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Study Guide Answers for Downloaded Study Guide

by: Alison Dhont

Study Guide Answers for Downloaded Study Guide Psychology 101

Marketplace > California State University Chico > Psychlogy > Psychology 101 > Study Guide Answers for Downloaded Study Guide
Alison Dhont
CSU Chico
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes are all the terms for the study guide, and their definitions as stated in her notes and the book.
Principles of psychology
Allee Kreamer
Study Guide
Psychology, Study Guide, All Terms, definitions
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alison Dhont on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 101 at California State University Chico taught by Allee Kreamer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Principles of psychology in Psychlogy at California State University Chico.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
Major Psychological Theoretical Perspectives Psychodynamic - A study that emphasizes the underlying human behaviors, feelings, and emotions and how they might relate to early human experiences. *Unconscious mind used to focus on sex, focuses on early childhood. - Behavioral - How behavior is learned and why we behave. Believed to all be born with blank slates. John Watson believed that observable behavior was what mattered, while skinner studied the change of behavior through operant conditioning. (Pavlov's dogs) - Humanistic - Focuses on free will and the ability to chose your own destiny. to get self actualization. One has to reach their full potential. "all people are born good" - Cognitive - Focuses on memory, perception, problem solving, and learning. You need the whole brain and all its parts to function. Cognitive neuroscience- can observe physical changes to brain to observe changes. You acquire all your knowledge through changes and experiences. - Sociocultural - Recognizes that our social environment influences out attitudes and beliefs. Cross cultural research is when you study how different cultures are the same or different. - Biopsychology - Causes of behavior are hormones, heredity, brain chemicals, tumors, and diseases. We are the way we are because our body tells us to be this way. It is how we are programed. - Evolutionary - Focuses on the things that we all share together. Explains the development of universal characteristics overtime. Natural selection, social darwinism, we adapt to behaviors to help survive. Sensation VS Perception Sensation vs perception - Sensation- the process of having receptors that sense environmental stimuli. Which eventually becomes neural signals in the brain. Perception- The interpretation and organization of the neural signals produced through sensation into meaningful information about our environment. Light: Characteristics of light - brightness- Amplitude (height) Higher- >brighter lower-> dimmer Color- Length: longer-> redder Shorter->blue Saturation- higher saturation-only "one" color lower saturation- mixed wave lengths Optic Chiasm - Greek for "crossing" The optic chasm is in the back of the brain, and it crosses to reach the eyes. Colorblindness - Problems with receptors on the retina results in color deficiency. *Monochromatic- one type of cone, sees no color at all, shades of gray. *Dichromatic- Protanopia: Red and green deficiency, lack of red cones Deuteranopia: Red green deficiency, lack of green Tritanopia: Blue yellow deficiency Trichromatic Theory - Three types of cones Short- Blue Middle- Green Long- Red How cones interpret light After Images - Images that continue to appear after the exposure to the original image has ceased. Not explained by the trichromatic theory. Opponent process theory - explains afterimages color vision caused by opposing color responses red->green Blue->yellow black->white - Iris - Colored part of the eye muscle around pupil controls how much light comes into the eye making pupil smaller/larger - Lens - Transparent, flexible disk behind the iris, finishes focusing process. Visual accommodation changes thickness to see further or nearer. - pupil - Hole in middle of eye where light enters. - Cornea - Covers surface of eye protects focusing light energy in the retina. - Blind spot - Also known as optic disk. Where the optic nerve exits the eye, no rods or cones and your brain fills in the lack of image. - Optic nerve - Axons of all the ganglia cells in the retina. Travels out of the eye to the brain. - Fovea - The middle of the retina. Greatest concentration of cones but NO RODS - Retina - Light sensitive are in back of eye. Sensory receptor cells receive proteins of light 3 layers. (rods, cones, bipolar cells, ganglia cells) - Inverse projection problem - Image on the retina can be caused by an infinite number of different objects. We have ways of figuring it out. - Gestalt Principles - Figure Ground Relationships Closure Proximity Continuity Similarity Common region Figure Ground Relationships - The figure is varied depending on how you see the photo and what is in the foreground. - Closure - Missing parts are filled in to create a meaningful image. See the whole - proximity - Objects near each other are just grouped together. - continuity - Refers to nearness in time, like a puppeteer uses his voice at the same time the puppet talks to create the illusion. - Similarity - Objects that are similar are grouped together to make a pattern or a photo, even though its just random dots. - common region - Tendency to perceive objects in a common area as being grouped together. Accommodation - The change in the shape or thickness of our lens when focusing on an object at various distances. Convergence - The rotation of our eyes in their sockets to focus on a subject. The more strain on your eyes, the closer it probably is. the less the farther it is. Binocular disparity - Difference between the images on each retina provides information about depth. (close one eye and close the other) Very different= close Very similar=far 3D Movies - Purposefully create disparity to produce depth. Constancy - Recognition that objects are constant and unchanging even though sensory input about them is changing. Like Shape, Size, and Brightness. Illusions - A false or misleading impression produced by errors in the perceptual process. Processing information - The way we interpret what we received through sensation can influence our perceptions. Bottom up Processing - The analysis of small features building up to a complete perception. Like learning to read or learning guitar. Top down processing - using pre existing knowledge to organize individual features into a whole. THE POAMMEHAL PWEOR OF THE HMUAN MNID. Biological Psychology Medulla - Part of hindbrain that controls the heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing. Pons - Part of the hindbrain that relays messages to the cerebellum and the cortex. Influences sleeping and dreaming and arousal. Corpus Callosum - Connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain together. Without it you have a split brain personality. Thalamus - Part of the forebrain that relays information from sensory glands to cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness Hypothalamus - Part of the brain that regulates fear, sexual drive, and thirst, and aggression. (Four F's, Fighting, Fleeing, Feeding, And ****ing.) Pituitary Glands - Regulates our endocrine glands ( Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct. The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.) Cerebellum - Controls your balance, maintains muscle coordination. (when you get drunk it is affected.) Amygdala - influences our motivation, emotional control, fear responses, and interpretations of nonverbal emotional expressions. (almond) emotion in memory! Hippocampus - Plays a role in helping us learn, memorize, and compare sensory Information to expectations. Important role in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation. (Looks like a seahorse. forms long term memory.) Limbic System - parts of the brain that controls emotions, motivations, and learning. MAJOR STRUCTURES: hypothalamus Hippocampus Amygdala Frontal Lobe - Has most dopamine in system. Planning and complex decisions and emotion. Has motor cortexVoluntary motor behavior) and Broca's area (speech and language production.) - Parietal Lobe - Sensory information. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. **Somatosensory Cortex- Interprets sensory information from skin and internal body receptors into feelings of touch, temp, and body position. - Occipital Lobe - Primary visual cortex. (sensation) Primary visual association cortex (perception) - Temporal Lobe - Auditory processing Center. Wernickes area (How we understand words.) Wernicke's aphasia - cannot understand words. - Central Nervous System (CNS) - Brain and Spinal Chord. Consists of neurons - Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - Consists of the Autonomic (automatically regulates internal organs, glands, and blood vessels, pupil dilation, and blood pressure) and the Somatic nervous system (Carries sensory information and controls movement of skeletal muscles) - Iqa.9MNWqtqtA_m.jpg Electro Chemical (what to the parts mean) + Electrochemical Processes - electro- Action potential Chemical- Neurotransmitters + Electrical charges sent down the neuron signaling the release of chemicals (neurotransmitters) cell communication - Depolarizes until it reaches action potential. Then the cell opens up and sodium ions rush into the cell. The membrane becomes positive and opens up more channels. This then makes the neuron more positive. Potassium ions now leaves the cell, which causes Repolarization. - synapses - A microscopic gap between the icon terminals and the dendrites of the next neuron. - Chemical Messangers - Glutamate- Excitatory, most abundant. Inhibitory. GABA- inhibitory, ( Glutamate acts as a general stimulant to nerve cells, while GABA inhibits them. Their balance is crucial to brain function. Too much glutamate can cause seizures while too little can cause coma.) dopamine- Pleasure and movement Parts of a neuron - *Soma- (cell body) receives information from dendrites and passes it to other neurons. *Axon- fiber attached to soma. Carries down length of cell. Myelin sheath, is a fatty insulation covering the axon. it protects the cell. *Axon Terminals- Forms junctions with other cells called synapses. Release calcium neurotransmitters. *Dendrites- Branches. Receives messages from other cells, but accepts neurotransmitters at receptor sites. - Repolarization VS Depolarization - repolarization= bringing positive ions out of cell. Depolarization= Bringing positive ions into cell Scientific Method Steps of the Scientific Method - 1. Perceive the data 2. Form a hypothesis 3. Test your hypothesis 4. Draw a conclusion 5. Report your results Naturalistic Observation - researcher observes a person in their natural habitat. Pro: Realistic results Con: Observer effect and bias Laboratory observation - Participants are brought to a controlled environment to be observed. Con: Artificial Pro: lots of control Case Study - Study one individual in great detail. Pro: Lots of detail about one person Cons:No other opinions. Surveys - Ask questions about a topic to a group of people either willing or chosen to take a questionnaire. Pro: Lots of people answering Cons: Inaccurate information from too many of the same people. not a fair representation. Causation - Cause and effect. When an observed effect or action appears to have caused a second action. Correlation - The relationship between two variables used to describe or predict information. positive correlation: everything reacts the same negative correlation: as one decreases, the other increases and vise versa. - Independent variable Dependent variable - independent- can be controlled or changed. dependent- controlled or influenced by an outside factor. - Third Variable Problem - Might be a third (lurking variable) that is effecting the outcome. Example: "As the ice cream sales increases so do murders" Experiment - A manipulation to a variable to see how they correspond to each other allowing a cause. ---> effect relationship. Population - Entire group of animals/ people that a researcher is interested in observing. Sample - The group within the population that participates in experiment. - Representative sample - Selected group of participants selected from the population. -


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