expressing his own conflicts and  despair 7. reflected mechanism of Galileo, Newton, and the empiricists I. Behavior modification 1. uses positive reinforcement 2. applied in a variety of settings 3. works with people in same manger as with animals, by reinforcing desired  behavior and extinguishing undesired behavior J. Criticisms of Skinner’s behaviorism 1. his extreme positivism 2. his opposition to theory 3. his willingness to extrapolate beyond the data 4. the narrow range of behavior studied 5. his position that all behaviors are learned a. problem of instinctive drift: tendency “to substitute instinctive behaviors for behaviors that had been reinforced” (1) introduced by the work of  the Brelands (2) innate behaviors stronger  than learned behaviors, even  when latter delayed access to  food 6. his position on verbal behavior, successfully challenged by Noam Chomsky K. Contributions of Skinner’s behaviorism 1. shaped American psychology for 30 years 2. his goal: the improvement of society 3. strength and ramifications of his radical behaviorism 21 XIV. Sociobehaviorism: The Cognitive Challenge A. social learning or sociobehaviorist approach 1. primarily are behaviorists 2. reflected the broader cognitive revolution in psychology 3. marks the third stage of behaviorism XV. Albert Bandura (1925­    ) A. Background 1. experience with the psychopathology of ordinary life 2. 1952: PhD from the University of Iowa 3. 1981: APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award B. Social cognitive theory 1. behavioristic a. less extreme than Skinner’s behaviorism b. reflects current zeitgeist in its interest in cognitive variables 2. research focus: observation of the behavior of humans in interaction 3. emphasizes the role of reinforcement in learning and behavior modification 4. cognitive aspect stresses the influence of thought processes on external  reinforcement schedules 5. reactions to stimuli are self­activated, person­initiated rather than automatic 6. reinforcer effective if a. person is consciously aware of what is being reinforced b. person anticipates the same reinforcer if the behavior is  repeated  7. vicarious reinforcement: learning “by observing how other people behavior  and seeing the consequences of their behavior” rather than directly experiencing  the consequences of one’s own  a. assumes human capacity to anticipate and appreciate those  outcomes b. one can regulate one’s behavior by  (1) imagining those  consequences, and (2) making a conscious  selection of the behavior to  manifest  c. is like the S­O­R model, with O being equal to cognitive  processes 8. cognitive processes distinguish Bandura’s views from Skinner’s  a. actual schedule of reinforcement less important that what the  person believes it is 22 b. who controls behavior (1) Skinner: whoever controls  reinforcers (2) Bandura: whoever controls  the models in a society 9. salient characteristics of influential models a. same age and sex as self b. peers with similar problems c. high in status and prestige d. exhibit simple behaviors e. display hostile and aggressive behaviors 10. a social learning theory a. behavior as formed and modified in social situations b. criticisms of Skinner’s work (1) use of single subjects (2) did not study humans  interacting C. Self­efficacy: “our sense of self­esteem or self­worth, our feeling of adequacy,  efficiency, and competence in dealing with problems” 1. high versus low self­efficacy persons a. believe they can cope with diverse problems b. expect to overcome obstacles c. seek challenges d. persevere e. confident of ability to succeed f. exert control over their life 2. low self­efficacy persons a. feel helpless or hopeless about coping b. do not expect to overcome or even affect obstacles or  situations c. give up initial attempts fail d. believe nothing they can do will make a difference e. believe they have little or no control over their fate 3. wide range of effects of self­efficacy beliefs 4. research shows that high self­efficacy persons experience positive outcomes  in most aspects of life 5. diverse groups develop collective high efficacy levels which affect their  outcomes in a manner similar to that found with high self­efficacy persons D. Behavior modification 1. Bandura’s goal: change or modify socially undesirable behavior 2. focus: external aspects of abnormality, i.e., behavior 3. the use of modeling 4. Bandura’s form of behavior therapy is widely used in diverse settings and has  strong research support 23 E. Comment 1. criticized by traditional behaviorists who maintain that cognitive processes do  not cause behavior 2. positive aspects of Bandura’s theory a. widely accepted in psychology b. consistent with the functionalism of American psychology  c. objective d. amenable to precise laboratory methods e. responsive to the current cognitive Zeitgeist f. applicable to practical problems XVI. Julian Rotter (1916­   ) A. Background 1. grew up comfortably in Brooklyn 2. father lost his business in 1929 crash 3. read Freud and Adler in high school 4. learned that jobs scarce in psychology B. Cognitive processes 1. 1947: the first to use the term social learning theory 2. cognitive approach to behaviorism 3. invokes the existence of subjective experiences 4. deals with cognitive processes more extensively than Bandura a. both external stimuli and the reinforcement they provide affect behavior  b. cognitive factors mediate the nature and extent of that  influence 5. four cognitive principles determine behaviors a. expectation of amount and kind of reinforcement b. estimation of probability the behavior will lead to a particular  reinforcement c. differential values of reinforcers and assessment of their  relative worth  d. different people place different values on the same reinforcer C. Locus of control: “beliefs about the source of our reinforcers”  1. beliefs about the source of one’s reinforcements  2. internal locus of control: belief that reinforcement depends on one’s own  behavior 3. external locus of control: belief that “reinforcement depends on outside forces  such as fate, luck, or the actions of other people” 4. is learned in childhood from the ways one is treated 5. Rotter’s 23 item forced­choice test 6. product of a chance discovery D. Comment 1. Rotter’s theory attracts followers who  a. are experimentally oriented 24 b. think cognitive variables influence behavior 2. a great many studies support his theory, particularly regarding internal and  external locus of control XVII. The Fate of Behaviorism A. Cognitive challenge to behaviorism from within modified the behaviorist movement B. Sociobehaviorists still consider themselves behaviorists  1. are called methodological behaviorists because they employ internal cognitive processes 2. are contrasted with radical behaviorists like Watson and Skinner who do not  deal with presumed internal states a. Skinnerian behaviorism peaked in the 1980s b. declined after Skinner’s death in 1990 C. Today’s behaviorism, particularly in applied psychology, is different from forms it  took from 1913 (Watson) to 1990 (Skinner) D. In an evolutionary sense, the spirit of behaviorism still lives 25


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