Exam 3 Study Guide- Lymphatic, Immune, and Respiratory System
Exam 3 Study Guide- Lymphatic, Immune, and Respiratory System Biol 2230-001
Popular in Human Anatomy & Physiology II
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biological Sciences
80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001
verified elite notetaker
This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camryn Sartory on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2230-001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John Cummings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
Reviews for Exam 3 Study Guide- Lymphatic, Immune, and Respiratory System
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/08/16
Lecture Objectives Lymphatic System 1. Identify the lymphatic vessels, and discuss how lymph is transported through these structures. Lymphatic vessels i. Oneway flow toward heart ii. Closed end circuit 1. Lymphatic capillaries are dead ended structures 2. Fluid from interstitial space makes its way into lymphatic capillaries, and then makes its way through lymph vessels until it is dumbed back into the veins near the heart empties into jugular veins iii. Fluid contains proteins, and that’s how most of the proteins will get back into circulation Lymphatic capillaries i. Formed by loosely overlapping endothelial cells 1. Loosely overlapped means that can get be opened and closed 2. Similar to a valve system 3. Very permeable ii. Anchored by collagen filaments iii. Single layer endothelial cells held in place by connective tissue iv. When fluids accumulate on outside and cause greater pressure on the outside than inside, the flaps open and fluid can move in v. If pressure is outside in the inside, the flaps close and prevent the loss of fluid from the capillary vi. Found throughout body 1. Not in bones, teeth, or in nervous system Lacteals i. Lymphatic capillaries of the intestines 1. Within the villi of the small intestine 2. Site of digestion a. Especially lipids (digested fats) ii. Lymph called chyle 1. Rich in fats Lymphatic vasculature i. Lymphatic capillaries ii. Lymphatic collecting vessels 1. Where capillaries converge 2. Contain 3 tunics (interna, media, and externa) 3. Tunics are much thinner 4. Also contain valves that prevent the backflow of blood contain more than veins iii. Lymphatic trunks 1. Drain/collect from large regions of the body 2. 5 major iv. Lymphatic ducts 1. Right drains the head, upper arm, and thorax (things up high) 2. Thoracic drains the rest of the body (things down low) 3. Connect at the junction between the jugular and subclavian veins 4. Empty into superior vena cava Lymphatic trunks i. Named after place they drain 1. Bronchomediastinal a. Middle of thorax 2. Subclavian a. Upper limbs 3. Jugular a. head 4. Lumbar a. Lower extremities and lower trunk 5. Intestinal a. Abdominal cavity Factors assisting flow i. Valves 1. More than in veins 2. Keeps blood going in one direction toward the heart ii. Muscular pump 1. Activity of skeletal muscle helps push fluid iii. Respiratory pump 1. At low pressure times, blood can move back into the 2. Localized low pressure areas iv. Arterial pumping 1. Flow of arteries aids the movement of lymph 2. Inside arteries, pulse waves with each heartbeat, this wave pushes and pushes the lymph right next to the artery and gets it moving toward the heart v. Smooth muscle contraction 1. Smooth muscle in the tunica media contraction moves lymph toward heart 2. Important especially in thoracic ducts and lymphatic trunks 2. Differentiate the lymphoid cells. Lymphocytes 1. WBCs that are mostly nucleus 2. Produces in red bone marrow and triggered by chemical secretion ii. B cells 1. When they encounter pathogen 2. Triggered to produce plasma 3. Plasma produces antibodies 4. Antibodies are substances that can attach to these foreign cells a. Markers on the foreign cells indicate that the cell is not from the body b. Antibodies attach to the markers on the cell iii. T cells 1. Through secretion, it causes the pathogen to lyse Macrophages i. Can diapedesis ii. can activate T cells iii. Take in foreign cells and break them down Dendritic cells i. Phagocytic cells ii. Can activate t lymphocyte Reticular cells i. Produce a structure called a stroma 1. Network for temporary housing or holding of other cells 2. Macrophages are held within this stroma 3. Push lymph through this, pass by active cells for detection of things within it 3. List the lymphoid organs, discuss their functions, identify their histological makeup and compare their modes of action. Lymph nodes i. Principle lymphatic organs of the body ii. Accumulations of these along lymphatic vessels iii. Have these germinal centers full of lymphocytes that can initiate immune response iv. Action: v. Lymph enters via afferent lymphatic vessels 1. Afferent supply lines bring in the lymph vi. Enters lymph node 1. In sinuses 2. Passes through cortex with germinal centers and lymphocytes and macrophages vii. Filters through sinuses viii. Exits through efferent lymphatic vessels at hilus 1. Efferent= exit lymphatic vessels 2. Fever efferent than afferent 3. Flow going through is slowed down, accumulates slowly and gives it a good chance of being filtered Spleen i. Largest lymphatic organ ii. Upper left quadrant of abdominal cavity iii. Has germinal components 1. Allows for lymphocyte proliferation 2. Detection of lymphocytes iv. Cleans blood 1. Removes aged cells, defective cells, platelets 2. Recycles components site of breakdown 3. Lots of macrophages v. Babies get blood cells from the spleen vi. Action: vii. Blood delivered via splenic artery 1. Splenic artery delivers blood 2. Vessels push through spleen viii. Lymph filtered by lymphocytes in white pulp 1. White pulp= surrounds blood vessels ix. Then filtered by marcophages in red pulp 1. red pulp surrounds white pulp x. Cleansed fluid returns to splenic vein Thymus i. Diminishes with age ii. Is vestigial by puberty iii. Promotes immunocompetency iv. Gives the cell the ability to interact with something foreign 1. Esp T lymphocytes v. Each t lymphocyte will bind to something specific 1. Gets receptors 2. Genetically predisposed to attack foreign things 3. Become immunocompetent in bone marrow ( b cells), in thymus (t cells) vi. Action: vii. Action most prominent in newborns viii. Secretes thymosin and thymopoietin ix. `Causes T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent x. `Causes white cell production Tonsils i. Gather and remove pathogens in the food were eating or air were breathing ii. In oral and nasal cavities iii. Palatine tonsils 1. In pharnyx 2. Largest 3. Most likely to become infected and removed 4. On each side of oral cavity iv. Lingual tonsils 1. 2 under the base of tongue v. Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids) 1. Posterior wall of nasal cavity 2. One 3. Removed in tonsillectomy vi. Tubal tonsils 1. Middle ear 2. Tube that goes from ears to nasopharynx (Eustachian tube) Action: Crypts trap bacteria and particulates Bacteria pass through epithelium into lymphoid tissue o Ultimately to reticular cells Lymphoid tissue destroys pathogens o In germinal centers Memory cells formed Peyer’s patches i. In distal part of small intestine ii. Destroy bacteria iii. When interact with B/T cells, they form a memory cells 1. Allow reaction to be faster on subsequent infections Action: i. Isolated clusters of lymphoid follicles 1. Distal portion of small intestine ii. Destroy bacteria 1. Same general process of filtration iii. Generate memory lymphocytes 1. Because of food we eat, etc 4. Outline the development of the lymphatic system. Developing veins bud off lymph sacs at fifth week i. First to form are jugular lymph sacs 1. Similar to blood islands of blood vessels 2. Connection to circulatory system ii. Also from vena cava and iliac veins These form branching system of lymphatic vessels i. Start with big vessels and branch down to smaller ones Connection of jugular lymph sac with jugular veins become right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct Lymphoid organs develop from mesodermal mesenchyme that become reticular tissue i. Except thymus doesn't’t develop from mesenchyme ii. Not made of reticular tissue iii. Endodermal in origin 1. Outgrowth of pharynx, detached and migrates 2. First lymphatic organ to form, accumulates lymphocytes before birth (only organ to do so) 3. Thymopoetin regulates the development of other lymph organs Lecture Objectives Immune System 1. Differentiate the nonspecific and specific immune pathways. a. Nonspecific Will attack anything that is foreign Aka innate immune system You are born with it Consists of external body membranes, and includes the inflammatory response Ex: mosquito bites b. Specific Aka adaptive immune system Has individual cells that will respond to only certain foreign substances Lymphocytes involved in this B and T 2. Identify the nonspecific defenses, both superficial and internal. a. Superficial i. Skin 1. Unbroken epidermis is a great barrier 2. No blood supply, made of squamous epithelium (most dead) 3. Lots of protein ii. Mucous membranes 1. In all of internal body cavities 2. Squamous epithelial tissue 3. Secrete mucous that acts as a trap to antigens a. Makes it localized b. Create acidic environments (female reproductive tract) c. Produce protein digesting enzymes (stomach, breaks down antigens protein coat so it can be digested) d. Produce lysozymes (saliva, tears) i. Break things apart b. Internal i. Phagocytes 1. Macrophages a. Monocytes that have escaped circulation 2. Neutrophils a. Perform phagocytic functions once they bind to a foreign cell 3. Eosinophils a. primarily parasitic worms 4. Free travel around body 5. Fixed stuck in lymph organs 6. Mechanism: o Phagocyte recognizes pathogen’s carbohydrate surface markers Not active until they encounter foreign cell Our own cells have markers on their surface called MHC markers – major histocompatibility complex Specific to each individual person Cells with different markers than our own will be attacked Enhanced via opsonization Antibodies will attach to a foreign cell and mark it for destruction o Cytoplasmic extensions adhere to pathogen o Pathogen pulled inside cell in vacuole Called phagosome o Lysosome binds with phagosome forming phagolysosome o Lysosomal enzymes digest pathogen Can be aided by respiratory burst Secretion of additional breakdown chemicals o Residual body formed and then expelled Residual bodies are breakdown produces contained in the phagosome ii. Mast Cells 1. Not entirely phagocytic 2. Has specific receptors on it 3. Can bind to multiple foreign things 4. Mostly bind to bacteria 5. Digest and break antigens down iii. Natural killer cells 1. Aka NK cells 2. Will kill anything 3. Do not phagocytize something, they will lyse it 4. Attack cancerous cells in body or cells that have been infected by a virus 5. Will go after anything that isn't normal 6. Another class of lymphocyte 7. Free in bloodstream 8. Mechanism: a. NK cells detect infected or cancerous cells through lack of “self” markers or presence of certain sugars b. NK cells release perforins i. A type of cytolytic protein ii. Lyses cells iii. Bores holes in plasma membrane c. Channels appear in target cells and nucleus disintegrates i. Channels in the plasma membrane iv. Inflammation 1. Redness, swelling, heat, and pain 2. The result of the dilation of capillaries (larger and more porous) 3. Redness more blood 4. Swellingfluids leak out and accumulate 5. Heat blood is warmer than rest of body, more blood in an area means more heat 6. Pain more fluid, more pressure, activation of nocireceptors 7. By delivering more blood to an area, we can deliver more lymphocytes and kill antigens 8. Mechanism: a. Tolllike receptors on macrophages recognize pathogens i. On surface and can attach to antigens b. TLRs release cytokines i. Cytokines are cell chemicals ii. Promote inflammation 1. Tells capillary to dilate iii. Chemical attractants 1. Attract WBC to wherever they are produced c. Other cells release other inflammatory mediator chemicals i. Histamines, prostoglandins, any type of chemical that has a localized change d. Vessels in injured area dilate and increase permeability e. Hyperemia occurs i. Excessive blood ii. Plasma leaves capillaries and enters interstitial space f. Exudate accumulates causing edema i. Exudate what leaves capillaries ii. Edema dilutes foreign substances iii. Brings oxygen and nutrients to area 1. Activates enzymes iv. Carries clotting proteins v. Antimicrobial proteins 1. A protein that attacks microorganisms or interferes with their reproduction a. Interferon i. A chemical ii. If a virus infects a cell, the cell secretes interferon, which saves adjacent cells iii. Disrupts the virus’s reproductive chain iv. Mechanism: 1. Cells infected by virus release interferons (IFN) 2. IFNs diffuse to nearby cells a. Nearby cells produce PKR 3. PKR protein synthesis is stimulated 4. PKR interferes with viral replication a. Stops viruses from using cells replication system 5. IFNs also activate macrophages and NK cells a. Attracted to body cells that have been infected b. Complement system i. 20 different blood proteins that work together ii. When activated, they promote inflammation iii. Some cause cell lyses to occur iv. Mechanism 1: 1. Aka classical pathway 2. Antibodies bind to pathogens a. Pathogens are marked 3. Complement proteins bind to antibodypathogen complexes 4. Lysis, phagocytosis and inflammation result v. Mechanism 2: 1. Aka alternative pathway 2. Complement proteins bind to polysaccharide molecules on pathogens a. Skips antibody 3. Lysis, phagocytosis and inflammation result vi. Fever 1. A systemic response 2. Entire body temperature goes up 3. Interferes with foreign cell replication 4. Mechanism: a. Leukocytes and macrophages exposed to pathogens secrete pyrogens b. Think pyro=fire c. Elevate metabolic activity d. Causes shivering to produce heat e. Pyrogens cause hypothalamus to raise body temp i. Elevates body temperature ii. Causes a reduction in available iron and zinc, which are components used by bacteria to divide 3. Define antigen, and describe how antigens affect the immune system. a. Any substance that promotes an immune response b. Anything that is foreign 4. List and define the properties possessed by antigens. a. Immunogenicity i. invokes an immune response b. Reactivity i. Markers that are on the surface of cells react to immune cells c. Antigenic determinants i. Reactive components d. Antigenic determinants are the reactive part of cells that give antigens immunogenicity 5. Identify the “self” antigens. a. MHC markers b. Immunogenic to people other than ourselves 6. Differentiate the humoral and cellmediated specific immune responses. a. Humoral i. Interacts with antigens that are free floating in our bloodstream ii. Uses antibodies 1. Do not kill antigen directly 2. They mark it so something else can kill it (complement proteins or phagocytic cells 3. Can activate a nonspecific immune response 4. Uses B lymphocytes b. Cellmediated i. When one of our bodies cells becomes infected, and the body cell is attacked ii. Like a NK cell but will only be attacked by a specific immune cell iii. Kills directly through cell lysis iv. Uses T lymphocytes 7. Compare the origin, maturation and action of B and T lymphocytes. a. Produced by stem cells in red bone marrow i. Virtually identical until mature b. T cells become immunocompetent (acquire receptors to react with a specific antigen) in thymus c. B cells become immunocompetent in bone marrow d. Immunocompetent cells mature in secondary lymphoid organs i. Spleen, lymph node, etc e. Not fully functional until bound with antigen 8. Describe the role of antigen presenting cells. a. Engulfs pathogen and presents its fragments as antigens 9. Define antigen challenge. a. First encounter between naïve immunocompetent lymphocyte and antigen i. Cell produced in bone marrow and lymphocyte produced. Cell goes to a secondary lymphoid organ, where they become immunocompetent it can interact with something ii. Specific for specific antigens iii. Naïve= one that is ready to interact with something, but hasn't yet iv. First response we have for the specific cells v. 2 pathways: humoral (B cells) and cell mediated (T cells) 10. Differentiate primary and secondary humoral responses. a. Primary i. In our plasma or lymph ii. Antigens bind with surface receptors on naïve immunocompetent B lymphocyte iii. Then a B lymphocyte becomes active iv. Clonal selection occurs 1. Clones of the cell are produced 2. More cells with the antigen receptor v. Most clones become plasma cells which produce antibodies 1. Can attach to foreign substances but cant kill it directly 2. Mark antigens to be killed vi. Some clone cells become memory cells 1. Used for subsequent infection by same antigen b. Secondary i. Any subsequent exposure ii. Uses memory cells iii. Primary: 1. Titer takes 710 days to reach maximum number of antibodies, which last 45 days iv. Same mechanism as primary v. Immune response faster vi. Immune response lasts longer 1. Can last for months instead of days 2. High titer high longevity vii. Immune response more effective 11. Compare and contrast active, passive, natural and artificial humoral immunity. a. Active i. Be exposed to an antigen, that activates lymphocytes and antibodies ii. Our system produces its own antibodies iii. From infection b. Passive i. dies from a source other than ourselves c. Natural i. Active: infection ii. Passive: Ex: from placenta to baby or breast milk d. Artificial i. Passive: vaccine (weakened or dead pathogen) ii. Active: injection of immune serum (gamma globulin/ antibodies) 12. Describe the structure of an antibody. a. Complex proteins b. Made up of 4 subunits i. 2 identical heavy chains ii. 2 identical light chains c. Variable region i. Area that contains light chains ii. Have antigen binding sites that determine what it will bind to d. Constant region i. Area with predominantly heavy chains ii. Dictates how something will be destroyed iii. It is identical iv. Some will bind to complement proteins (lyse, attract phagocytic cells) v. Or just marks it for destruction e. Antigenbinding site i. Where antibody binds to antigens 13. Identify the general functions of antibodies. a. Formation of antigenantibody complex i. Marking things for destruction ii. Variable site attachment to antigen b. Provide site for binding of complement proteins i. Constant region ii. If so, the complement protein secretes a cytolytic chemical that destroys antigen c. Block sites on pathogens i. IgA ii. Neutralization d. Cause clumping of antigencontaining cells i. Isolate antigens e. Cause clumping of soluble antigen molecules i. Precipitate them out so phagocytes can have better access 14. Describe the general mechanism of the cellmediated immune response. a. T cell binds with antigen infected body cell i. Bind to disrupted MHC b. Costimulatory signals are present c. T cell is activated i. Only after it binds to the cell and releases costimulatory signals d. Clones are produced e. Some clones become memory cells T Cell Activators Class I MHC proteinlinked antigens o Endogenous means that they are produced by the body o MHC plus part of the virus o All can produce it but RBC’s o Cancers and virus infected cells o Cytotoxic T cell (CD8 Cells) Class II MHC proteinlinked antigens o Exogenous means that the antigen part is coming from a foreign antigen o Phagocytic cell that engulfs virus o Helper T cells (CD4 cells) Antigen Binding T cell antigen receptors bind to antigenMHC complex Co stimulators T cell binding to other receptors on APC, cytokines, interleukins Each promotes a different response o Either facilitates or disables activation 15. List the various types of T cells, and identify the role each plays in imparting immunity. a. Cytotoxic T cells i. CD8 cell ii. Directly attacks and kills cells with Class 1 MHC iii. Lyse cells b. Helper T cells i. A type of regulatory cell ii. Regulate activity of other cells iii. CD4 cells binds to a cell with class 2 MHC then activate CD8 cells and B cells iv. Link between B cells and T cells c. Suppressor T cells i. Regulatory cell ii. Activated T cells will continue to clone themselves iii. Suppressor T cells suppress clonal selection and slow the immune response 16. List specific examples of immune disorders. a. Immunodeficiencies i. Any condition that causes the immune cells to behave abnormally ii. Severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome 1. Congenital genetic, inborn 2. (SCIDS) 3. Fails to produce enough B and T lymphocytes in body 4. Produces enzymes that produce toxins iii. Acquired immunodeficiency 1. AIDS a. HIV virus b. Virus that destroys helper T cells c. Doesn’t kill the person directly, a subsequent infection does b. Autoimmune diseases i. Our immune system attacks our own body cells ii. Multiple sclerosis 1. Destroys white matter in the brain and we lose conductivity iii. Myasthenia gravis 1. Immune cells attack the neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscle iv. Graves’ disease 1. Immune disease that attacks the thyroid gland v. Juvenile diabetes 1. Immune system attacks pancreatic cells 2. Insufficient insulin vi. Lupus 1. Attacks kidneys, heart, and lungs 2. Can cause skin lesions and butterfly rash vii. Rheumatoid arthritis 1. Immune cells attack synovial membranes and joints c. Hypersensitivities i. When our immune system responds to things that normally wouldn't’t effect our immune system, like allergies ii. Immediate (acute) 1. Anaphylaxis 2. Like allergy to peanuts or bees 3. Systemic release of histamine 4. Systemic vasodilation and drop in BP 5. Often fatal 6. Usually get a warning hard time breathing, bp drops 7. Treat with epinephrine pen iii. Subacute (takes a couple of hours) 1. Transfusion reaction a. Wrong blood type, our body will reject them iv. Delayed (13 days) 1. Poison ivy reaction 17. Identify the reasons for transplant rejection. a. Autograft from one part of the body to another i. Only works for some things ii. Transplant wont be rejected b. Isograft from an identical twin i. transplant wont be rejected c. Allograft from someone else i. Works better between people who are closely related ii. Has potential to be rejected d. Xenograft from a different species i. ex: heart valves from pigs ii. Has potential to be rejected Lecture Objectives Respiratory System 1. List and describe the processes of respiration. a. Pulmonary respiration The movement of air into and out of the body i. ii. Pathway the air has to travel iii.Air goes into lungs b. External respiration i. Exchange between capillaries and lung space ii. Oxygen moves from lungs and into circulation iii.Co2 moves from circulation to lungs, then out of body c. Gaseous transport Oxygen back to tissue from lungs i. ii. Circulation d. Internal respiration i. Exchange between blood capillaries and tissues of the body ii. O2 from blood stream to tissues iii.CO2 moves from tissue into blood stream iv. More so a circulatory function 2. Trace the path air must follow from outside the body to the alveoli in the lungs. 1. Nose – entry path (primary) or mouth (secondary) 2. Both cavities connect to the pharynx 3. Pharynx 4. Larynx 5. Trachea 6. Trachea splits and goes to each lung 7. First split is primary bronchus 8. Split to secondary bronchi 9. Split to tertiary bronchi 10. Then to bronchioles 11. Terminal bronchioles 12. Respiratory bronchioles (microscopic) 13. alveoli 3. Differentiate the conducting and respiratory zones, including the structures and functions of each. a. Conducting zone i. Conducts and moves air ii. Nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles iii.Moving air toward the respiratory zone iv. Particulate matter is removed v. Pathogens are removed from air vi. Humidifies air (due do mucosi) vii.Air is warmed (by blood vessels, helps maintain body temp) b. Respiratory zone Respiratory bronchioles and alveoli i. ii. Site of gaseous exchange between lungs and capillaries 4. Identify the specialized structures involved with the respiratory passageway, and discuss their functions. a. Nose i. Only external structure of respiratory system Passageway ii. iii.Warms and moistens 1. Large cavity with lots of capillaries 2. Mucosa moistens air iv. Filters 1. Hairs inside nose filter out big particulates 2. Even if not allergenic, they could clog pathways v. Above all related to respiration vi. Resonating chamber 1. Allows sounds of voice to resonant in nasal cavity 2. Gives voice a tonal quality 3. Not a respiratory quality Olfactory receptors vii. 1. Air combines with olfactory receptors to give a sense of smell 2. Not a respiratory process b. Nasal cavity i. External nares 1. Openings of nose ii. Vestibule 1. Immediately inside nares 2. Lined with hairs iii.Vibrissae 1. Hairs of the vestibule 2. Relatively stiff iv. Internal nares 1. Opening in back of nasal cavity 2. A point of constriction 3. Slow air down so that we can filter, moisten, and warm it more Paranasal sinuses v. 1. Hollowed portions of bone in the skull 2. Help lighten the weight of the skull 3. Involved in resonation c. Nasal mucosae i. Olfactory mucosa 1. Smell receptors ii.Respiratory mucosa 1. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (PCCE) a. Lining of the nose b. Cilia are beating and make a motion toward the throat (makes us cough) 2. Goblet cells a. Secrete mucous 3. Mucous glands a. Secrete mucous 4. Serous glands a. Secrete enzymes that break things apart 5. Defensins a. Secretions that function as natural antibiotics b. Kill bacteria d. Pharynx A pathway that connects the nasal and oral cavities to the lower i. parts ii.Connects to the trachea (air) or the esophagus (food) iii.Nasopharynx 1. First portion 2. Made up of PCCE 3. Only air passes through this 4. Provides moistening 5. Uvula a. Back of oral cavity b. When you swallow, it pivots back and blocks off the nasopharynx 6. Pharyngotympanic tubes a. Connects middle ear to nasopharynx b. Location of tonsils iv. Oropharynx 1. Part of pharynx associated with the oral cavity 2. Stratified squamous epithelium a. Due to abrasion of food 3. Fauces a. Bend in the oral cavity prevents food from going into nasal pathway v. Laryngopharynx 1. Made up of stratified squamous epithelium 2. Epiglottis during swallowing it lays over the trachea e. Larynx i. Made of rigid cartilage ii.Entrance into trachea iii.Provides open airway iv. Directs food and air v. Produces voice 1. Where buzzing originates before it is modified on the nasal cavity f. Vocal structures Inside larynx after glottis it is made up of PCCE i. ii.Vocal folds 1. True vocal folds 2. As air passes glottis out of lungs, the folds vibrate and produce a buzzing sound Glottis iii. 1. Cover larynx 2. Epiglottis covers glottis when we are eating food iv. Vestibular folds 1. False vocal folds 2. Can contract or relax a. Changes diameter of opening b. Changes tension of true vocal folds i. Length and tension changes the pitch of the buzz that is created ii. Loudness is the amount of air that passes through g. Trachea i. Very rigid tube that runs from the neck to the mediastinum ii.Made up of C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage iii.Smooth muscle in between them (connected by back part of “C”) iv. Behind trachea is the esophagus, when swallowing muscles contract and esophagus will extend into the trachea for a brief moment v. Carina 1. Very last tracheal cartilage 2. Forces split of air between right and left lungs vi. Cilia beat back up toward the throat, which makes us cough Three layers: vii. 1. Mucosa 2. Submucosa 3. Adventitia contain rings of cartilage h. Bronchial tree Primary bronchi i. 1. First branch 2. Contains a left and a right 3. Branches into the secondary bronchi ii.Secondary and tertiary bronchi 1. Simple columnar epithelium 2. Right lung= 3 lobes, left lung=2 lobes 3. 3 secondary in the right side, 2 secondary in the left 4. Tertiary= carry to different segments of the lobes a. Right has 10, left has 89 iii.Bronchioles 1. Cuboidal epithelium iv. Terminal bronchioles 1. End of conducting zone v. Respiratory bronchioles 1. Start of respiratory zone (in combo with sacs of alveoli) i. Lungs i. Pleural cavities 1. Each lung has one sac ii.Cardiac notch 1. Allows heart to sit in there iii.Lobes 1. Different number in each lung 2. Divided into segments iv. Alveoli (alveolar sacs) 1. Gaseous exchange occurs here j. Alveolar structure i. One cell layer thick ii. Clusters of sacs at the end of terminal arterioles iii. Type I cells 1. Simple squamous epithelium iv. Pulmonary capillaries 1. Blood capillaries surrounding the sacs of alveoli 2. Simple squamous epithelium v. Respiratory membrane 1. Simple membrane it only has to pass through 2 cell membranes Type II cells vi. 1. Cuboidal cell 2. Secrete chemical surfactant a. Reduces water surface tension, allows gas to move through. Aka better gas transfer vii. Alveolar pores 1. Connections between alveolar sacs 2. Allows equalization of pressure Alveolar macrophages viii. 1. Kill antigens 2. Nonspecific immunity k. Pleurae i. Serous membranes of the lungs= double layered ii. Parietal pleura 1. Serous membrane around thoracic cavity iii. Visceral pleura 1. Outside covering of the lung Pleural cavity iv. 1. Full of fluid v. Pleural fluids 1. Important in lung functioning 2. Chest expands and contracts with breathing, the fluid allows the lungs to move with it 3. Changes the volume of lungs 5. Describe how the structure of the alveoli makes them the ideal respiratory membrane. One cell layer thick i. ii. Clusters of sacs at the end of terminal arterioles Type I cells iii. 1. Simple squamous epithelium iv. Pulmonary capillaries 1. Blood capillaries surrounding the sacs of alveoli 2. Simple squamous epithelium v. Respiratory membrane 1. Simple membrane it only has to pass through 2 cell membranes vi. Type II cells 1. Cuboidal cell 2. Secrete chemical surfactant a. Reduces water surface tension, allows gas to move through. Aka better gas transfer vii.Alveolar pores 1. Connections between alveolar sacs 2. Allows equalization of pressure viii.Alveolar macrophages 1. Kill antigens 2. Nonspecific immunity 6. List the factors that can affect pulmonary ventilation, and describe the effect each has. a. Consists of: b. Inspiration i. Air moving inside the body via lungs c. Expiration i. Air is being pushed out of our lungs, and back outside the body d. Regulated by: Pressure i. 1. Goes from high to low ii.Volume 1. Work in opposites iii.Resistance 1. Friction 2. Negligible doesn't’t do much unless you have asthma iv. Surface tension 1. Liquid resistance v. Compliance 1. The stretchiness of the lungs 2. More compliant, the more change you can have 7. Discuss the relationship of pressure and volume to breathing. a. More pressure, less volume b. Pressure i. Atmospheric 1. Present all the time 2. 1 atm= 760 mmHg 3. Generally don’t feel it ii.Intrapulmonary 1. Pressure inside of the lungs 2. Changes when we breathe 3. When it is less than atmospheric, air will move in iii.Intrapleural 1. Pressure in pleural cavity 2. Will always be less than the pressure inside of lungs 3. Changes when we breathe Transpulmonary iv. 1. Difference between intrapleeural and intrapulmonary pressure 2. If there were no pressure on the outside the lungs would collapse c. Volume i. Gas always expands to fill its container ii.Volume inside is greater, then pressure is lowered iii.Compress= increase pressure iv. Relationship between volume and pressure P V = P V v. 1 1 2 2 8. Describe the mechanics of breathing. a. 9. Explain and compare the various lung volumes and capacities. Include a definition of dead space. a. Volumes Tidal volume i. 1. Normal amount of air that moves into and out of our lungs 2. About ½ liter of air Inspiratory reserve volume ii. 1. Amount of air we can take in excess 2. Little over 3 liters of air Expiratory reserve volume iii. 1. Excess amount of air we can force out of our lungs 2. A little over a liter Residual volume iv. 1. Some air stays in our lungs to keep them inflated 2. Can only be measured posthumously 3. A little over a liter v. Anatomical dead space 1. Air in the conducting zone that doesn't’t contribute to gaseous exchange 2. Residual volume contributes to this b. Capacities i. Inspiratory capacity 1. Total amount of air can can inspire 2. Includes tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume Functional residual capacity ii. 1. Air left in lungs exchanged across capillaries 2. Residual plus expiratory volume iii.Vital capacity 1. The total amount of exchangeable air 2. Tidal + inspiratory+ expiratory iv. Total lung capacity 1. All of the air we can fit in our lungs 2. Vital+ residual volume+ expiratory +inspiratory 10. Describe how atmospheric and alveolar air differ in composition. a. Atmospheric i. Nitrogen 78.6% ii. Oxygen 20.9% iii.Carbon dioxide 0.04% iv. Water 0.46% b. Alveolar i. Nitrogen 74.9% ii. Oxygen 13.7% iii.Carbon dioxide 5.2% iv. Water 6.2% 11. Relate Dalton’s and Henry’s laws to the event of external and internal respiration. a. Daltons Law i. Aka law of partial pressures ii. Pressure exerted by mixture of gasses is sum of pressures of each individual gas iii.Partial pressure of any gas in a mixture is directly proportional to its percentage composition iv. Total pressure= p1+p2+p3…. v. Individual components have a relation vi. External respiration: 1. Alveolar P is O24mm Hg (in lungs) 2. Pulmonary capillary P is 40mO2Hg (in bloodstream) 3. Oxygen diffuses into blood until equilibrium of 104mm Hg reached a. Out of lungs, and into circulatory system b. Henrys Law i. When a mixture of gases contacts a liquid, each gas dissolves in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure ii. Greater the pressure difference, the more gas will go into the liquid Dissolved gases may reenter gaseous phase if pressures change iii. iv. If liquid is under higher pressure than what is around it v. External Respiration: 1. Alveolar P CO2 is 40mm Hg (in lungs) 2. Pulmonary capillary P is 45mm Hg (in blood) CO2 3. Carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood until equilibrium of 40mm Hg reached a. From the blood, into the lungs 12. List and describe the factors that can affect external respiration. a. Partial pressure i. Greater the pressure gradient, greater the exchange ii. Less oxygen= less efficient transfer iii. Why Olympians train in Colorado b. Solubility i. The higher the solubility, the greater the exchange ii. CO2 is 20x more soluble than O2 c. Ventilationperfusion coupling i. Ventilation movement of air into and out of the lungs ii. Perfusion delivery of blood to certain tissues (in this case the lungs) iii. We want to deliver blood to areas that have lots of air so there is lots of exchange Don’t want to deliver blood to areas that have low amounts of air iv. because there wont be good exchange Poor ventilation= low partial pressure of O2 and high partial v. pressure of CO2 vasoconstriction Breathing in deeply will cause vasodilation, making more O2 enter vi. lungs and less CO2 partial pressure d. Membrane surface area i. 2 layer thick transfer membrane ii. Lots of surface area due to 7 alveolar sacs iii. Increased surface area= increase in exchange iv. Emphysema reduces the SA of lungs by destroying alveoli v. Pneumonia reduces SA by covering alveoli with mucus 13. Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood. a. Oxygen i. Bound to hemoglobin 98.5% 1. Binds to heme portion ii.Dissolved in plasma 1.5% b. Carbon Dioxide i. Bound to hemoglobin 20% 1. Binds to globin portion ii.Dissolved in plasma 1. Only 7%10% stays as a dissolved gas in plasma iii.Converted to bicarbonate ions 1. Majority transported as these 2. Function as buffers, helps maintain blood pH 14. Define the Haldane effect and relate it to carbon dioxide transport. a. Haldane Effect i. Increased carbon dioxide transport due to low partial pressure of oxygen and low hemoglobin oxygen saturation ii.When saturation of hemoglobin is low, our blood can carry more Carbon Dioxide iii.Internal respiration (CO2) 1. Capillary P CO2 is 40mm Hg 2. Tissue P CO2 is 45mm Hg 3. Carbon dioxide diffuses into blood until equilibrium of 45mm Hg reached a. From tissues, into bloodstream iv. Internal respiration (O2) 1. Capillary P iO2104mm Hg 2. Tissue P iO240mm Hg 3. Oxygen diffuses out of blood until equilibrium of 40mm Hg reached a. From bloodstream, into tissues 15. Eupnea a. Process of normal breathing b. Inspiratory center composed of ventral respiratory group i. In medulla c. VRG sends neural signal down phrenic (to diaphragm) and intercostals (intercostal muscles) nerves i. Ventral respiratory group d. Excites diaphragm and external intercostals muscles contract e. Thorax expands i. Pressure goes down f. Air rushes into lungs g. VRG becomes dormant i. Muscles relax, thorax contracts, pushes air out h. Expiration occurs i. Pattern repeats 1215 times per minute j. Dorsal respiratory group assists VRG during forced or strenuous breathing i. Breathe more rapidly or deeply k. Pontine respiratory group modifies activity of VRG i. In pons Inhibits the VRG slows breathing ii. 16. Describe the neural controls of respiration, and describe factors that can affect the breathing rate. a. Neural controls i. Depth 1. Function of frequency of stimulation 2. Higher frequency of stimulation, the more motor units are used, more muscles are used, and we inhale more deeply ii.Rate 1. Function of duration of stimulation 2. Longer they stay contracted, they fewer times they will be stimulated b. Factors affecting breathing rate i. Irritant reflexes 1. Receptors in the lungs that detect whether there are irritants in our lungs 2. Nervous signal causes a constriction of the airways 3. Ex: dust, fumes, smog 4. Reduces breathing rate, may not get enough air ii.HeringBreuer reflex 1. Stretch receptors in lungs 2. If we stretch our lungs by breathing in too much, the receptors will cause you to exhale 3. Inhibit VRG iii.ypothalamic controls 1. Pain and emotions can effect breathing rate 2. When in pain, breathing rate increases, but it is shallow breathing 3. Excitement/ scared= breathe more rapidly iv.Conscious controls 1. Via cerebrum 2. Can send signals that change respiration Chemical controls v. 1. Chemoreceptors in our body can detect the amount of O2, CO2, and pH of blood 2. Most functional/important is CO2 receptors regulates breathing and pH of blood 17. Compare the causes and consequences of respiratory imbalances. a. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) i. Obstructive emphysema 1. Reduction in SA due to the constriction of alveoli 2. Less SA means less efficient exchange ii.Chronic bronchitis 1. Bronchial tree secretes too much mucus b. Asthma i. Causes inflammation of the airway ii.Constriction and inflammation and accumulation of exudate c. Tuberculosis i. Bacterial infection of lungs ii.Highly infectious iii.Can be treated with antibiotics iv. Bacteria enter lungs and produce calcified nodules, destroying the lung tissue d. Lung cancer Leading cause of death in the US i. ii.1/3 of all cancers in US are lung cancers 90% are due to smoking at one point in life iii. iv. Typically die 1 year after diagnosis Metastasizes rapidly v. vi. 5 year survival rate 7% Secondary cigarette smoke is shown to be more carcinogenic that vii. first hand cigarette smoke
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'