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Exam Study Guide

by: Vani Singh

Exam Study Guide GEOL 1210

Vani Singh
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Study Guide for the Exam and will be covered on the final exam as well.
Earth History
Study Guide
Earth History, evolution, natural selection
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vani Singh on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 1210 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Earth History in Earth Sciences at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.

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Date Created: 03/08/16
Earth Science – Study Guide: Exam 1  James Hutton: Father & Founder of Modern Geology: claiming that Earth was perpetually formed  Erosion & sedimentary processes in the present day  Plutonists: Supported the theory that rocks formed from volcanic, erosion, and weathering processes (Roman god: Pluto)  James Hutton; Supported Uniformitarianism  Uniformitarianism: changes in the Earth’s crust during geological history have resulted from the action of continuous and uniform processes  Neptunists: believed in the OPPOSITE of Plutonists; rocks formed from the crystallization of minerals in the Earth’s oceans (Roman god: Neptune)  Nicholas Steno: est. the foundation for the relative dating laws along with the Danish naturalist: Robert Hooke System: a group of interconnected units that interact with outside forces to achieve a goal        Ex. Biological systems are easiest to visualize: human body, ecosystems (NOT static)  Systems produce feedback:  Positive Feedback: goes in only one direction, so the state of the system progressively worsens; imbalance         Ex. Ice Age: glaciers, reflect sunlight back into space causing little to no absorption of heat thereby further cooling the planet drastically  Negative Feedback: balanced system, two directions         Ex. Ecosystems A modification of the process produced by a system to help/hinder: results and effects *Systems can vary in complexity depending on number of pieces and interactions  Catastrophism: sudden, violent, & short­lived terrestrial events  Actualism: human observable present­day processes also existed during the geological past therefore all past geological features existed on Earth today too  Deep Time: immense span of time outside the typical human scale   On a much larger scale such as…periods, eras, eons because on a geological perspective centuries and millenniums are too small – blink of an eye  Relative Dating: order of events  Absolute Dating: exact timing  numerical value (Carbon dating) RELATIVE DATING LAWS Sedimentary Rocks Only – Steno Laws Principle of Original Horizontality: sedimentary bed formed, when it lithified it was settled horizontally Law of Superposition: vertically oriented, the rocks or sediment layers at the bottom are the oldest and the progressive layers at the top are younger Law of Lateral Continuity: as the layers form, they will extend as far as they possibly can laterally (eroded after they form)            Ex. Canyons, basins, valleys Stratigraphy : the study of strata (bedded sediments)  naming   &   identifying   distribution:   classification   based   upon   physical   properties, chemical features, paleontology (fossils in the grains) Ex. Minerals, grains (shape & size)     Three Criteria: 1 distinct upper and lower boundary 2 meet law of lateral continuity requirements 3 vertically continuous, no break in between where something else exists Metamorphic and Igneous Rocks Principle of Cross­Cutting Relations: the enclosed rock fragments is older than the rock that is within           Ex. Lava in Sandstone, the lava is older than the sandstone Unconformities: either rock hasn’t been deposited for a long period of time in an area or deposited but eroded away  records were lost or burned, for example Three Types: 1 Disconformity: parallel bedded sedimentary rocks but there’s a discontinuity between them (rising and falling sea levels) 2 Nonconformity: metamorphic and igneous rocks eroded therefore the sediments are newly deposited  Wavy, not really fitting 3 Angular Unconformity: sedimentary rocks above, below and between the unconformity  Paleontology: the study of ancient life and fossils (that which is dug up, remains of the past life)  Mineralized, hard components to these preserved fossils   Preservations of soft parts such as skin, tissue, and muscle is rare as there are not mineral parts to help keep it in shape  Lagerstatten: bountiful amounts of fossils Body Fossils: hard & soft body parts preserved Trace Fossils: non­physical evidence of the organism existing           Ex. Footprints, coprolites  Fossilization: rare in itself  Requires oxygen­poor environment (carbon print)  Rapid burial in fine­grained sediment  < 1% of all organisms become fossils (matter of finding these fossils – biased view of past life**) Fossil Succession: first and last appearance of the fossil, each fossil has its own unique range Index fossils: very short stratigraphic range – few million at the most (they’re known globally and easily identifiable)  Stratigraphic columns: indicate rock layers in regions         Lithostratigraphy: comparing similar physical features and sequences in the rock         Biostratigraphy: fossils in the stratigraphic rocks Magneto stratigraphy: when igneous rocks form they take on the magnetic characteristic         t which Earth has within its formation (the minerals in the rocks point north)                 Event Stratigraphy: evidence of instantaneous geologic events                          Ex. Volcanic eruptions  ash patterns Fossil Record: displays a biased view of the past life Preservation:  Body Parts: hard vs soft           Organisms with hard parts fossilize much easier and longer than soft parts                      Ex. Jellyfish, snakes  Marine vs. Terrestrials: rapid burial & depositional           Weathering and erosion: highland vs lowland (depositional)   Big vs Small Populations: temporal range Discovery:  Environment: areas not easily accessible to human beings         ex. Deep oceans, extraneous environments  Geographic Bias: paleontologists (dominantly white in the past) and their preferred area  of excavation – Europe & N. America  Rock Record Bias: tectonic activity causing the older rocks to subduct and form new  rocks               New rock, therefore rare fossilization As long as the sample group of fossils is large enough all of the trends will be exhibited  The biased view will not be significant enough to change trends in the data EVOLUTION: change over time    Natural Selection: model of evolution that proceeds 1 Heredity of most features: Parents  Offspring 2 Heritable variation in the population 3 Variation leads to different rates in survival and reproductive success (some variations  are more beneficial than others, therefore survive longer and pass on these characteristics  to their offspring)  4 Shift in frequency/mode towards successive characteristics 5 Given enough time  Parent & Daughter can no longer interbreed b/c the differences are  too extreme  Can no longer be part of the same line Evidence for Evolution:  Evolution  Transformism: species change over time, but number of species remains the same since origin  Separate Creation (Creationism): species originate separately and remain in the exact same form The existence of certain kinds of similarities (homologies) between species: similarities that wouldn’t exist if each species was created independently Species change through time and share a common ancestor Observe change on a small scale (House sparrows in N. America) and then gradually spread out and correlate changes on a much larger scale (ring species) Scientific Evidence:  Once species has evolved into another in the past                               Or  Each species had a separate origin and has remained fixed in that form ever since the beginning Two Evolutionary Claims: 1 That species in Darwin’s sense of “descent with modification” 2 That all species share a common ancestor (tree­like history) ­ Involved people’s perceptions of the world and the amount of scientific knowledge they possess along with religion  Past faunas: a round of extinction followed by a round of creation of new species Evolution can also be created experimentally:  A species: selecting a minority to breed a specific trait, over time the species takes to that trait and moves in the direction of that artificially created evolutionary change         Ex. Agriculture: eggs laid by hens or milk yield of cows ­ Give it long enough time span, and it is observed that artificial selection produces a dramatic change ALL living creatures are classified into a Linnaean hierarchy system 1 Kingdom 2 Phylum 3 Subphylum 4 Class 5 Order 6 Family 7 Genus 8 Species 


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