Study Guide for Ch.12 Extra Credit Test
Study Guide for Ch.12 Extra Credit Test Psych 415
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shea Repins on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 415 at Clemson University taught by Edwin Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Systems and Theories in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Ch.12 study: -Tenerife- most famous island in psychology -Differences b/w gestalt and behaviorism: Gestalt psychologists accepted value of consciousness but criticized the attempt to reduce it to elements. Behavioralists refused to acknowledge the usefulness of the concept of consciousness for a science -Brick and mortar= what gestalt psychologists called Wudnt’s approach -They believed that a whole is different than the sum of its parts Antecedents: Kant: argued that when we perceive objects, we encounter mental states composed of bits and pieces. Perception is an active organizing of elements into a coherent experience Brantano: proposed that psychology should study the act of experiencing Mach: Wrote “the analysis of sensations” and discussed figures and melodies which he considered sensations. These sensations were independent from their individual elements. A perception of an object doesn’t change even if we change our orientation to it. Von ehrenfels: elaborated Mach’s ideas and proposed qualities of experience (Form qualities), which are perceptions based on something greater than individual sensations James: stated people see objects as wholes, not as bundles of sensations Phenomenolgy: description of immediate experience just as it occurs. It is not anazlyzd or reduced. -New pysics supported Gestalts ideas because of Field Of Force 3 Founders of Gestalt Psychology--- Wertheimer: Wertheimer Research: -Seeing motion when no motion occurred -Stroboscope: Rapidly projects a series of different pictures on the eye producing apparent motion “ -significant b/c perception of apparent motion cannot be broken down into elements -Phi Phenomenon: the illusion that two stationary flashing lights are moving from one place to another -Published his findings in “experimental studies of the perception of movement” which marked the formal beginning of gestalt psychology Life: -Earned his doctorate under Kulpe at Univeristy of Wurzburg -Found bright colors stimulating and painted his office bright red -Published “Psychological Research” with Kafka and Kohler which become official publication of Gestalt Psychology (Nazi’s suspended its printing but it resumed after the war) -Fled Germany and came to US where he taught at the New School for Social Research -Made strong impression of Maslow who developed self-actualization and humanistic psychology Koffka: -Most inventive of the founders -Studied psychology with Carl Stumpf -Worked at University of Frankfurt with Kohler and Wertheimer -During WW1 he worked with brain-damaged patients at the psychiatric clinic at University of Giessen -Wrote an article called “Perception: an intro ogestault-theorie” which did more harm than good b/c of the word perception in the title. -Perception was only a main focus of Gestalt Psychology b/c it was a good way to attack wundt -Published “The Growth of the Mind” (book about child psychology) and “Principles of Gestalt Psychology” (which was not as popular as he expected) -Became professor at Smith College Kohler: -Most prolific promoter of the Gestalt Movement -Trained in physics with Plank and he believed psychology must ally with physics and that Gestalten (forms/patterns) occurs in physics and psychology. -Received his doctorate from Stumpf at University of Berlin -Arrived at University of Frankfurt right before Wertheimer -Invited to Tenerife by the Prussian Academy of Science to study chimps -Claimed he wasn’t able to leave once the wars started -People have suggested that he may have been a german spy and his research facility was a cover for espionage activities -He was said to have a radio transmitter in his attic and his house was on a cliff overlooking the ocean -All evidence is circumstantial and has been challenged by historians and Kohler’s followers -Wrote “the mentality of apes” -When he came back to Germany he sold the chmips to the berlin zoo -Succeeded Stumpf as a professor of psychology at University of Berlin -Wrote “Static and Srantionary Phsyical Gestalts” which had much praise for its high level of scholarship and suggested that Gestalt theory was a general law of nature that should be extended into all areas of science -Kohler opposed marriage and family life b/c it was an imposition on his freedom -Developed a tremor that worsened when he was annoyed and his workers would use it to gauge his mood -Lectured at Harvard and clark (taught grad students how to tango) -Wrote “Gestalt Psychology” an account of the gestalt movement -only non-jewish psychologist in Germany to protest removal of jewish scholars publicly -Immigrated to us, taught at Swathmore College, elected president of APA Gestalt Revolt: Perceptual constancy- a quality of wholeness in perceptual experience that doesn’t vary when the sensory elements change -The world Gestalt caused problems bc the term doesn’t clearly denote what the movement stands for (common English equivalents are shape or form) -In german, gestalt can refer to objects or their characteristic forms Principles of Perceptual Organization -We perceive objects as unified wholes rather than clusters of individual sensations Peripheral factors: 1. Proximity- parts close together in time/space appear to belong together and will be perceived together 2. Continuity- our perception tends to follow a direction and connect the elements in a way that makes them seem continuous 3. Similarity- similar parts tend to be seen together as forming a group 4. Closure- perception tends to complete incomplete figures (fill in the gaps) 5. Simplicity- we see a figure as symmetrical, stable, and cannot be made simpler/more orderly (called pragnaz/good form) 6. Figure/ground- we organize perceptions into the object being looked at (the figure) and the background where it appears (the ground) APE studies: -Ape grabbed string attached to banana easily but when several strings were hung the ape has trouble finding the one with the banana -The fruit placed piece of fruit placed outside of cage and a stick so the ape perceived them as the same situation and used the stick to get the fruit. When the stick was placed far from the fruit the two things weren’t seen as part of the same situation. -Banana was put outside cage too far to reach and two bamboo sticks were placed in cage. The ape would have to put the sticks together to reach the banana. So he would have to visualize a new relationship between the two sticks -These studies provided evidence of insight (spontaneous understanding of relationships). The word used to describe this was einsicht -Kohler believed that the insight/problem solving that his chimps displayed was different from thorndikes trial and error -In Gestalt, the animal much be able to perceive the relationships between various parts of the problem before insight can occur. Productive thinking: -Weithermiers book that proposed thinking is done in terms of wholes. -At different ages, he discovered evidence that the whole problem must dominate the parts -He found repetition to be rarely productive - Isomorphism: -The doctrine that there is a correspondence b/w psychological or conscious experience and the underlying brain experience “ -Focus of brain mechanisms involved in perception -Cerebral cortex=dynamic system where elements active at the time interact -Wertheimer suggested brain activity is a configured, whole process -Kohler extended this theory in book “static and stationary physical gestalts” - Spread of Gestalt psychology: -Mid 1920’s it was a dominant school of thought in Germany -Centered at Psychological institute at U of Berlin and attracted many students (half of whom were women) -After Nazis forced it to shit to the USA -Harry Helson published articles that helped bring it to the US -Kohler was a keynote speaker at Yale -Slow acceptance in the US because: behaviorism was at peak of popularity, language barrier, incorrectly thought that it only dealt with perception, the 3 founders settled at small us colleges without grad programs, and most importantly! Americans believed that gestalt psychologists were fighting an enemy America has already beaten (Wudnt) Battle with behaviorism: -Because US had already dismissed Wudnt’s ideas it was pointless for Gestalt to focus of that anymore -They began to argue that behaviorism also dealt with artificial abstractions -Koffka also argued that it was senseless to develop a psychology without consciousness like the behaviorists had done -Hull said “these goddamn gestaulers” Lewis: -Field theory- his system using the concept of fields of force to explain behavior in terms of ones field of social influences -Received his PhD from Stumpf at Berlin. -Served in the German army during WW1, was wounded, and received the Iron Cross -Became visiting professor at Stanford -Presented his field theory at the international psychology conference at Yale -Spent two years at Cornell, then went to Univeristy of Iowa -Research of social psychology of children led to invitation to develop the Research center for group dynamics at MIT -This center is still active at the Univeristy of Michigan -He studied human behavior: -Wanted to make work a source of personal satisfaction and not just a way of living -Life Space- where a persons past, present, and future psychological activities occur -Used topological maps to diagram all forms of behavior and psychological phenomenon Lewis predictions 1. a tension-system develops when people are given a task 2. The tension goes away when the task is completed 3. If it is not completed, the tension left results in a greater likelihood the subject will recall the task Zeigarnik’s result confirmed these predictions -Zeigarnik effect-tendency to recall uncompleted tasks more easily than completed tasks -Lewins inspiration for this experiment came from watching a waiter remember orders without writing them down and then later forgetting after the costumers had paid Social Psychology: -Group dynamics- application of psychological concepts to individual and group behaviors -Conducted experiment involving different leadership styles among groups of boys -Conducted studies on prevention of prejudice in childhood -Promoted sensitivity training for educators tor reduce conflict in groups (T-groups) Critisms of Gestalt psych: -Organization of perceptual process was not approached as a scientific problem but rather as something whose existence was simply accepted -Positions were vague and incomplete -Too occupied with theory instead of research/empirical data -less quantitave than other schools -More acceoted in Europe than the us
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