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Knowledge Checklist for Test 4

by: Shea Repins

Knowledge Checklist for Test 4 Psych 415

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Systems and Theories
Edwin Brainerd
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shea Repins on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 415 at Clemson University taught by Edwin Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Systems and Theories in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
Knowledge Checklist Four Psychology 415 Chapter 13   Psycholanalysis: The Beginnings I The Development of Psychoanalysis II   A. Freud’s place in history 1. “Psychoanalysis” and “Sigmund Freud”: known all over world 2. Freud recognizable to general public 3. Cover of Time magazine: 3thimes, once 60 years after death 4. Recently revered on 150  anniversary of his birth (2006) 5. Pivotal person in history of civilization 6. Changed the way we think of ourselves B. Three great shocks to the collective human ego (according to Freud himself, 1917) 1. Copernicus: earth not center of universe 2. Darwin: humans not a distinctive species 3. Freud: unconscious forces rather than rational thought govern our lives C. To give Freud a fair evaluation you must remember  four important points  1. Freud’s theory is the oldest theory currently taught in modern psychological text books.   2. Since Freud died in 1939, he has not been able to modify or change this theory to incorporate new psychological discoveries or the changing Zeitgeist. 3. Freud and his patients were strongly influenced by the Victoria Era.  Sex was  the forbidden fruit, you couldn’t have. 4. Freud was in private practice and was interested primarily in abnormal behavior and how to cure it   D. Psychoanalysis 1. not a school of thought directly comparable to the others 2. distinct from mainstream 3. not a true science 4. arose from medicine and psychiatry 5. subject matter is abnormal behavior 6. primary method is clinical observation 7. deals with the unconscious II. Antecedent Influences on Psychoanalysis 1 The three major andecedents were Philosphical speculations about unconscious, early ideas about psychopathy, and evolutionary theory A. Theories of the unconscious mind: philosophical speculations 1. Gottfried Leibnitz’s (1646­1716) monads ­Monadology: Leibnitz’s theory of psychic entities called monads which  are similar to perceptions. -Moads considered to be individual elements of reality and when enough were grouped together they formed an extension -Monads activity made up mental events and these events had degrees of consciousness ranging from completely unconscious to clearly conscious -Lesser degrees of consciousness were called petite perceptions. (ex. Sound of waves breaking on shore is an apperception but its composed of individual falling drops of water which are petit perceptions) 2. Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776­1841)  Ideas may be unconscious and must  rise above the limen into consciousness’ ­Ideas below a proposed threshold are unconscious and when an idea rises to a conscious level of awareness it is apperceived -Must be compatible with existing ideas to raise into consciousness -Irrelevant ideas are forced out of consciousness to become inhibited ideas (which are similar to the petites perceptions). Inhibited ideas exist below the threshold of consciousness -Conflict develops among ideas as they struggle for conscious realization 3. Gustav Fechner a. also used threshold concept b. mind: iceberg analogy ­Much of the mind lies hidden below the surface c. 1860:  Elements of Psychophysics (1) influenced psychoanalysis as well as experimental psychology with concept such as the absolute threshold (2) Freud quoted from Fechner (3) Freud took ideas from Fechner (a) pleasure principle (b) psychic energy (c) importance of aggression 4. 1880’s Europe: ideas about the unconscious were popular and wide spread in  Europe 5. Freud claimed he did not originate the unconscious, only a way to scientifically  study it 2 B. Ideas about psychopathology gradually moved to more humane methods from some  highly barbaric early views. 1. More humane treatments a. Juan Luis Vives (1492­1540) (1) Spanish scholar -First to say mentally disabled should be treated humanely but because of language barriers his pleas were not known outside of spain until end of eighteenth century b. Philippe Pinel (1745­1826) (1) Frenchman ­Considered mental illness to be a natural phenomenon that is  treatable through natural science ­under his direction, more patients were cured  c. concomitant changes in United States with Dorothea Dix  (1802­1887) and Benjamin Rush (1745­1813) Dix: ­Inspired by Pinel and traveled through us petitioning for better treatment for mentally ill -peitioned for wounded union soldiers during civil war, became superindentant of woman nurses in the army Rush: -First psychiatrist to open a formal practice in the US -Said everything could be described by physical laws (ex. Irrational behaviors caused by too much or too little blood) -Developed a spinning chair, used ice baths in place of shock treatment, first sedating technique C. The Emmanuel Movement 1. Emmanuel Church Healing Movement -argued for the use of psychotherapy 2. focus on talk therapy increased awarness of psychological causes of mental  illness to both general public and therapeutic community 3. originator: Elwood Worcester a. Reverend of Emmanuel Church, Boston, Massachusetts (1) Ph.D. in philosophy and psychology from University of Leipzig (2) studied under Wundt b. height of movement: 1906­1910 3 4. talk therapy sessions a. both individual and group -Talk therapy sessions reliod on power of suggestion and moral authority of the clergyman in urging the proper course of action for the patients D. Hypnosis 1. advanced emerging focus on psychological causes of mental illness 2. Franz Anton Mesmer (1734­1815)  Increased interested in hypnosis but did  much damage because of side­show antics a. Viennese physician -“Animal Magnetism”- Mesmer believed human body had a magnetic force. Thought transferring his magnetic energy to patients would cure mental illnesses 3. James Braid (1795­1860) and Jean Martin Charcot (1825­1893) make  hypnosis medically respectable again. -Braid described mesmerism as “neurohypnology” from which the term hypnosis was derived from -Charcot had success trying to cure hysertical patients using hypnosis and desrcribed his methods in more scientific way which made them more credible. Thought hysteria was nuerological problem 4. Pierre Janet (1859­1947) used hypnosis as a treatment for hysteria and other  mental conditions. ­Charcot’s student, said hysteria was a mental disorder caused by memory impairment, fixed  ideas, and unconscious forces.  E. Freud read all of Charles Darwin’s works and was tremendously influenced by his  writings. 1. ideas from Darwin a. unconscious mental processes b. unconscious mental conflicts c. the significance of dreams d. the hidden symbolism of certain behavioral symptoms e. the importance of sexual arousal and the sex drive f. notion of continuity in emotional behavior from childhood to  adulthood (evidence of sex drive in infants) g. humans are driven by biological forces of love and hunger F. Additional influences from the zeitgeist 4   1. Freud and neurotic upper­middle­class women patients: more sexually  inhibited.  General interest in (1) sexual pathologies (2) infantile sexuality (3) the suppression of sexual impulses and its consequences (4) sex drive is present in children as young as 3 (a) Adolf Patze, Germany: 1845 (b) Henry Maudsley, Great Britain: 1867 (5) Psychopathia Sexualis (written in Krafft­Ebing, 1886)  Discusses child’s love for parent of the opposite sex anticipating  Freud’s Oedipus Complex. 2. catharsis a. already a popular concept b. 1890: more than 140 publications on topic in German ­Catharsis was Aristotle’s concept of recalling unconscious events and  expressing them  3. Freud’s concepts about dreams a. anticipated in the literature of philosophy and physiology b. already studied by Charcot, Janet, and Krafft­Ebing -Freud said he was first to study dreams but not true 4. Freud’s genius: his ability to weave the threads of ideas and trends into a tapestry of a coherent system  -Basically he elaborated on ideas previously talked about III. Sigmund Freud (1856­1939) and the Development of Psychoanalysis A. Background 1. born in Freiburg, Moravia (now Pribor, Czech Republic) 2. moved to Vienna when four; lived there approximately 80 years 3. much of his theory is autobiographical a. father 20 years older than mother (1) strict, authoritarian (2) both feared and loved by Freud b. mother (1) protective, loving 5 (2) Freud emotionally attached to her (3) she was enormously proud of him c. Oedipus complex (1) fear of father (2) sexual attraction to mother B. The case of Anna O worked with Josef Breuer (1842­1935) -Breuer studied respiration and ear canals, friend and father figure of freud, Anna O was Bruers patient and was pivatol to development of psychoanalysis -Anna suffered from hysteria (memory loss, paralysis, nausea, etc.) and her symptoms first appeared while nursing for her dying father -Relived her disturbing experiences under hypnosis and eliminated her symptoms -Started to exhibit positive transference and transferring love of father to love of Breuer. -Breuer stopped treating her b/c she brought up his dormant Oedipal longings for his mother a. positive transference (1) Breuer’s wife jealous of emotional bonds connecting her  husband and Anna (2) Anna transferring her love for her father to love for her  therapist b. Anna O. case introduced Freud to the method of catharsis, the  talking cure 2. Freud became dissatisfied with hypnosis   3. free association: “a psychotherapeutic technique in which the patient says  whatever comes to mind” 4. 1895: Studies on Hysteria written by Breuer and Freud -Book marked beginning of psychoanalysis -Caused rift between the two men because Breuer said sex wasn’t that sole cause of neurotic behavior C. The childhood seduction controversy  1. Freud viewed sex as the key cause of neurosis 2. believed a normal sex life could not cause neuroses 3. 1896: based on free­association data, reported in a paper that patients  exposed childhood seduction traumas often caused by the father or other older  family member 6 4. his conclusion: seduction traumas caused adult neurotic behavior  5. Freud’s own sex life a. held a negative attitude toward sex b. experienced sexual difficulties (1) intermittent impotence (2) at times refrained from sex because disliked the available birth control methods, condoms and coitus interruptus -Frued thought sex was degrading and gave up sex at age 41 -Had major neurotic episode after giving up sex D. Dream analysis 1. lesson from patients: dreams a rich source of information providing clues to  causes of disorder 2. his deterministic belief that everything has a cause led him to look for  unconscious sources of the meaning in dreams 3. Manifest content of a dream is the story line of the dream 4. Latent Content is the hidden meaning of the dream 5. 1900: The Interpretation of Dreams a. the culmination of Freud’s self­analysis b. his major work c. outlined the Oedipus complex d. for the most part favorably reviewed e. read by Carl Jung, who adopted psychoanalysis -Most of his dreams he wrote about in book did not have sexual content but focused more on ambition E. The Pinnacle of Success 1. 1901: The Psychopathology of Everyday Life a. Freudian slip: “An act of forgetting or a lapse in speech that  reflects unconscious motives or anxieties.” 2. 1902: began weekly psychoanalytic discussion group with students a. included Jung and Adler b. most viewed as neurotic themselves c. those who deviated were expelled -Wrote “Three essays on the Theory of Sexuality” in 1905 -Frued did not tolerate anyone who disagreed with his ideas -Discussed their own problems and the problems of others 3. 1909: Freud and Jung invited by G. Stanley Hall to Clark University’s 20   th anniversary a. 1911: the break with Adler b. 1914: the break with Jung c. 1923: diagnosis of cancer, followed by 33 surgeries in 16 years,  7 continues to smoke 20 cigars a day d. 1933: public burning of Freud’s books by the Nazis e. 1934: Nazi obliteration of psychoanalysis in Germany f. 1938 (1) Anna Freud arrested and detained by the Nazis (2) move to Paris, then London g. 1939: death by overdose of morphine injected by Dr. Max Schur  who had promised not to let Freud suffer Psychoanlysis as a Method of Treatment: -Resistance: blockage to disclose painful memores -Represson- excluding bad/unacceptable ideas or memories from consciousness -Frued was more interested in expailing human behavior not in treating patients -Didn’t use experiemental research methods, but relied on informal ways IV. Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality A. Instincts: “To Freud, mental representations of internal stimuli (such as hunger) that  motivate personality and behavior.” ­Divided instincts (driving forces) into 2 parts: life and death instincts  1.  the life instincts, e.g., hunger, thirst, sex a. relate to self­preservation and survival of the species b. manifested in libido: “To Freud, the psychic energy that drives a  person toward pleasurable thoughts and behaviors.” 2. the death instinct, e.g., suicide, hatred, aggression a. destructive force b. can be directed inward or outward -Found that aggression could be as powerful a motivator as sex B. Structures of the personality a. id (Es or “it”): “The source of psychic energy and the aspect of  personality allied with the instincts.” (1) corresponds more or less to earlier unconscious (2) the most primitive and least accessible part of personality (3) includes sexual and aggressive instincts (4) “cauldron full of seething excitations” (Freud) (5) irrational, unrelenting passions and blind cravings (6) unaware of reality (7) operates in accord with the pleasure principle (a) goal: reduce tension (b) methods: seek pleasure; avoid pain 2. ego (Ich or “I”): “The rational aspect of personality responsible for controlling  8 the instincts.” a. the mediating agent between id and the external world b. goal: to facilitate their interaction c. represents rational thought, reason d. Freud himself used term “ego” infrequently; did not like it e. is aware of reality and manipulates it to regulate id f. operates in accord with the reality principle: restraining id urges  until suitable object is located which fills the need and thus  reduces tension g. Responsible for the use of defense mechanisms (1) protective devices developed by the ego (2) unconscious (3) distort reality Know and be able to recognize examples of the defense  mechanisms found in Table 13.2 Denial=person living with cancer denies immenesce of death Displacement=shifting anger towards boss to anger towards cild Projection=I don’t hate my professor, he hates me Rationalization= Getting fired from a job but saying it doesn’t matter bc the job sucked Reaction formation=mother doesn’t like child but instead becomes overbearing to make up for it Regression=acting childish Repression=denying existence of something that causes anxiety Sublimation=changing bad impulses to good: argumentative so becomes lawyer 3. superego (über­Ich or “above I”): “The moral aspect of personality derived from  internalizing parental and societal values and standards.” a. develops when child incorporates rules of behavior from  caregivers b. develops in response to a system of rewards and punishments c. two parts of superego (1) conscience: child’s incorporation of what the caretakers (as  representatives of society) think is wrong and punishable (2) ego­ideal: child’s incorporation of what the caretakers consider to be acceptable and worthy of reward d. represents morality e. goal: perfection principle f. Irrational, like the id 9 4. represents a conflict model of personality: unremitting struggle among id, ego,  and superego C. Psychosexual stages of personality development: “In psychoanalytic theory, the  developmental stages of childhood centered on erogenous zones.” 1. key Freudian conviction: neuroses arise from childhood experiences 2. thus Freud one of the first to emphasize the importance of child development 3. by age 5: adult personality almost completed  4. children are autoerotic: sensual pleasure derives from stimulation of bodies  erogenous zones 5. each stage focuses on a different erogenous zone 6. inadequate (too little or too much) stimulation at a given stage leads to adult  behaviors tied to that stage  ie, stresses moderation in child­rearing practices  a. oral stage (1) erogenous zone = mouth (2) birth to age 2 (3) primary source of sensual pleasure is stimulation of the mouth  through sucking, biting, swallowing (4) inadequate stimulation: adult with habits focused on the  mouth, e.g., smoking or eating or exhibiting behaviors such as  undue optimism or sarcasm b. anal stage (1) erogenous zone = anus (2) age 2 to 4 (3) primary source of sensual pleasure is stimulation of the anus  through expelling or withholding feces (4) issue: control; obeying or disobeying parents’ wishes (5) inadequate stimulation: adult who is messy, dirty, wasteful  (anal­expulsive) or one who is exceedingly neat, clean,  compulsive (anal­retentive) c. phallic stage (1) erogenous zone = genitals (2) age 4 to 5 (3) primary source of sensual pleasure is stimulation of the  genitals through fondling or exhibition or through sexual fantasies (4) occurrence of Oedipus complex: “At ages 4 to 5, the  unconscious desire of a boy for his mother and the desire to  replace or destroy his father.” (5) in general: child attracted to opposite sex parent and fearful of  10 the rival same sex parent (6) resolution of the complex: identification with same sex parent;  socially acceptable form of affection for opposite sex parent (7) attitudes toward the opposite sex that develop persist into  adulthood (8) child assumes the same­sex parent’s superego standards if  identification is complete d. latency stage (1) no erogenous zone (2) age 5­12 e. genital stage (1) erogenous zone = genitals (2) onset of puberty (3) heterosexual behavior is prominent (4) love/marriage, work, parenthood   Be aware of the criticisms and contributions of psychoanalysis listed at the end of this chapter. Critisms: informal data collection methods, may have reinterpreted things to match what he wanted patients to say, may have inferred that patients were sexually seduced, may have used suggestion, research from small unrepresentative sample, discrepincies between his notes and published case history, hard to confirm accuracy of patient’s reports. Contributions: bug influence on pop culture and psychology, many books and movies based around his ideas, loosening of sexual retraints, Frued is most frequently cited person in psychology research literature Chapter 14   Psychoanalysis After the Founding III Competing Factions D. Splintered movement 1. within 20 years of its founding 2. Freud never again spoke to the rebels E. Three major groups of subsequent theorists 1. Neo­Freudians who elaborated on Freud: Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, and  Heinz Kohut 2. Orthodox Freudians who became dissenters: Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and Karen Horney 11 3. Protesters against both psychoanalysis and behaviorism: Abraham Maslow  and Carl Rogers V. The Neo­Freudian and Ego Psychology A. In general 1. adhered to Freud’s central premises 2. modified selected aspects B. Major change: expansion of the concept of the ego 1. more independent of the id 2. has its own energy 3. has functions separate from the id 4. is free of the conflict produced by id pressures C. Influences on Freudian personality theory 1. de­emphasize biological forces 2. emphasize social and psychological forces 3. minimize the import of infantile sexuality 4. minimize the import of the Oedipus complex VI. Anna Freud (1895­1982) A. Her life 1. The youngest of Freud’s six children; not a welcomed child  2. least preferred daughter, lonely and unhappy childhood 3. became her father’s favorite child 4. early interest in her father’s work a. attended meetings of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society  from the age of 14 5. age 22: began four­year analysis with her father (called incestuous by some  critics) 6. age 29: read her first scholarly paper to the Society a. “Beating fantasies and daydreams” (1924) (1) not, as presented, a case history but in reality about herself (2) gained her admission into the Society 7. clarified and expanded her father’s defense mechanisms 8. nursed her father when he developed cancer 9. expanded the role and importance of the ego -Standardized the list of defense mechanisms by giving more precision definitions 10. pioneered psychoanalysis of children  -Wrote book “Intro to the Technique of Child Analysis” -Used play and the observation of children in home settings VII. Object Relations Theories 12 -Frued called everything that could satisfy an instinct an object -First object in an infant’s life is mothers breast -Object relations theories focus on interpersonal relationships with these objects and Freud focused more on instinctual drives -Object relations theorists argue most crucial issues in personality development is child’s abilty to break free from primary object (mom) and develop relations with other objects (people) A. Melanie Klein (1882­1960) 1. unwanted child 2. depressed throughout life from feelings of rejection 3. theory focuses on the deep, emotional mother­infant bond 4. describes that bond in social­cognitive, not sexual, terms 5. breast becomes a good or bad part­object depending on its degree of id  gratification 6. whole objects, including 1  the mother, are similarly defined as satisfying or  hostile 7. nature of infant­mother social bond in the first 6 months of life generalizes to all child­object relationships VIII. Carl Jung (1875­1961) A. For a brief time served as Freud’s surrogate son and heir to the psychoanalytic  throne B. As a result of split with Freud developed own approach called analytical psychology C. Jung’s life 1. unhappy, lonely childhood 2. father: temperamental, clergyman who lost faith 3. mother: emotionally unstable with history of family mental illness 4. Jung: lack of trust in others 5. at critical times, decisions based on a. what his unconscious told him b. dreams 6. private practice When jungs mom (who is schizo) yells, he goes into a happy place in his unconscious Frued picked jung bc he wasn’t jewish and he didn’t want this to be a jewish dominated science 7. Interest in Freud’s work a. 1900: read The Interpretation of Dreams b. 1906: began correspondence with Freud 13 c. 1907: first meeting lasted 13 hours; 20 years difference in  age d. 1912: The Psychology of the Unconscious (1) expected this book would strain his relationship with Freud (2) the relationship was terminated 8. age 38: severe emotional problems for 3­year period (1) explored his unconscious (2) dreams used among other stimuli, not analyzed systematically  a la Freud (3) a time of immense creativity led to the development of his personality theory D. Analytical psychology 1. autobiographical influences, particularly with regard to views of about sex a. Oedipus complex not relevant to his childhood experience b. no major adult sexual hang­ups c. preferred company of women d. had affairs e. isolation as child reflected in his theoretical focus on inner  growth rather than social relationships f. sex plays a minimal role in explaining human motivation 2. libido a. major difference with Freud’s theory b. for Jung, is a generalized life energy rather than the sexual energy depicted by Freud c. the energy expresses itself in growth, reproduction, and  other critical processes and events 3. Oedipus complex a. rejected by Jung b. child’s attachment to its mother is a necessary dependency c. libidinal energy takes a heterosexual form after puberty 4. forces that influence personality a. Freud: people are victims of their childhoods  b. Jung: (1) one is shaped by aspirations for the future as well as the past (2) personality can be changed throughout life rather than be  shaped during the first 5 years of life 5. unconscious mind a. Jung probed deeper than did Freud b. added the component of the collective unconscious E. The collective unconscious -Said two levels of unconscious mind: personal unconscious and collective uncoscious 14 1. personal unconscious: “The reservoir of material that once was conscious but  has been forgotten or suppressed.” a. comprised all suppressed or forgotten experiences b. not a deep level of unconscious c. unconscious  experiences can easily be brought into  awareness 2. complexes a. groups of experiences in the personal unconscious b. are manifested by a preoccupation with some idea c. the preoccupation/idea influences behavior d. is a smaller personality formed within the whole 3. collective unconscious: “The deepest level of the psyche; it contains inherited  experiences of human and prehuman species.” a. deeper level than the personal unconscious b. unknown to the person c. contains cumulative experiences of prior generations and  animal ancestors d. consists of universal evolutionary experiences e. concept very much like evolutionary psychology’s  innate predispositons. F. Archetypes: “Inherited tendencies within the collective unconscious that dispose a  person to behave similarly to ancestors who confronted similar situations.” 1. inherited tendencies within the collective unconscious 2. innate determinants of mental life 3. predispose one to behave in a manner like one’s ancestors 4. are associated with a. strong emotions b. significant life events c. stages of life d. reactions to extreme danger  5. four common archetypes a. persona (1) social mask (2) characterizes what we want others to think of us (3) may not correspond to our actual personality b. anima/animus (1) anima: feminine characteristics in men (2) animus: masculine characteristics in women c. shadow (1) our darker side (2) all immoral, passionate, and unacceptable desires (3) pushes us to behave in ways we ordinarily find unacceptable (4) source of spontaneity, creativity, insight, and deep emotion d. self (1) most important archetype 15 (2) provides unity and stability to the personality (3) like a drive or force toward self­actualization (harmony and  completeness) (4) self­actualization can not occur prior to middle age (35­40) e. midlife crucial to personality development (a) a natural time of transition (b) personality undergoes necessary and beneficial  changes G. Introversion and extraversion (attitudes) 1. extravert a. libido directed outside the self b. strongly influenced by forces in the environment c. is sociable and self­confident 2. introvert a. libido directed inward b. resistant to external influences c. is contemplative, introspective, less confident in relations  with others and the external world, less sociable 3. opposing attitudes a. exist in all of us to some degree b. no one is a total extravert or total introvert c. dominant attitude at a given moment can be influenced by  experience IX. Alfred Adler (1870­1937) A. Most salient facts 1. broke with Freud in 1911 2. thought to be the 1  advocate of taking a social psychological view within  psychoanalysis 3. social interest a key concept in his theory 4. a string quartet was named for him B. His life  1. wealthy Viennese family 2. childhood marked by illness, sibling rivalry, rejection by mother, feelings of  inadequateness and unattractiveness, and learning difficulties a. no experience of an Oedipus complex 3. worked diligently to become popular and do well in school a. core of his system: inferiority feelings and compensating  for weaknesses are autobiographical in nature, as he himself not 4. 1902: joined Freud’s weekly discussion group a. openly criticized the emphasis on sexual factors b. 1910: named president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic  Society by Freud in an attempt to reconcile their differences 5. 1911: relationship with Freud terminated with bitterness 16 6. 1920’s: developed his system called individual psychology a. individual psychology: “Adler’s theory of personality; it  incorporates social as well as biological factors.” b. attracted many to his system 7. 1937: died in Scotland during a demanding speaking tour a. Freud remained bitter about him C. Individual psychology 1. social forces, not biological instincts, are the central causes of human behavior 2. social interest: “Adler’s conception of an innate potential to cooperate with  other people to achieve personal and societal goals.” a. develops through learning experiences in infancy 3. personality determinants a. minimizes the role of sex in personality development b. focuses on conscious rather than unconscious  determinants c. future goals have greater effect than past events 4. stressed wholeness and uniformity of personality a. single driving force  b. toward one overriding goal: superiority  5. striving for superiority (meaning perfection) permeates the personality a. a dominant life goal b. exemplifies total self­realization c. innate, vigorous, and universal  d. evident in every aspect of the personality 6. women no different than men in terms of real or imagined inferiority a. alleged inferiority of women (a la Freud) a male self­ interested myth b. social forces, not innate predispositions, contribute to any  inferiority feelings of women c. champion of equal rights for women D. Inferiority feelings E. Style of life   F. The creative power of the self G. Birth order:  the different social experiences of the oldest, youngest, and middle  children result in different personalities and coping mechanisms 1. oldest: insecure and hostile 2. middle: ambitious, rebellious, and jealous 3. youngest: likely to be spoiled and predisposed toward behavior problems H. Comment 1. In contrast to Freud, Adler presents an optimistic picture of humans who can  shape their own destinies no matter what genetic or childhood obstacles they face.  May be considered strong antecedent influence on humanism.  Adler is a precursor to the humanistic movement! 17 X. Karen Horney (1885­1952) A. Overview 1. one of 1  feminists 2. trained as a Freudian analyst 3. intended to extend Freud’s work, not replace it B. Horney’s life 1. born in Hamburg, Germany 2. childhood experiences influenced her system a. father (1) religious, gloomy, cold, and distant (2) disparaged Karen’s attractiveness and intelligence (“youll be  lucky to get a husband the way you look”) (3) said she didn’t need a job because shes a woman and should  just have children b. mother (1) liberal (2) full of lif (3) rejected Karen and liked son much more (4) treated brother as special c. lack of parental love autobiographical impetus for her  concept of basic anxiety: “Horney’s conception of pervasive  loneliness and helplessness, feelings that are the foundation of  neuroses.”  Heavy smoker, first free spirited woman, had many well known affairs (eric frahm was one) 3. 1913: MD from University of Berlin, despite father’s opposition 4. 1914­1918: orthodox psychoanalytic training 5. ceaseless search for approval 6. most lasting affair with Erich Fromm, another analyst who dissented with Freud C. Disagreements with Freud 1. opposed view that personality depends on unchangeable biological influence 2. denied the primacy of sex in personality formation 3. disputed Oedipal theory 4. rejected the concept of libido 5. rejected the Freudian three­part (id, ego, superego) structure of personality 6. opposed Freud’s tenet that women are motivated by penis envy 7. posited that men are instead motivated by womb envy 8. contrasting views of human nature as viewed by Horney a. Freud: pessimist, skeptic with regard to human decency  and growth potential, humanity destined to suffer or destroy b. Horney: optimistic, believer in human potential and  decency, humans capable of change D. Basic anxiety is the driving force of behavior in Horney’s system  ­most people experience basic anxiety bc of poor parents and unmet expectations 18 -basic anxiety becomes moving force of her psychoanalysis theory E. Neurotic needs -Develop these needs bc of the basic anxiety 1. Horney identified 10 neurotic and later grouped them into 3 trends a. the compliant personality: movement toward others for  affection, approval, domination in order to feel secure -Want people to like you, make friends, gain social support, extroversion b. the detached personality: movement away from others to  gain independence and faultlessness and withdraw from contact -Avoiding people as much as possible c. the aggressive personality: movement against others to  gain power and status and aggress against others -Aggressive to others who want to befriend you, Must focus on one of these approaches all the time, will cause difficulty if it’s the only way you can deal w/ other people Healthy person will use all these methods when need arises 2. all are unrealistic way to deal with anxiety a. generate conflict through their incompatibility b. are too inflexible to permit alternative behaviors c. if deep­rooted, will exacerbate one’s problems d. permeate all aspects of our personality, behavior, and  relationships F. The idealized self­image 1. false picture of self 2. masks and denies true self 3. leads to belief one better than one really is 4. neurotic conflicts a. neither innate nor inevitable b. arise from undesirable situations in childhood -bigger distortion of self image=greater psych problems G. Comment 1. Horney’s optimism greeted with pleasure 2. described personality using social rather than innate variables 3. renewed popularity with the woman’s movement 4. major contribution: writings on feminine psychology XI. Humanistic Psychology 19 A. In general, humanistic psychology 1. not intended to as a revision or adaptation of prior schools  2. instead conceived as a third force to replace the two forces of behaviorism and  psychoanalysis 3. basic themes a. emphasis on the positive rather than the negative in  human traits and goals b. focus on conscious experience  c. belief in free will d. confidence in unity of human personality B. Antecedent influences on humanistic psychology 1. Adler, Horney:  a. conscious as well as unconscious determinants of  personality and behavior humans capable of free will and have  capacity to shape themselves the present and future are important determinants along with the past 2. the Zeitgeist: the 1960s a. protest against Western mechanism and materialism b. focus on personal fulfillment c. belief in human perfectibility C. The nature of humanistic psychology 1. protested behaviorism 2. protested Freudianism 3. protested psychology’s All 3 of frueds people had bad childhoods----probably led them to psychoanalysis XII. Abraham Maslow (1908­1970) A. Overview 1. spiritual father of humanistic psychology 2. strongest influence in initiating the movement 3. garnered academic respectability for the movement 4. goal: to understand the highest achievements of which humans are capable B. His life 1. born in Brooklyn 2. unhappy childhood, escaped through study and books 3. at Cornell University, horrid first course in psychology taught by Titchener 4. early attempts to humanize psychology while teaching at Brooklyn College a. ostracized by behaviorists and avoided by colleagues b. liked by students c. major journals refused to publish his work 20 C. Self­actualization: “The full development of one’s abilities and the realization of one’s potential.” 1. the hierarchy of needs a. physiological b. safety c. belonging and love d. esteem e. self­actualization Later added esthetic and cognitive needs. 2. research method: analysis of biographies and other information of people such  as Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, and George Washington Carver 3. self­actualized persons: free of neurosis, middle­aged or older 4. tendencies common to self­actualizers  a. “objective perception of reality; b. a full acceptance of their own nature; c. a commitment and dedication to some kind of work; d. simplicity and naturalness of behavior; e. a need for autonomy, privacy, and independence; f. intense mystical or peak experiences; g. empathy with and affection for humanity; h. resistance to conformity; i. a democratic character structure; j. an attitude of creativeness, and k. a high degree of what Adler termed social interest.” XIII. Carl Rogers (1902­1987) A. Overview 1. developed person­entered therapy a. client is responsible for change b. assumes one can consciously and rationally alter one’s  thoughts and behavior 2. personality theory a. focuses on a single motive akin to self­actualization b. subject population: students treated at campus counseling  centers c. personality formed by the present and how it is consciously perceived XIV. The Fate of Humanistic Psychology was a brief flame of enthusiasm and excitement  followed by a gradual decline.  Major figures in the Humanistic movement describe humanism  as a “disappoint” or even a “failure” 21 XV. Positive Psychology  (Humanism II, The Return) A. Continued humanistic theme of studying the best characteristics of humans B. 1998: Martin Seligman, APA president 1. noted preponderance of attention to negative (e.g., anxiety and aggression) as  compared with positive (e.g., altruism and honesty) influences 2. called for more positive framework for studying the nature and potential of  humans Chapter 15 Contemporary Developments in Psychology Understand the importance of the chess game discussed in the beginning of the chapter. Understand the role of “schools” in the development of psychology as we know it today. The Cognitive Movement in Psychology Know the antecedent influences on cognitive psychology (pages 353-354) George Miller (1920­   ) 3. 1951: Language and Communication 4. 1956: classic article “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some  Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information” C. The Center for Cognitive Studies 1. purpose: to investigate the human mind 2. cognition defined by what it was not (not behaviorism) XVI. Ulric Neisser (1928­   ) 22 1. 1967: Cognitive Psychology, which becomes landmark book 2. 1976: Cognition and Reality a. dissatisfied with (1) the narrowing of the cognitive position (2) the reliance on artificial laboratory situations for data b. conclusion: cognitive psychology could contribute little  3. became a vocal critic of cognitive psychology XVII. The Computer Metaphor A. Computer replaced clock as the model of the mind B. Focus on the program (software), not the hardware (computer) C. Of interest to cognitive psychologists 1. focus: how the mind processes information 2. goal: the discovery of patterns of thinking (programs) D. Computer, like the clock, is a machine XVIII. Artificial Intelligence A. Is the intelligence of the computer the same as that of the human? B. Initially, idea eagerly accepted C. 1950 Turing test: Can a subject interacting with a computer be persuaded that  he/she is communicating instead with a human? D. Garry Kasparov (world chess champion) lost chess match to Deep Blue (gigantic  IBM computer) XIX. The Nature of Cognitive Psychology A. Cognitive factors a consideration in nearly every area with a focus on knowing B. Cognitive Neuroscience C. The role of introspection often a good predictor of behavior D. Unconscious cognition 1. cognitive psychologists agree: unconscious does more than we thought it did a. most of our thinking and information processing  b. operates more quickly and efficiently than conscious mind E. Animal cognition 1. cognitive revolution returned consciousness to animals  2. since 1970’s, how animals “encode, transform, compute, and manipulate”  information 23 F. Animal personality 1. early 1990’s, two psychologists study 44 red octopuses a. keepers saw different personalities in them b. psychologists observed using 3 experimental situations c. found 3 factors: activity, reactivity, avoidance d. they said this was personality 2. since then other studies have shown support for animal personality a. variety: “fish, spiders, farm animals, hyenas, chimps, and  dogs” b. example: mice, chimps, elephants, and dolphins showed  empathy 3. evidence of more similarity between humans and animals G. Evolutionary psychology 1. as biological animals, humans have been programmed (wired) through  evolution to behave and process information in a manner that increases the  likelihood of survival and reproduction 2. four fundamental questions a. How did the human mind evolve? b. How is it designed and organized? c. What are its functions? d. How does it interact with environmental stimuli to effect  behavior? e. evolutionary psychology specified ways in which the  design of the mind led to survival and reproduction  3. the influence of sociobiology a. 1975: biologist Edward O. Wilson published the seminal  book Sociobiology: A New Synthesis (1) defined sociobiology as “the systematic study of the biological  basis of all social behavior.”  (2) controversy erupted because of several implications  (a) humans are not created equal (b) genetic, not cultural, influences may determine  behavior (c) suggests unchangeable nature of human behavior (d) division of labor based on sex, ethical behavior,  tribalism, male dominance, territorial aggression, etc.,  defined as elements of human nature (3) Sociobiology became extremely negative term 4. current status of evolutionary psychology


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