Human Bonding Prelim 1 Study Guide
Human Bonding Prelim 1 Study Guide HD 3620
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HD 3620 at Cornell University taught by Cynthia Hazan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 268 views. For similar materials see Human Bonding in Human Development at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
HD 3620 Human Bonding Professor Hazan Spring 2016 PRELIM ONE STUDY GUIDE Please note that the final version of this study guide will be posted after lecture on 2.25.16. st The first prelim will be given in class on Tuesday, March 1 , and you will have the entire period to work on it. It will cover the eight lectures from January 28 through February 25 , and the four required corresponding readings (see below for details). The exam will consist solely of short answer/essay questions and count for 30% of your course grade. The questions are designed to test understanding and integration of course material more than simple memorization (see below for an example). Note that the Professor and all six graduate TAs will be available to help during their weekly walkin hours (see the course syllabus for days/times/locations). WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW FROM LECTURE What are the dynamics of the attachment behavioral system? In other words, how does the system work? What turns it on and off? ● On/Off: “Is my attachment figure sufficiently near?” ● What makes attachment relationships different from other types of social ties? That is, what are the four defining features? ● psychological and physical coregulation in bonds, disregulation in separation ● self protection & security ● o Proximity maintenance : stay in touch ● o Safe haven : people you turn to in distress ● o Separation distress : would pain us to be separated from or lose them ● o Secure base : people you know are there for you should you need them The attachment system is designed to monitor the proximity and/or availability of attachment figures. What are examples of endogenous and exogenous factors that affect whether an attachment figure is judged to be sufficiently near? ● Is the baby sick? ● Are they in a brand new environment? ● Endogenous/internal factors affecting the child: Age, temperament, illness, fatigue ● Exogenous/external factors: Threats/perceived threats in the environment, familiar environment What is the difference between attachment behaviors and attachment bonds? ● Attachment behaviors can be directed towards virtually anyone, but an attachment bond is a special relationship that is only had with a few people ● Attachment behaviors: Anything done by anyone to seek comfort/contact ● Once the person you're most connected with leaves, you get closer to the person you can relate to most among those left around you ● Attachment bond: You are more disposed to this person(s) above anyone else; it's who you seek out to comfort you to make you feel secure Within Bowlby’s theory, what is meant by “monotropy” and “attachment hierarchies” and “cradle to grave” (with normative restructuring)? ● Monotropy : there is one person at the top of one's attachment hierarchy ● Attachment hierarchies : more attached to some people than others ● Cradle to grave: people have attachment bonds throughout their lives, but their main attachment figure can change over time (i.e. as a child, parent, and as an adult, a partner) ● Normative restructuring: People can join the hierarchy What are the approximate ages, stages, and related behaviors in the ontogeny (formation) of infantcaregiver attachment bonds? ● 02mths: “Preattachment” Not really attached to anyone, as long as someone meets your needs (food, security) you’re happy ● 46mths: “attachment in the making” starting to show preferences for people (“nuzzling”) ● 68mths: “Clear Cut attachment” attachment has been formed (baby is starting to be able to mobilize, separation distress, stranger anxiety) ● 02 months: Preattachment ● Child is hungry or needs to be changed, they cry for attention, someone responds ● ● 26 months: Attachment in the making ● Child starts to show preferences between people (when they cry, they look to some more than others) ● Focus attention to specific individuals, but not yet attached... Simply making distinctions and showing some preference (infant will nuzzle into certain people, settlingin or the process of melting him/herself into your body... Both forms of intimacy) ● ● 68 months: Clearcut attachment ● Babies zero in on one specific person, first time in love and truly obsessed/attached ● Three important things about all human infants (comes on suddenly): ● 1. Separation distress: infant gets upset when separated from attachment figure ● 2. Stranger anxiety ● 3. Selfproduced locomotion ● These factors help protect the child ● ● 24 months: Goalcorrected partnership ● Goal is to keep children physically close to their #1 caregiver ● At about 36 months, that child will understand that the individual can leave then come back What are the factors that promote bonding between infants and adult caregivers (i.e., that attract them to each other)? ● For Infants: ○ IDS (infant directed speech) ○ Maturity & Competence ○ Propiniquity ○ Familiarity ○ Physical Intimacy ● Adults: ○ Neonatal features ● Other ○ Appeal of infant laughter ○ Aversiveness to infant cries (babies that are held don't cry as much) ○ Cultural differences ○ Neotenous features of baby faces (illicit caregiver reactions) ○ Baby talk can regulate child's emotions (match the tone of their voice and slowly transition to another emotion) ○ Ventroventral contact: belly to belly contact is soothing ○ Infant attraction to faces and eyes: it's intimate to be in close contact/proximity with another person ○ Infants have smooth, soft skin What is the biphasic response to separation from an attachment figure? On the basis of his studies of rat mothers and pups, what did Hofer conclude about attachment bonds? ● “Protest” ← Immediate response ● “Despair” ← response that happens over time ● Hofer found that each characteristic of the mom (warmth, touch, food, etc) had directly correlated effects on the growth and development of the babies In terms of parentinfant cosleeping… What differences between cosleepers and non cosleepers were observed in the lab? How might these differences relate to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)? What sleeping position (prone vs. supine) and sleeping arrangement (same vs. separate rooms/beds) is currently recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics? ● CoSleepers: more time awake, more nursing, less time in “deep sleep”, moms reposition the babies on their backs more often ● NonCoSleepers: “Ferberizing” a baby, babies get trained to soothe themselves, make more ventoventral contact withattress and more readily fall asleep on their bellies at night ● Reasons for SIDS: ○ Periods of apnea ○ Repositioning of larynx ○ relocation of breathing control (in brain) ● When babies sleep alone in the dark, they panic because they register these events as an emergency and something unusual ● Supine & Separate are recommended by AAP at the moment What are the short and longterm effects of socalled “kangaroo care?” ● Short term: babies cried less, slept more, gained weight more quickly, released from hospital significantly sooner, and had significantly lower levels of stress hormones ● Long term: for the next several years, significantly less stressreactive, less stress hormone, more exploratory What are the functions and activating stimuli of the following socialbehavioral systems: attachment, parental/caregiving, sexual mating? ● How did Harlow’s experiments test the secondary drive theory of infantcaregiver bonding? What “sleeper effects” did he discover? What did he conclude? What might explain the interrelations among socialbehavioral systems? ● • Secondary drive: things we want only because we've learned to want them through association with primary drives (i.e. money) ○ Secondary drive theory of attachment: Babies get attached to parents/caregivers because they associate them with satisfaction of the hunger drive... So there's a prediction that babies would get attached to whoever was feeding them ● Harlow's experiments with monkeys ○ Looked into the attachment system dynamics ■ 1. A monkey without its attachment figure, a white blanket, was distressed ■ 2. A monkey is put in a cage with two fake monkeys (made of metal). One has a soft, cloth belly and the other has food. When the monkey doesn't feel threatened, it goes to the one with the food. When it does feel threatened, it goes to the one with the cloth belly to get soothed and comforted before being able to explore/investigate ○ Affiliate system dynamics: playing with friends vs. seeking attachment ○ Without fear stimulation: monkeys prefer friends to their mothers ○ With fear stimulation: monkeys prefer mothers to their friends ■ Conclusion: attachment is a primary drive ○ Monkey fed by the fake monkey with food prefers the fake monkey made of cloth (soft for cuddling) ○ Scared monkey runs towards cloth mother, not the food mother ■ Conclusion: deprivation effects are both specific and lasting ● • Sleeper effects ○ Those that are deprived of attachment in infancy later show deficits in both sexual mating and caregiving/parental behavior ○ If the attachment system doesn't develop normally/doesn't have the external stimulation and input it needs to function as it was designed to, there are negative effects on other social behavioral systems (early attachment experiences not only affect later attachment, but also other systems not yet active) ● Attachment ● Caregiving/parenting ● Sexual mating ● Why? Overlapping neuroanatomy and neurochemistry, it's what was required of our species to reproduce (why those three systems in particular) What are the three main patterns (“styles”) of infantcaregiver attachment identified by Ainsworth et al. and what characterizes the laboratory behavior of babies in each of the three categories? What episodes in the experiment are coded in order to assign infants to a particular pattern/category? What one variable assessed in the first 3 months of life predicted how babies would behave in the “strange situation” at 12 months of age? How is this variable defined by Ainsworth? And what are the caregiving antecedents of each of the patterns? ● Patterns: ○ B (Secure): caregiver leaves baby upset, cries, seeks proximity; returns baby soothed, stops crying ■ 2/3 babies like this holds across the world except in samples of kids who are abused / neglected ○ C (Ambivalent): caregiver leaves baby upset, cries, seeks proximity; returns baby resists comfort, not soothed, may show anger ■ 12% based on US samples ■ Varies dramatically across cultures ○ A (Avoidant): caregiver leaves baby shows no emotion, may engage in self soothing; returns baby actively avoids contact ● Reunions coded on four dimensions (behavior of baby during two points of separation → reuniting) ○ Proximity seeking: do they seek contact after they've been separated? ○ Contact maintenance: do they maintain contact until they're comforted/soothed after they reunite? ○ Resistance: do they show resistance to comforting (pushing away, angry behavior, stiffening, etc.)? ○ Avoidance: do they avoid contact with attachment figure? ● Code the baby (and not the caregiver) because they don't care about being observed and don't change their behavior ○ Logic behind coding: if baby exhibits resistance/avoidance (there's no good reason to act this way), something has gone wrong in the relationship ● Caregiver sensitivity is one reliable predictor of the infant's strange situation attachment pattern ○ Caregiver sensitivity in a very specific context of their distress ○ When they are distressed and they are expressing their distress (I need comfort, I need soothing), defined as follows: ■ Notice (that they are experiencing some distress... The sooner you realize, the better) ■ Interpret (correctly the baby's signal) ■ Respond (promptly/effectively) What evidence suggests that the patterns of attachment identified by Ainsworth et al. are due to nurture (i.e., the way infants have been treated by their caregivers) and not due to nature (i.e., inborn temperament)? ● When you’re 12 months old and you’ve been separated from the person you rely on for care, there is never a good reason that you would be upset or avoid contact with them. If either of those two things happen, something went wrong in the early relationship formation period. ● Neonatal temperament does not predict parenting styles ● different styles with different caregivers ● responsiveness training changes styles Bowlby argued that early bonding experiences can have lasting effects. Be familiar with how this might happen at the levels of experience , expectations, and behaviors as well as the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and the HypothalamicPituitaryAdrenal Axis (HPA). ● ● your experiences with your primary caregivers set the expectations you have (you expect what happened before to happen again) and, therefore, you behave accordingly. ● “The people with whom we have our earliest relationships literally get under your skin” What bondingrelated milestones correspond roughly to the ages of 2 years, 3 years, 46 years, and 812 years? Be familiar with sexual imprinting and the Westermarck effect. On average, how does puberty (i.e., surges in estrogen and/or testosterone) affect overall body shape and facial structure, sexual dimorphism, and physical intimacy with parents? ● • ~2 years: shift in attachment/affiliation balance ● • ~3 years: new developments in peer relations ● • ~46 years: heightened gender awareness, segregation ○ o Sexual imprinting? ○ o Process by which a young animal learns the characteristics of a desirable mate ○ o Westermarck effect (reverse sexual imprinting) ■ People who grow up in close domestic proximity during a critical period in early life are ruled out as later sexual partners possibly as antiincest; occurs regardless of genetic relatedness ● • ~812 years: parents vs. peers (attachment behaviors vs. bonds) ○ o Anatomy vs. shifted dependence ○ o Sexual reintegration ● • Puberty: ○ o Bodily changes: esp. in overall shape ○ o Facial changes: esp. in overall structureT ○ o Both types of changes: increase sexual dimorphism ○ o Associated changes in physical intimacy with parents Based on the results of facialmetric analyses, which facial features are positively correlated, negatively correlated, or uncorrelated to attractiveness ratings of male and female faces? These features can be grouped into three categories, each of which serves as a cue for an important socialbehavioral system. You should know the three categories and how they correspond to the three systems. ● Female ○ Positive: big eyes, forehead height, cheekbones, thick lower lip, pupil height/width, smile height/width, eyebrow height ○ Negative: chin length/width, eyebrow thickness ● Male ○ Positive: big eyes, forehead height, cheekbones, eyebrow thickness, smile width ○ Negative: none ● Three categories: neotenous, sexual maturation, expressive Is beauty in the eye of the beholder? Know which aspects of facial attractiveness are objective/”universal” and which aspects are more subjective or idiosyncratic. ● Some aspects of beauty are subjective/idiosyncratic (in eye of beholder) ● People can/do have types ● Affection and infatuation effects ● breast/butt size ● indiv/cultural variability ● ● Some aspects of beauty are objective/universal (not in eye of beholder) ● Indicators of genetic robustness (things that signal youthfulness, health, symmetry, sexual dimorphism respectfully) and reproductive capability ● WHR/SHR ● Facial Symm ● clear skin, white teeth ● sexual dimorphism ● youth/health ● cute/warm/sexy What is the one “universal” in terms of attractiveness ratings of female bodies? What information does it convey and what are its correlates? And on this one dimension, what is judged to be most attractive? ● WHR (waist to hip ratio) ● Information it conveys: Health status and fertility information ● Correlates: Negatively correlated with health status (higher WHR, lower health status higher WHR leads to higher risk of diseases such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, overall mortality) ● For every .1 increase in WHR, significant decline in probability of getting pregnant ● Most attractive: 0.7 ratio What are the two “universals” in terms of attractiveness ratings of male bodies? What information might they convey? And on these two dimensions, what is judged to be most attractive? ● WHR ● SHR (shoulder to hip ratio) ● Information they convey: information about reproductive capability, sperm quality ● Most attractive: 1.0 WHR, 1.4 SHR WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW FROM THE REQUIRED READINGS Bowlby: Be familiar with the general history that led to the development of attachment theory, some facts that made Bowlby doubt the secondarydrive theory of infant caregiver attachment, the influences of work by such researchers as Lorenz and Harlow, and the new perspective on separation anxiety. [Note: feel free to skip the sections on mourning and defensive processes, which we will cover later in the semester.] ● General history ○ With WWII, many people were working on studying and finding ways to fix longterm/shortterm ill effects of children living in institutions and changing maternal figures often in early years of life ○ Especially important because many children were being left homeless by the war ○ At this time, the main theory was babies getting attached to those who fed them (secondary drive theory of attachment) ● Doubting the secondarydrive theory of infantcaregiver attachment ○ Orphans weren't getting attachment bonds with people who fed them (inconsistency with the time's main theory) ● Influences of work by Lorenz and Harlow ○ Lorenz's work was more proof against the secondary drive theory because in some animal species, babies fed themselves ■ Ducks super attached to moms, but moms don't feed them ○ Harlow's theory showed that monkeys don't always attach to the "mother" who gives them food, but instead the "mother" who provides comfort ■ New perspective on separation anxiety ■ An infant will become distressed because the separation from parents/attachment figure signals an increase of risk in a situation Hofer: In this paper Hofer uses findings from animal models to address three questions relevant to human attachment. Be familiar with his answers to all three. ● 1. What creates an attachment bond? ○ It developed prenatally (preferred mother's sense even if they didn't actually meet them... scent guides them towards mother's belongings) ○ A rapid, early learning process related to brain and hormone system development ○ Evidence here for child's relationships with abusive parents (if rat was exposed to an odor and then received negative stimuli later, it would still seek that odor later) ● 2. Why is early maternal separation stressful? ○ Found a mother rat escaped from tank and couldn't get back in; pups were in bad shape ○ Pups were in despair phase ○ Conducted a number of experiments where he reintroduced maternal features individually ○ When he reintroduced milk into stomachs, brought heart rates back to normal ○ When he warmed the cage to the mother's body temperature, behavior improved ○ Each symptom was tied to a specific maternal feature showing that pups were being regulated by mothers ○ Explanation for despair ○ Each motherly figure was regulating a specific physiological aspect and that dysregulation is relative to attachment (physiological and psychological ties) ○ Child becomes uncomfortable in many ways (see above bullet) ● 3. How early can relationships have lasting effects? ● Moms are regulating stress hormones, temperature, food; if they leave too soon, it's still bad ● The earlier, the worse! ● Developmental patterns and behavioral systems are altered Ainsworth et al.: Be familiar with the observed behavior, as well as the authors’ interpretations of the behavior, of infants in each of the three (A, B, and C) groups—both at home and in the “strange situation.” [Note: you will not be expected to know differences between subgroups, such as C1 and C2.] ● B secure ○ Not likely to cry when the mother leaves because the child feels the mother would come back if he signaled to her ○ Heart rate increases when mother leaves ○ More cooperative with the mother ○ Generally less anxious ○ Uses mother as a secure base to explore ○ Tend to be more readily socialized and willing to meet new adult figures ○ More competent than other types, higher scores on developmental tests ● C ambivalent ○ More anxious, they cry more than B at home and in strange situation ○ Unable to use mother as a secure base ○ Slower to advance cognitive development due to lack of exploratory security ○ Passive aggressive ○ More ambivalent about being picked up at home and in strange situation ○ They want to be picked up (not played with) at the right time upon reunion ● A avoidant ○ Similar to C babies in the home environment ○ Cries more and more anxious than B ○ Avoids mother in reunion phrase ○ More frequently angry ○ Behavior is possibly due to mother being rejecting, more frequently annoyed with or angry with baby ○ Avoidance protects the baby from being hurt in the future when rejected by the mother ○ Babies often avert their gaze ○ Avoidant behavior is more prominent in home ○ Lack confidence in mother's accessibility and responsiveness Suomi: Be familiar with the methods and findings regarding “effects of maternal deprivation…” (pp. 175177), “effects of disruptions of maternal care…” (pp. 178179) and “effects of unusually secure early attachments…” (pp. 179181). ● Deprivation: Peerrearing more impulsive and anxious monkeys. Better maternal care than no social contact at all. ● Disruptions: During low foraging, VFD infants had less secure attachment to mother than LowForagingDemand. VaryingForagingDemand → less social play. ● Usually secure: Normal/optimal developmental trajectories. Adopt mothering style of foster mother. EXAMPLE OF A MULTIPART ESSAY QUESTION 1. Briefly describe the dynamics of the attachment behavioral system. 2. Describe two factors that promote infantcaregiver bonding. 3. Briefly contrast an infant’s behavior during the “preattachment” and “attachmentinthe making” phases. 4. Name and describe two of the four defining features of an attachment bond. A FEW TIPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Do not hesitate to ask for clarification. It’s difficult to answer a question accurately if you’re not sure what’s being asked. Every attempt will be made to ensure that exam questions are clear, but if the wording strikes you as confusing or ambiguous OR if you are unsure how much detail is required, please do not hesitate to ask for clarification. 2. Bring your favorite writing instrument plus at least one backup. You may not be used to bringing a pen or pencil to class, but you will need at least one on exam day. 3. Start by writing your name on every page of the exam. There will be several different versions of the exam. Often the TAs disassemble the exams prior to grading. To ensure that you receive credit for all of your responses it is essential that you write your name at the top of every page of the exam. We recommend you do this before you begin working. 4. Limit your responses to the textboxes. Every question will be followed by a textbox for recording your answer. We encourage you to be concise. Bullet points are most welcome. Please be advised that TAs will consider only the information contained within the textboxes. For this reason they recommend the use of pencils with good erasers. 5. Arrive early if you can. Because the class is so large, it typically takes several minutes for everyone to settle enough for lecture to begin. On exam days, this could be costly. If you wish to have the full 75 minutes to work on the exam, you will need to be seated and ready to begin promptly at 2:55. Best of luck!
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