Study Guide 2: Chapters 5, 7, 8, 10, and 11
Study Guide 2: Chapters 5, 7, 8, 10, and 11 Psych 1010
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Study Guide 2: Chapters 5, 7, 8, 10, and 11 Chapter 5: Developing through the Life Span Developmental Psychology – studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout a lifespan Focuses on issues concerning 1. Nature versus nurture 2. Continuity and life stages 3. Stability and change Humans develop in stages Zygotes – fertilized eggs which enter a two week period of cell division and become an embryos o Moves from conception to implantation Embryos – a developing human organism found two weeks after fertilization through the second month o Organogenesis Fetus – a developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth o Fetuses can learn through sound (especially their mothers’ voices) Teratogens – “monster maker” agents, including chemicals and viruses, that reach an embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm o This can include alcohol, smoking, and STDs Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – pregnant woman’s drinking leads to physical or cognitive abnormalities in the child Habituation – decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation o As infants are repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner o Gives us a way to ask infants what they see and remember Maturation – biological growth processes that allow changes in behavior and is uninfluenced by environment Brain development includes o Brain neurons produced by the cortex and the connections among neurons proliferate at birth o Reflexes are inborn Rooting Reflex – turn toward touch Sucking Reflex – suck on something in the mouth Crying o From 3 to 6 years frontal lobe grows o Association areas are last to develop with thinking, language, and memory Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Motor development is universal and includes o Genes that guide development o Cerebellum development Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory o Cognition – mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating o A child’s mind develops in stages and they are internally motivated to make sense of their experiences as they mature with environment interaction o Schema – a concept that organizes and interprets information o Stage Theory – cognitive development consists of sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages o Piaget thoughts that kids did not think abstractly yet evidence shows children notice violations in physics Researchers believe he underestimated children’s competence Object Permanence – the awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not directly perceived Math Study in which babies stare longer and with more surprise when numbers don’t seem to make sense as when a doll is taken out of a situation when, in the previous situation, the doll was there Theory of Mind – understanding of one’s own and others’ mental states including feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors and the understanding that others have their own thoughts Attachment – an emotional tie with another person in which young children feel close to their caregiver and become stressed when separated from them o Separation anxiety peaks and fades whether kids are at home or in daycare (environmental) o Monkey Experiment in which monkeys preferred the physical and comfortable body contact from a fake mother rather than the fake mother that was providing food o Sensitive and responsive caregiving leads to secure attachments and may affect later relations Critical Period – optimal period in early life when exposure to stimuli and experiences helps produce normal development o Imprinting – certain animals form strong attachments to others during early life Basic Trust – Erik Erikson’s idea that there is a sense the world is predictable and trustworthy which is formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers Affluent children are at risk for greater drug use, eating disorders, depression, and anxiety Children are resilient Abuse breeds abuse Children suffer when bonds are severed Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts SelfConcept – all thoughts and feelings that answer who one is Authoritarian Style – emphasis on rules and obedience; “because I said so” Permissive Style – unrestraining, make little demands, indifferent, submit to kids development Authoritative Style – confront and demand but allows exceptions Adolescence – the transition from childhood to adulthood and puberty to independence o Puberty – sexual maturation when one becomes able to reproduce Includes teen brain development in which emotional limbic system is wired before the frontal lobes so teens understand risks but like rewards despite consequences Brain stops adding new connections and becomes more efficient by rewiring and coating existing connections in myelin sheath (pruning also occurs) Adolescents apply reason and begin to think about what others may think of them Identity – a sense of self in which adolescents solidify their sense of self by testing out and integrating various roles (Erikson) Social Identity – aspects of selfconcept that come from group memberships Intimacy – the ability to form close and loving relationships primarily in young adulthood (Erikson) Western adolescents seek to form their own identities and peer relationships become more important but parents are still seen as a primary influence in the life of adolescent Better parent relationships lead to better peer relationships o During adolescents, parentchild conflicts are over minor daily issues Emerging Adulthood – period from eighteen to midtwenties when those in Western cultures are no longer adolescents yet have not fully reached independence as adults From mid to late adulthood, people experience o Changes in fertility Menopause – natural cessation of menstruation or the biological changes a woman experiences as her reproduction ability declines o Sexuality lessens o Physical decline o Mind frame Keep more positive, stable mood, and increased sense of competence Neurocognitive Disorder – acquired disorders from cognitive deficits often relate to Alzheimer’s, brain injury, or substance abuse (previously known as dementia) Social Clock – culturally preferred timing of social events including marriage, parenthood, and retirement Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of love and work in adulthood Wellbeing changes across the lifespan o From teen years to midlife is a strengthening of identity o Later life challenges arise Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Older adults have a smaller network and experience fewer relationship problems Terminally ill and bereaved people do not go through identical stages The strongest grief is not purged more quickly Not talking about it may prolong grief Those who grieve publicly and privately adjust similarly Biological Influences Psychological Influences No predisposition to early Optimism cognitive decline Active Nutrition Successful Aging Sociocultural Influences Support Cultural respect for aging Safe living conditions Chapter 7: Learning Learning – process of acquiring new information or behaviors through experience Associative Learning – learning that certain events occur together Stimulus – any event that evokes a response o Respondent Behavior – an automatic response to some stimulus o Operant Behavior – consequences produced by the environment are associated with a response (B.F. Skinner) Cognitive Learning – acquiring mental information by observing others and events as well as through language Classical Conditioning – learning in which one learns to link stimuli together and anticipate events that will occur from them o Ivan Pavlov (dog salivation experiment concerning neutral stimuli) led to John Watson’s behaviorism (the belief that mental life was less important than behavior) Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Neutral Stimulus – in classical conditioning, the stimulus that elicits no response before the conditioning occurs Unconditioned Response – an unlearned, natural response to unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus – something that naturally and automatically triggers an unconditioned response Conditioned Response – a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus Conditioned Stimulus – triggers a conditioned response after association with an unconditioned stimulus Acquisition – the initial stage of learning or conditioning when one links a neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins to trigger a conditioned response o The neutral stimulus needs to repeatedly appear before the unconditioned stimulus o Classical conditioning is biologically adaptive and helps humans survive and reproduce o HigherOrder Conditioning – the conditioned stimulus is paired with new neutral stimulus creating a second conditioned stimulus (also known as secondorder conditioning) Extinction – the diminishing of a conditioned response when an unconditioned response does not follow the conditioned stimuli o Spontaneous Recovery – occurs after extinction in which the extinguished conditioned response reappears Generalization – the tendency to elicit similar responses to similar stimuli of a conditioned response Discrimination – the learned ability to distinguish between conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal unconditioned stimulus, preventing generalization Pavlov’s work illustrated o Many other responses to many other stimuli can be classically conditioned in many other organisms (conditioning is related to biology) o Processes can be studied objectively (experimenters can isolate elements of behavior) o Specific applications have given insight on how to avoid or associate responses Pavlov’s ideas led Watson to believe that emotional behaviors are conditioned responses o Watson’s Little Albert Experiment 1920, participant was a little boy who was originally unafraid when showed a white rat At every sighting of the rat, experimenters would clang steel bars together making an unpleasant noise Little Albert acquired a fear of white fluffy objects Operant Conditioning – a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if it is followed by a reinforce or the behavior is diminished if followed by a punisher Law of Effect – behaviors with favorable consequences are more likely and behaviors with unfavorable consequences are less likely (Edward Thorndike) Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Puzzle Box Experiment – cats were rewarded if the solved the puzzle and escaped the box, eventually took less time to escape with repetition o Led to Skinner’s work and interest in operant conditioning Operant Chamber – a chamber or “Skinner Box” used in research containing components an animal can manipulate in order to obtain food or water as a reinforce Reinforcement – event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping – reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of the desired behavior o Discrimination allows more specificity in what triggers a response Positive Reinforcement – increase behaviors with positive reinforcers, when presented after a response it strengthens a response o Adding something desirable Negative Reinforcement – increase behaviors by reducing negative stimuli, when removed after a response it strengthens the response o Ending something unpleasant Primary Reinforcers – innately reinforcing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need Conditioned Reinforcers (Secondary Reinforcer) – stimulus gains reinforcing power through association with primary reinforce o Reinforcing successive approximations or rewarding behaviors close to desired behavior Reinforcement Schedules – a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced o Continuous Reinforcement Schedule – reinforce every time Hard to maintain but behavior is acquired quickly o Partial/ Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule – reinforce part of the time Slower acquisition but greater resistance to extinction Fixed Ratio – reinforces after a specified number of responses Variable Ratio – reinforces after an unpredictable number of responses Fixed Interval – reinforces after a specific amount of time has elapsed Punishment – event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows o Positive – add unpleasant thing o Negative – take away a pleasant thing Drawbacks of punishment/physical punishment o Focuses on what not to do but does not give anything for desired behaviors o Suppressed, not forgotten, temporary state may affect/reinforce the parents’ punishing behavior o Teaches fear, severity of punishments is not as helpful as immediate and certain punishments o Teaches discrimination among situation, avoid where punishment occurs o Increases aggression by modelling to cope with problems Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Punishment works in natural and immediate consequences but does not when encountering delayed and distant threats Operant conditioning can be applied o At school – adaptive learning, rewarding small improvements toward desired behavior o In sports – shaping approach, increase challenge after small reinforcements o At work – reinforcements influence productivity o At home – reinforce good behavior with children, reinforce oneself through goals, plans, monitoring, and reinforcing Biological Influences Psychological Influences Genetic predispositions Previous experiences Unconditioned responses Predictability of associations Adaptive responses Generalization Discrimination Learning SocioCultural Influences Culturally learned preferences Motivation affected by others’ presence An animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology o John Garcia found it’s easier to learn associations to make sense for survival There is more to learning than associating a response with a consequence, there is also cognition o Classical – learning to predict, option to mentally break association o Operant – animals need immediate, humans understand delayed consequences Intrinsic Motivation – desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake o Sometimes reduced by external rewards and prevented by continuous reinforcement Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Extrinsic Motivation – desire to perform behaviors to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment o Use few rewards or lessen them over time Observational Learning – learning by observing others Modeling – observing and imitating specific behaviors o Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment – children imitated violence on toys after observing adults being violent o Vicarious Conditioning – experienced indirectly through others Mirror Neurons – frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; the brain’s mirroring of another’s actions may enable imitation and empathy o Theory of Mind – we can grasp others’ states of mind Prosocial Behavior – positive, constructive, helpful behavior that benefits others and is taught through modeling o OverImitate – copy adult behaviors with no function or reward (mainly common from 8 months onward) Children with autism are less likely to mirror Antisocial Behavior – actions harmful to individuals and society o May become more violent than the average child if violence is observed o Under stress we do what has been modeled to us o Media violence leads to increased aggression Violence viewing effect explained by imitation and desensitization toward pain in others (fosters indifference) Chapter 8: Memory Memory – the persistence of learning over time through encoding, storage, and retrieval of information o We need memory to Retain skills, expertise, and recognize familiar people and places Remember language Enjoy and sustain culture Build a sense of self and life experiences Measures of Retention o Recall – retrieving information learned earlier o Recognition – identifying items previously learned o Relearning – assesses amount of time saved when learning material again Information Processing Model – our memories are more fragile than a computer Encode – information goes into the memory system Storage – retain coded information over time Retrieval – getting information out of memory storage Parallel Processing – process multiple aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Richard Atkinson/Richard Shiffrin created a three stage model of memory 1. Sensory Memory – immediate and brief recording of sensory information in the memory system a. Record and hold stimuli briefly 2. ShortTerm Memory – holds a few items briefly before information is stored or forgotten a. Encode through rehearsal 3. LongTerm Memory – permanent and limitless storehouse including knowledge, skills, and experiences to be retrieved later Baddley’s Working Memory – shortterm memory that focuses on active, conscious processing if incoming auditory and visualspatial information and information retrieved from longterm memory o Hold information to process it and makes sense of new input and links it with longterm memory Explicit Memories – facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare (Declarative) o Effortful Processing – encoding that requires attention and conscious effort Implicit Memories – retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection (Nondeclarative) o Automatic Processing – unconscious encoding of incidental information including space, time, frequency and well learned information Information goes right into longterm memory Implicit memories include procedural memory (automatic skills and practiced knowledge) and conditioned associations among stimuli Explicit memories lead to effortful processing (studying) o Without active processing, shortterm memories disappear o Effortful processing is a strategy to encode information into memory to keep from decay and make retrieval easier About 7 items can be held in shortterm memory Working memory capacity varies depending on age and other factors o More efficient work is done when focusing on one task at a time Chunking – organizing items into familiar and manageable units (Automatic) Mnemonics – memory aids and techniques that use visual imagery (Organizational Devices) Hierarchies – division into narrower concepts and facts Distributed Practice – encoding overtime which leads to better retention o Massed Practice – cramming o Spacing Effect – tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study o Testing Effect – enhanced memory after retrieving rather than rereading information (Retrieval Practice or TestEnhanced Learning) Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Shallowing Processing – encoding on a basic level based on the structure ad appearance of words Deep Processing – encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield best retention Make material personally meaningful o SelfReference Effect – process information deeper if it is relevant to oneself Brain networks encode, store, and retrieve information that forms complex memories o Neural networks, longterm memory does not get full Frontal lobes process different types of memories Hippocampus – neural center located in the limbic system that helps to process explicit memories for storage (encodes and stores before consolidating) o Left damage leads to trouble remembering information o Right damage leads to trouble recalling visual designs Memory Consolidation – the neural storage of a longterm memory o Sleep supports memory in consolidation Cerebellum forms and stores implicit memories from classical conditioning The basal ganglia controls movement and facilitates the formation of procedural memories for skills o Infantile Amnesia – conscious memory of the first 3 years of life are blank or when the implicit memories from infancy cannot be retained The hippocampus is not yet fully developed and one cannot access preverbal memories The amygdala is provoked by stress initiating activity in the memory areas of rapid unintended emotion recall which helps to strengthen memories as important o Emotions lead to stress hormone rise causing activity in the amygdala, tagging memories as important Flashbulb Memory – clear memory of emotionally significant moment or event LongTerm Potentiation – increase in a cell’s firing potential (signals are sent off more efficiently) after a brief, rapid stimulation o Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory o Synaptic changes in sea slugs in which neurons release neurotransmitters across synaptic gaps, reducing the need to signal and increasing the number of receptor sites Retrieval Cues – associations with bits of information o A web of associations (conceptual, contextual, emotional) Priming – activation, unconsciously, of particular associations in memory (William James) o People primed with money are more likely to help others o Missing child poster will prime people to believe any adultchild interactions they see are associated Mood Congruent Memory – the tendency to recall experiences consistent with a current good or bad mood Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o State dependent Anterograde Amnesia – inability to form new memories Retrograde Amnesia – inability to retrieve information from one’s past o Case study of HM who could learn new things but had no memory of learning them Failure to encode can be affected by age Storage decay can occur o Longterm memory will fade if never recalled o The course of forgetting is initially rapid and then levels off Retrieval failures occur when associations and links decay Memory is unreliable and selfserving Repression – psychoanalytic theory that is a basic defense mechanism banishing memories from conscious anxiety and arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories (Freud) Reconsolidation – the process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again o Continuously revising memories o Memories can be constructed, reconsolidated, and imagined leading to false memories This can lead to mistakes in testimony, overconfidence, and the feeling that they are real memories Misinformation Effect – when misleading information has corrupted a memory of an event o Car crash video experiment – leading questions alter one’s perception of how hard the cars crashed Source Amnesia – attributing an experienced, heard of, read about, or imagined event to the wrong source (source misattribution) Children’s memories are easily molded due to underdeveloped frontal lobes Children are accurate concerning events and who did them and were more accurate when not talking to adults prior to being interviewed about the event o Imagined events are hard to differ from experienced Memory is better through o Repeated rehearsal o Making material meaningful o Activating retrieval cues o Using mnemonic devices o Minimizing interference o Sleeping more o Testing knowledge Can people recover repressed memories? o Abuse memories are burned in o Active searching for memory constructs detailed memories that feel real Questions implanted memories Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Unjust false accusations Chapter 10: Intelligence Intelligence – the mental potential to learn from experiences, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations o Can be whatever intelligence tests measure o Define intelligence by 1 or multiple Creative versus emotional Tests, environment, and group differences General (G) Intelligence – general intelligence factor that underlies specific mental abilities and is measured by every task on an intelligence test (Spearman) o Do we have inborn talent that can be measured by a test? o Those who did well in one area did well in others Multiple abilities contribute to life success o Wealth, practice, connections, and hard work contribute to success Differing varieties of giftedness add spice and challenges Criticisms o G intelligence is proven o Talent does not determine success Emotional Intelligence – ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions Benefits o Delay gratification in long term goals o Success in career, marriage, and parenting Theories of Summary Strengths Considerations Intelligence Spearman’s G Basic intelligence Different abilities Abilities too diverse Intelligence predicts abilities in tendency to correlate to be in a single varied academic intelligence factor areas Thurstone’s Primary 7 factors: word G score is not as Tendency to cluster Mental Abilities fluency, verbal, informative as 7 suggesting spatial, perceptual, primary abilities underlying g factor number, inductive memory Gardner’s Multiple 8 or 9 independent Other abilities Should all abilities be Intelligences intelligences with besides verbal and considered broad range of skills math are important in intelligence or are beyond traditional adaptation they less vital talents school smarts Sternberg’s Triarchic 3 areas predict real Reliably measured Less independent Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Theory world success: than believed with a analytical, creative, shared g factor, practical additional testing needed to test reliability Emotional Social intelligence is 4 components predict Stretches intelligence Intelligence key to success: social success too far perceive, manage, and understand emotions Intelligence Test – method for assessing individual mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others through numerical scores Achievement Tests – designed to access what a person has learned Aptitude Tests – designed to predict person’s future performance (capacity to learn) o SAT, ACT, GRE Francis Galton encouraged those of high ability to mate together o 1884 London Health Exhibition tested intelligence strength based on reaction time, sensory activity, muscle power, body proportions (people did not outscore each other and areas did not correlate) Late 1800s, Paris schools needed to identify children in need of special classes when all were required to go to school o 1905, Alfred Binet developed tests to determine children’s learning potential for when they came to school o Tested their mental age – chronological age corresponding to a given level of performance in tests StanfordBinet – American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test made by Terman at Stanford o Terman thought intelligence was inherited and determined education level with language Believed one should not reproduce if they are not smart Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – originally the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100, contemporarily the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 o Relative to average performance of others the same age Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – intelligence test containing verbal and performance subtests for children along with processing speed, perceptual organization, and working memory o Tested similarities, vocabulary, blockdesigns, letternumber sequences Psychological test must be standardized, reliable and valid o Standardization – defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group Shown by a normal curve with few high and low scores Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Reliability – extent a test yields consistent results as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, alternative forms of the test, or on retesting o Validity – extent to which a test measures intelligence Content Validity – extent a test samples behavior of interest Predictive Validity – success a test predicts the behavior it is designed to as assessed by computing correlation between test scores and criterion behavior (CriterionRelated Validity) Crystallized Intelligence – accumulated knowledge and verbal skills which increase with age Fluid Intelligence – ability to reason speedily and abstractly which decreases during late adulthood At age 4, intelligence tests begin predicting adult scores Why do more intelligent people live longer? o Intelligence facilitates more education, better jobs, and healthy environments o Encourages healthy living: less smoking, better diet and exercise o Prenatal events and childhood illness influence intelligence and health o Wellwired body fosters intelligence and longevity Intelligence scores of identical twins reared together are nearly as similar as the same person testing Identical twins brains have similar gray and white matter volumes and similar areas with verbal and spatial intelligence Where environment varies widely, environmental differences are more predictive of intelligence scores Adoption enhances intelligence scores of mistreated children o Neglect of child in extreme situations shows extreme results Intelligence of virtual twins has a +.28 correlation suggesting influence of shared environment Mental similarities between adopted children and adopted families wane with age to zero by adulthood when genes take over Schooling and intelligence interact and enhance later income o Boost chances of success o Aptitude benefits fade out over time Fixed Mindset – intelligence is biologically set and unchanging Growth Mindset – intelligence is changeable Motivation affects intelligence test performance Praising children’s efforts over ability encourages growth mindset and attributes successes to hard work Ability + opportunity = success Girls outpace boys in spelling, verbal fluency, locating objects, detecting emotions, and sensitivity Boys outpace girls in spatial ability, complex math problems, and math Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Mental ability varies more than females’ meaning more boys at high and low ends of intelligence spectrum Prenatal hormones, genetics, biology versus sociocultural influences and social expectations all influence differences Genes of races are alike but environments differ When blacks and whites have same knowledge, they exhibit similar infoprocessing skills Schools and culture matter Different ethnic groups have experienced golden ages Genetically disposed racial differences and social influences make the test biased Stereotype Threat – selfconfirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype Competence + diligence = accomplishment Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 11: What Drives Us: Hunger, Sex, Friendship, and Achievement (Appendix A) Motivation – a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal Instinct – complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned o Human babies behaviors are less prescribed by genetics DriveReduction Theory – the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need o Motivated to reduce drives o Drive – aroused or tense state related to physical need Pushes us from the inside while incentives are external o Homeostasis – the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state or the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level Incentive – positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior YerkesDodson Law – principle that performance increases with arousal to a certain point beyond which performance decreases o Humans seek optimum levels of arousal Hierarchy of Needs – pyramid of human needs beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higherlevel safety needs then psychological needs become active (Maslow) Glucose – a form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues o When glucose is low, we feel hunger o Semi starvation leads to more thoughts about food o Stomach contractions occur when hungry Rat study shows rats without stomachs continue to eat o Receptors in the indigestive system monitor levels of glucose and send signals to the hypothalamus which send out appetite hormones Set Point – the point at which “weight thermostat” is set o When the body falls below this weight, increased hunger and lower metabolic rate combine and restore lost weight o The body uses energy to adjust weight when it drops or increases Part of knowing when to eat is the memory of our last meal Body chemistry and environmental influence taste preferences In culture, we tend to avoid unfamiliar foods (neophobic) Ecology of eating o Presence of others amplifies natural behavior tendencies o Portion size and unit bias occurs with similar mindlessness o Food variety stimulates eating Buffet Effect – more options leads to eating more The US obesity rate has doubled in the last 40 years Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Obesity increases the risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, cancer and arthritis Takes less food to maintain fat once it is gained o Fat is an ideal form of stored energy o In the past, those with body fat were more likely to live without food o Eating less slows metabolism o Formerly obese person will have to eat less than average person to prevent weight gain Weight resembles biological parents Genes explain 2/3 of body mass (identical twins have similar weight) o Genes burn calories, convert them to fat, signal when full, and can lead to fidgeting or movement If you are predisposed to fidgeting, you are likely to weigh less Sleep loss leads to obesity Social influence, if a friend is obese you’re more likely to become obese o Weight discrimination is more likely than race and gender discrimination o People that are obese are more likely to feel depressed and isolated Change food and activity levels can help monitor weight Testosterone – male sex hormone found in both sexes that stimulates the growth of male sex organs during fetal period and develops male sex characteristics during puberty Estrogen – sex hormones (estradiol) secreted greatly in females contributing to sex characteristics Sexual desire is not as tied to hormone levels in humans as it is in animals Females are more sexually active during ovulation and less when testosterone is low o Rise in testosterone and estrogen in women leads to a rise in testosterone in the men around her 14 to 19 year old females are more vulnerable due to immature biological development and lower levels of protective antibodies Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Biological Influences Psychological Influences Sexual maturity Exposure to stimulating Sex hormones and conditions testosterone Sexual fantasies Sexual Motivation SocioCultural Influences Family and societal values Religious and personal values Cultural expectations Media Brain is the most sufficient sex organ Psychological and sociocultural factors are greater than biological influences Adverse effects of sexually explicit material (repeated exposure to erotic stimulus lessens the response through habituation) o Rape acceptance o Devaluing partner o Diminished satisfaction Men fantasize about sex more often, more physically, and less romantically Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity o Stereotypical portrayals of sex o More sexual content allows people to perceive peers as sexually active, develop sexual attitudes, and experience early intercourse Sexual restraint o High intelligence o Religious engagement o Father presence o Participation in servicelearning programs Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Sexual Orientation – enduring sexual attraction to members of one’s own sex (homosexuality), the other sex (heterosexuality), or both sexes (bisexual) o Neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed o 34% of men and 2% of women are homosexual o Discrimination, rejection, and isolation lead to higher risk of mood disorders and anxiety We have a need to affiliate with others and become attached to others in enduring and close relationships Questions concerning the causes of homosexuality o Is it because of a domineering mother or absent father? o Is it because of hatred for the other sex? o Were they molested as a child by a homosexual? o Is it due to the level of hormones in their blood? Differences begin in the prenatal period and can be genetic or due to hormones or antigens in the womb o Fraternal birth order effect o Female fetus is exposed to more testosterone and male fetus exposed to low testosterone Causes attraction to same sex and physical traits of the opposite sex Affiliation Need – need to build relationships and feel part of a group Helped survival, those that bond reproduce and nurture offspring and cooperate during hunting Autonomy – sense of personal control and competence o Competence – belief in one’s abilities or skills Feelings of love activate brain reward and safety systems Social isolation leads to mental decline and ill health Ostracism – deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups o People first attempt to restore acceptance, then become depressed, then withdrawal o Elicits increased activity in brain areas that respond to physical pain Less social people spend more time online Online profiles give accurate visions of true self Narcissism – excessive selflove and selfabsorption Online socializing and gaming leads to lower grades Achievement Motivation – desire for significant accomplishment, mastery of skills or ideas, control, and attaining a high standard o Calling – fulfilling and socially useful activity Grit – in psychology, passion and perseverance in the pursuit of longterm goals o Desire achievement and willing to work hard Work satisfies needs o Income satisfies the drive for food and hunger Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Flow – completely involved and focused state of consciousness with diminished awareness of self and time resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills o Engaged, immersed, and challenged o Boosts selfesteem, competence, and wellbeing IndustrialOrganizational Psychology – the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing behavior in work places o Personnel Psychology – focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development Predict job performance through tests, past work, sample work, and structured interviews Strength based selection system that matches strengths and tasks and assesses performance and values employee performance feedback Strengthsbased selection system Interviewers presume people are what they seem to be in the interview situation Structured Interviews – asks same jobrelevant questions of all applicants each of whom is then rated on established scales o Organizational Psychology – examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change Motivation, satisfaction, and engagement help to understand the productivity of leadership and team work Positive moods at work enhance creativity, persistence, and helpfulness Task Leadership – goaloriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals Social Leadership – grouporiented and builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support o Human Factors Psychology – explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use Design of body and function of the mind are taken into account in designing products
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