Psychology 201 Exam #4
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shane Ng on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Sereno in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Memory What is memory? - The storage and retention of information and events about the world. - A record of the past which is constantly used to affect the present. Information Processing Model of Memory - 3 Memory stores with different functions, capacities, and durations: o Sensory Memory STM (short term memory) LTM (Long term memory - Sensory Memory o A trace of the sensory input is retained for a brief period. o High capacity and very short duration. - Short-term Memory (STM/Working Memory) o Attentive/conscious processing occurs here o Information can enter STM from both sensory memory and LTM. o Small capacity and short duration. - Long-term Memory (LTM): o The stored representation of knowledge gained from previous experience. o Unlimited capacity and definite duration. - “Control Processes”: manipulate information within or between stores - Encoding: movement of information form STM to LTM. - Storage: maintaining information over time in LTM. - Retrieval: movement of information from LTM to STM (remembering). Kinds of Memory/Knowledge 1. Implicit/Procedural Knowledge a. A learned skill or habitual response (i.e., bike riding, conditioning). b. Is accessible through performance. 2. Explicit/Declarative Knowledge a. Can be made explicit or “declared” in words (or with a picture). b. Semantic: general knowledge of the world (i.e., word meanings such as “bird”). c. Episodic: knowledge of specific past experience/events (know place and time). Sensory Memory - Visual sensory memory = “Iconic Memory” o Sperling – partial report procedure Brief presentation of an array of letters Subjects asked to report only 1 row of the array, chosen after the physical stimulus disappeared. The cue tells subjects which letters in the sensory trace to transfer into STM for report. o Large capacity (nearly perfect cued recall). o Short duration. (<1 sec) Delay cue onset. STM and Encoding into LTM - Capacity of (verbal) STM: maximum number of items that can be recalled after one presentation is 7 items (+ or – 2 items). - Duration of STM: Brown and Peterson measured the rate of disappearance of items from STM when rehearsal is prevented. o Info lost quickly from STM without rehearsal. o Performance decrement after 3 seconds. o Barely above chance after 15 seconds. - Primacy and Recency Effect o Serial List-Learning shows evidence of separate STM and LTM stores. Subjects presented serial list of items to be remembered one at a time. Immediately afterwards, free recall of items. o Recall more items from beginning (primacy effect) and end (recency effect) of list. o Final items recalled because they are still in STM. o Early items are recalled because they are rehearsed more than later ones and therefore have a better chance of being encoded into LTM. - Maintenance vs. Elaborative Rehearsal o Maintenance rehearsal: the length of time an item is rehearsed (kept in STM) is not related to how well it is remembered. Example: List of words presented in order. Hold onto last G-word. Time G-word held in memory has no effect on the later recall. o Elaborative rehearsal: involves thinking deeply and actively about something. o The more something captures our interest, stimulates though, etc., the more likely it will be remembered. o Examples: Identify how facts/items are related to each other and to prior knowledge. Ask questions. Make comments. Be active. Develop an overall organization of knowledge/facts. - Depth of Processing o Experiment: subjects shown list of words. After each word, asked a question: Print (visual) – Written in capitals? Sound (acoustic) – Rhyme with “rain”? Meaning (semantic) – Fit into the sentence…? o Subjects remember far more words when they focus on the meaning. o The more extensively/deeply (i.e., word) is processed, the more likely remembered. - Ways to Increase Recall o Chunking: Info can be “chunked” into larger units. Chunking especially useful if can organized items to match something in LTM. Example: This subject was a cross-country runner, he chunked digits into running times. i.e., 3-4-9-2 became 3 min 49.2 sec, near record. Must relate materials to what we already know to help organize incoming information. o Mnemonic Devices: Mental tricks used to encode information into LTM. Strategies to improve memory. Method of Loci: place list of items to be remembered on familiar route. o Practice retrieving information (i.e., answering test questions) o Distributed study time (vs. cramming). o Verbal and visual Mnemonics LTM – Representation and Organization - Representing Verbal Information o Retain gist/meaning vs. exact wording. - Presented + Tested: o One proposition (i.e., statement) per sentence: The ants were in the kitchen. The jelly was on the table. The jelly was sweet. The ants ate the jelly. o Two: The ants in the kitchen ate the jelly. The ants ate the sweet jelly. The sweet jelly was on the table. The ants ate the jelly which was on the table. o Three: The ants ate the sweet jelly which was on the table. The ants in the kitchen ate the jelly which was on the table. The ants in the kitchen ate the sweet jelly. - Tested Only (never presented): o Four: The ants in the kitchen ate the sweet jelly which was on the table. - When asked to identify the story they had read, subjects most confidently identified the sentence which contained all 4 propositions. - Even though they had never seen this sentence, they retained the gist of the story not the exact wording. - Representing Visual-Spatial Information o Visual-spatial information: Stored as propositions (verbal statements) or as visual images (a visual representation that preserves spatial and for information)? o Evidence for a visual-spatial format: Scanning Experiments i.e., Memorize map of island. Then, imagine map of island. Scan from location x to location y. RT is proportional to distance between the 2 points. Mental Rotation Experiments Present subjects with letters some of which are mirror-reversed and rotated at varying degrees from upright. Task: identify as quickly as possible if letter is mirror reversed. Results: Time required to respond depends on degree of rotation. Evidence that subjects mentally rotate figure to upright position to compare it with an image stored in memory. Eidetic Imagery Long lasting and detailed images of a visual scene. Can be scanned or “looked at”. - Concepts (word meanings) and the Organization of Knowledge o Concepts refer to categories of things. o Prototype theory of concepts: picture-like representation of a typical or average member of a category. i.e., word meanings/concepts are not just definitional, but are represented by prototypes (the average/typical member). o Evidence for Prototypes: Rosch Subjects rate certain members of categories as more typical than other members. E.g., robin and bluebird are typical birds; chicken and penguin are atypical birds. Subjects more quickly and accurately recognize typical examples. - Hierarchical model of semantic (conceptual) memory o Hierarchically arranged categories o Each category has properties, which are stored as high as possible in the hierarchy. Lower categories inherit the properties of the higher categories to which they belong. o Links between different categories and between categories and their properties. o Is efficient can make inferences o One level (the middle level) in this hierarchy is basic – the level at which people best think about the categorize an object. Example: “apple” vs. “fruit” or “Golden Delicious” o Form prototypes of basic-level categories - Use of Categories? o Rapid organization, classification, and prediction of aspects of experience. LTM – Retrieval - Forgetting o Over short term Forgetting curves have similar shapes. For example, learning faces, pictures, etc. o Over long term Forgetting a foreign language: Performance on a Spanish reading comprehension test administered from 0-50 years ater taking Spanish in High-school. o Childhood amnesia - Forgetting due to decay, interference, or lack of appropriate retrieval cues. o Interference: Retroactive interference: Inhibitory effect of new material on old (e.g., learning a new phone number or address suddenly makes it hard to retrieve the old info). Proactive interference: Inhibitory effect of old material on new (e.g., initially learning how to pronounce a word wrong “colonel” affects ones ability to do it right in the future). o Interference is greatest when the different learning tasks involve similar items. o Retrieval Cues: Recall vs. Recognition. Recalling info: no stimulus present to help. Recognizing info: stimulus is there providing retrieval cues. Recognition is much easier, especially if a long time has pasted since learning. Information is harder to access with time; need more retrieval cues. o Essay vs. multiple choice exams: One (essay) relies on recall, the other (mc), on recognition. (in recognition, retrieval cues are provided in the answers). - Forgetting - Role of retrieval cues - Cues present during the initial encoding of a LTM will be most useful for its retrieval: o Context-dependent memory: scuba divers learn words either on land or under water. Tested either on land or under water. Better recall if tested in same environment. o State-dependent memory: word learning with or without marijuana… o Get context- and state-dependent memory effects mainly for recall tests. Context and state aid memory by providing retrieval cues. - Constructive Effects in Memory - Remembering is an active inferential process influenced by a person’s general knowledge of the world. o Barlett (1932) – remembering pictures and stories Students listen to a Native American story “ The War of the Ghosts”; later retell story. Parts of story that were consistent with Indian beliefs but not student’s were changed to fit student’s beliefs. They tend to: Simplify the story Changed the emphasis Assimilate – change details to fit their own cultural background or knowledge. o Remembering pictures serial reproduction of pictures. o Loftus: information added after an event can affect people’s apparent memory. o Other experiments: suggest that new information supplements or competes with (vs. replaces) the original information. New information given by experimenter leads subjects to doubt their own memories. Misleading information has not replaced the original info, but has simply provided alternative/competing information. o Repressed memories: suppressed memories of traumatic events (such as childhood physical or sexual abuse) that resurface later in life. o “False memory syndrome”: Loftus and others question the accuracy of repressed memories, especially those that are recovered during psychotherapy. o However: Memory accuracy and memory persistence (recovered or continuous) are independent. We can have memories that are largely true or false whether recovered or continuous. Repressing memories of abuse is more likely when the perpetrator is a caregiver, such as a parent then when they are not the caregiver such as a family friend or a stranger. Forgetting occurs for many different types of trauma. Neuropsychology of Memory - Anatomy of Sensory Systems: o Primary sensory areas high level sensory areas (IT cortex) Hippocampus/Amygdala 1. Damage to IT cortex: deficits in pattern recognition (e.g., visual agnosia) this is where long term memories are stored. 2. Damage to Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) structures (Hippocampus and Amygdala) a. Results in anterograde and retrograde amnesia. - Anterograde Amnesia: difficulty in establishing new memories. - Retrograde Amnesia: difficulty in retrieving memories formed just before the onset of amnesia (i.e., before the time that the damage occurred). In other words, lose youngest memories (i.e., newly established memories which are the most vulnerable). Case H.M. - Surgery which removed his hippocampus and amygdala to treat severe epilepsy. - Preserved: STM (can correctly repeat 6-7 digits), language, social skills, personality, memory for the remote/distant past (everything up to 1 year before his surgery), and procedural memory. - Can learn and retain new procedural skills/memories. - Lost: o Anterograde amnesia: unable to form new declarative memories (episodic and semantic memories). o Retrograde amnesia: lost declarative memories up to 1 year before the surgery. - Need interaction between MTL structures and cortex to establish new long-term declarative memories in cortex. This process is known as consolidation (the integration of new memories with old ones) and takes time. Language Introduction - Human language is flexible, symbol-and rule-based mode of communication that permits conveyance of any kind of information. - Popular (Incorrect) Notions of Language o Language change is corruption. Some languages are more advanced. Some pronunciations are better. o Language acquisition: children learn by imitation. Introduction: Properties of Human Language - Creative: a limitless number of thoughts can be expressed in a limitless number of ways. - Structured: sounds are combined into words, and words into sentences according to rules (i.e., grammar). - Meaningful: ideas are conveyed by individual words and how they are organized into sentences. o E.g., The cat bit the dog. o The dog bit the cat. o (same words but different meanings.) - Referential: it refers to and describes things and events in the world. Children must learn the mapping (between words and things/events in world). - Interpersonal/Communicative: has a social function o E.g., Can you tell me the time? Introduction: Competence vs. Performance - Competence: what one knows. o Implicit knowledge – knowing what’s “right” (e.g., plural, wordness, syntactic competence.) o Explicit knowledge – explain in terms of formal rules (grammar). o Most knowledge is implicit, unless you are a linguist, English major or English is a 2ng language. - Performance: what one does; how knowledge is used (often make mistakes). - Competence is usually better than performance. The Structure of Language - 7000 different languages in the world today. All have the same basic hierarchical structure: - Sounds (phonemes) words (morphemes) Phrases sentences conversations 1. Phonemes: elementary sounds of speech. o There are vowel (“e”) and consonant (“t”) sounds. o Phonemes are not letters. o Any given language has 11-144 phonemes, which can be arranged to produce an enormous number of different possible words. o E.g. English has 40, Hawaiian has 16, Arabic and Hindi have 60 - Combining phonemes is rule governed: some sound combinations are pronounceable but not allowed. 2. Morphemes: the smallest meaningful unit of language o Word ( help, love) o Word stem (spir, ceive, duce) o Prefix (re-, dis-) o Suffix (-less, -ful) - Two general class of morphemes: o Content Words: carry the main meaning of the sentence. Includes nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. o Function Words: grammatical words. Includes articles (a, the), conjunctions (and, but), prepositions (in, of), and prefixes and suffixes. o Neurological correlate in aphasia selective impairment of content (Wernicke’s aphasia) or function words (Broca’s aphasia). 3. Phrases and Sentences: the rule governed system for grouping of words together into phrases and sentences is called Syntax. Organizing Words into Meaningful Sentences - The subject (or noun phrase) of the sentence introduces some concept that they are about. - The predicate (or verb phrase) of the sentence propose or predicate something about that concept. o “The boy hit the ball.” o Subject predicate - Chomsky - Sentences can have the same meaning (deep structure) bit different surface phrase structures (surface structure). o “The boy hit the ball” (active) o “The ball was hit by the boy” (passive) o Do not confuse the two - Sentences can have the same surface structure but different deep structures. o E.g., Ambiguity of structure - Speech Production: o “Slips of the tongue” or spoonerisms: errors in speech prodiction in which two elements in a sentence (phonemes, morphemes) are mistakenly inter changed in position. o Swaps involving words can occur across the sentence; phoneme swaps occur only within a phrase. Comprehension - Strong bias in English to interpret sentence as: subject, verb, object. - Grammatical morphemes o “is and by” to signal the passive construction o “who” to signal embedded proposition in the sentence Neuropsychology of Language - Language is in the left hemisphere for most people. - Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area - Damage causes Aphasia (loss of language ability): o Broca’s Aphasia: problems in production; syntactic (sentence grammar) deficits. Can understand language fairly well but have trouble producing language. Telegraphic speech: use as few words as possible to get across meaning. Some comprehension problems for grammatical morphemes (which are normally used to decipher the syntax of a sentence). o Wernicke’s Aphasia: problems in comprehension; semantic (meaning/content) deficits. Deficits in language comprehension Speech is superficially fluent (grammatical structure is fine) bit loses its meaning. Some production problems deficient in use and understanding of content words but not function/grammatical words. Language in Nonhumans - Language in humans requires the ability to: o Represent objects or events with symbols. (language is referential) o Combine symbols in a systematic way. (Syntax) - Language learning in Apes: Use symbols (plastic chips or on a computer screen) or ASL (American Sign Language) because apes cannot speak (different vocal tracts than ours. - Chimpanzees can learn words, but have limited ability to create or understand syntactic structures. - Bonobo chimps may be better than other chimps at learning words, since they have rudimentary syntactic abilities (2 year old human level). Their language understanding is better than their production.
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