Art 100 Study Guide for Exam 2
Art 100 Study Guide for Exam 2 ART 100 - 03
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ART 100 - 03
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Conley on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ART 100 - 03 at Colorado State University taught by Michael Fenton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 153 views. For similar materials see Art Appreciation in Art at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Art 100 The Basics of Visual Literacy 1. Description- the “what” questions of a print/ artwork 2. Analysis- what, how, and why a. Form: i. Visual Elements 1. Line, light/ value, color, form/space, time ii. Composition 1. Symmetrical vs. A-Symmetrical b. Content i. Subject matter 1. Natural subject matter -what anyone can plainly see 2. Iconography- symbolism used in artwork ii. Cultural Context 1. Social, political, religious, intellectual framework 2. The artists intentions/ role in society c. Style/ Technique i. Period vs. Regional vs. Personal ii. Stylization - how the subject matter is treated in the relation to the object in nature 1. Realistic (direct source), naturalistic, idealized, abstract, nonrepresentational Neolithic “Most significant change in the human history” 1. The Neolithic Revolution a. Permeant Settlement (Architecture) b. Agriculture & Animal Domestication c. Specialization (Pottery/ Ceramics) i. Architecture Material 1. Wood, mud, stone, & plaster ii. Architecture Technique 1. Wattle & Dub Construction a. Sticks woven like baskets, mud is covered on the inside and outside 2. Post & Lintel Construction (Stonehenge) 3. Corbelled Construction d. Shrine rooms appear more e. Megaliths- large stone f. Passage Grave- taken post & lintel elements to create an open grave space g. Henge- a circle of megaliths i. Mortice and tenon (Legos) Ancient Near East “Emergence of the Neolithic Period” 1. Cuneiform - written language 2. Metallurgy (bronze age Iron Age) 3. City States & Empires a. Cylinder Seal i. Cylinder stone that is rolled across images b. Ziggurat i. Believed to be used to get closed to God & had a temple on top ii. Made out of mud/ brick 4. Stylistic Conventions- artists working in similar styles a. Materials i. Limestone, alabaster, gypsum, lapis lazuli, gold, stone, shell, bitumen (tar/ asphalt) ii. Inlay of stone & shell set into black bitumen b. Composition i. “Hieratic Sealing”- bigger is better, size equals importance ii. Ground line - single line on the ground which has a consistent space iii. Register - art work in between the ground line 1/29 Ancient Near East 1. Stele - one large plank of stone that is being used for a proclamation or code 2. Lamassu - guardian figure (lion, bull, eagle, human) combined to form one animal a. Two relief carving close to each other b. 5 legs at different angles to look like a perspective of walking 3. Composition a. Vertical Perspective b. Fired & Glazed Bricks c. Stone Columns 4. Technique a. Firing them in the sun b. Glazed Brick Egyptian Art 1. Material/ Techniques a. Painted and pressed papyrus 2. Belief of Burial Practices a. Ka & Mummification (70 days to bury the dead) b. Mastabe i. Buried ground for mummies, chapel and statue in the room c. Stepped Pyramid i. Traditional looking pyramid 1. Limestone & Asher Masonry a. Precisely made from stone and bricks b. Carved perfectly 2. Funerary Complex a. Part of a larger Pyramid b. 1 stone pillars in the world found here 3. Engaged Columns a. Columns in/ part of a wall b. More for decoration ii. “Greater Pyramids” at Giza 1. Ashlar Masonry, Limestone, Granite, Electrum at the tip (alloy of silver & gold) d. Great Sphynx – attached to pyramids i. Carved out of natural sandstone 1. Softer, easily corroded 2. Sandstorms and other natural weathering caused reduction i. Sand covered base locking in moisture 3. Nemes – “head dress” shows of the pharaoh which they only whores e. Stylistic Conventions i. Canon of Proportions – a set of rule/ guidelines to follow when creating artwork ii. Egyption C.O.P. used a grid system with boxes/ squares (fists tall by fists wide) 1. Rigidity and the power of Egyptian culture a. Men with dark skin (working outside) b. Women with light skin (indoor chores) 2. Has changed over time sometimes dramatically a. King Hatshepsut – queen pharaoh & has breasts b. Akhenaton, Temple of Aton i. Changes in the god they worshipped ( from many gods to one god) ii. The art has made Nefertiti (wife) idealistic New Kingdom 1539 – 1075 BCE 1. Tutankhamun Tomb (Ruled from 9 yr. old to 18 yrs. old) a. Found food, gold, preserved body in tomb/ temple area b. Anthropoid Coffin – coffin is size & shape as the person within it i. 7 layer protection with 1/8 inch gold on the last inner-coffin ii. Death mask 1. Materials: gold, stone, channel, semi-precious stones and metals 2. Technique: Egyptian Cloisonné 2. Ancient Egyptian Architecture a. Temple of Amen-Re (Sun god of Egypt) i. Built & expanded for generations ii. Believed to completed by Ramsies 1. Pylons – two trapezoid shape bound by post & lintel 2. Façade – face of the building 3. Obelisk – pairs of pillars on front of pylon temple, sometimes has art a. harder to create b. uses a single piece of stone 4. Servers as a sun gate since it serves as a temple to Amen-Re b. Hypostyle Hall – columned hallway (post & lintel) had so an extreme abundance i. mostly used for art and not support ii. Towers of a hallway c. Clerestory – row of windows that allowed light & wind into the room i. Sunken Relief – drawing/ engraving into the stone Cycladic Culture 3000 – 1600 BCE Art of the Aegean World 1. Plank Idols - thin planks of stone between 6”- 8” tall a. Only nose for facial feature, arm crossed, “Barbie feet”, funerary figures, mostly all female b. Marble – easy to construct and create c. Stylistic Conventions i. Has negative space with emphasis on beauty Art 100 Week 3 Early Greek Art “Stylistic Conventions lasting over 3,000 years” 1. Canon of Proportions a. The Classical Ideal – proportions of buildings, pottery, and sculptures 2. Greek Pottery a. Combination of ceramic, paintings and sculptures i. Used the potter’s wheel ii. Each type of pot is used for a specific function b. Materials: i. Terracotta – “fired earth/clay” ii. Slip – clay that is watered down & then painted with it (Clay on Clay) iii. Maeander Patterns – geometric patterns that are curvy and repeat around the pot iv. Silhouettes – solid shape that doesn’t have any eternal detail v. Horror vacui – to fill up all empty spaces vi. Black Figure Ware – a ceramic technique that produces pottery with primarily black surface. Black ware has both matte & glossy patterns on the surface of the wares vii. Red Figure Ware – a techthque th ancient Greek ceramic painting in the 6 & 5 centuries BCE. Characterized by red-clay-colored figures reserved on a black background c. Technique: i. Incising – a technique in which a design or inscription is cut into a hard surface with a sharp instrument ii. Depth – the Greeks struggled with it iii. Foreshortening – objects twisted, one arm may look bigger than the other iv. Skiagraphia – “light writing” light and dark and shading 3. Greek Sculpture/ Painting i. Kuros vs. Kore (male vs. female) 1. Grave markers or stand-alone works of art shown in your 20’s no matter how old you die ii. Archaic Smile 600 – 480 BCE iii. Contrapposto – body is bent appendages, shifted weight one side of body can relax while rest does the heavy lifting iv. Ratios – certain width and length like the Egyptian grid system v. Symmetria – asymmetrical form that is balanced vi. Dynamic Balance vii. Naked – “man is the pinnacle of creation” viii. Female was looked at to be less pure compared to male b. Composition: i. Encaustic – was pigment painted on the sculpture c. Material: i. Bronze 1. Technique: a. Lost-wax casting – replacing wax sandwiched between two clay models and then wax is melted out 4. Greek Architecture: Temples Pg. 104 a. Plan View i. Cella Design – closed interior space 1. Cult Statue – goes in the center part of the temple 2. Chryselephantine – gold, ivory, & crystal. The highest tier of building materials ii. Peristyle Design – row of columns that go around the cella b. Elevation – front view i. Platform – basic structure & stairs leading up to the temple ii. Column – 3 styles of Greek Architecture 1. Doric – circled top, wider towards the bottom, slight bend towards the capital 2. Ionic – volute, scroll like features, vertical throughout the column, Continuous Frieze a. Caryatids – columns carved as human sculptures, representational sculpture 3. Corinthian – leave like artwork at the capital a. Entasis – bulges in the column, bigger part in the middle iii. Entablature – lintel part of the structure 1. Frieze – thin band of decoration 2. Metopes – doric building, has entablatures & broken up into “square sculpture” a. Triglif b. Metopa iv. Pediment – triangular rooftop, key decoration 1. Sculpture fit the triangle shape to maximize space 5. Greek Theatre a. Designed for implication Art 100 Week 4 Roman Sculpture 1 Realism vs Naturalism a Greek & Etruscan Temples i The columns go all the way around, blending together b Tufa & Travertine i Crush and spread thin venire of travertine 2 Roman Architecture: Domestic a Middle Class like apartment buildings i Pompeii-suburb- Mt. Vesuvius resort town ii Atrium iii Cubicula-storage rooms or sleep iv Peristyle Courtyard v Roman Republic b Art of Roman Empire i Imperial portraits ii Equestrian statue – man on horseback, balanced for bronze, heavy statue, hierarchal Scale iii Cameo – carved gemstone in a portrait iv Apotheosis - someone is being crowned a god 1 Onyx 3 High Relief vs. Low Relief unit a Varied relief not consistent – Roman innovation i Arches, vaults, domes b Centering is a wood framework c Voussoirs – keystone at the top of arch, wedge shape, how it translates weight d Aqueduct e Arcades – meant to move water i The vault/ barrel vault & grain vault 1 Two crisscrossing barrels f Triumphal Arch – stand alone unit g The Colosseum – series of stacked arcades, all arches are supported by each other i Depends on what level has a different order of architecture h Velarium – awning of the colosseum i Concrete i Pantheon - made out concrete, where the keystone would be, is missing i Coffers, oculus – the whole ii Ring too big for the whole outward then down iii Hoop stress weight on the dome j Forum of Trajan i Basilica – large open space rectangle & cyllinders k Nave – large open space for gathering Christianity i Was legalized in roman basilica Art 100 Week 5 Quiz 2 & Test 2 Early Asian Art Things to pay attention to: New Material, New Technique, & other art terms Major religious & philosophical association Main Characters & Scenes Various forms of symbolism like numbers or symbols Axial Age 1. Asia: Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism 2. West of Asia: Rabbinic, Judaism, Classical Philosophy 3. Ancient Art of South Asia i. Stamp Seal – pressed, writing on the stamps ii. Yoga Asano – yoga posture, lotus position iii. Prana – “breath” or energy used to move, “cosmic breath” iv. Drishdi – a gaze that the statue has b. Hinduism i. Indo – Aryan Migration ii. The Vedas – earliest text of Hinduism iii. Vedantic Hinduism 1. Samara – death & reaction, cosmos 2. Karma – iv. Pantheon – Hindu temple for Shiva 1. God Shiva, dancing with Shiva 2. Eternal Shiva – 5 fold nature v. Mudra – hood positions with specific languages vi. Buddha – halo around head meaning enlightenment vii. Hindu – supernatural beings c. Buddhism i. Theravada Buddhism 1. Prince Siddhartha Gautama & Shakyamuni Buddha ii. Enlightenment/ Nirvana – when you die you won’t be reincarnated 1. Getting out of the cycle of life & destruction iii. Wheel of the Law - how to live one’s life sometimes on sculptures iv. The Four Nobel Truths – other known as chakra’s v. King Ashoka – king becomes a Buddhist 1. Ashoka Column – stand-alone column, people wall around it, circled like the wheel of the land a. Capital – national symbol & on the Flags still around today i. Lion became Buddha his own nobility ii. Wooden wheel used to be on the back on the Capitol 2. A Buddhist temple, mass/ column in center of temple a. Anda – dome b. Chattra Spire – umbrellas, symbol of his prince upbringing c. Axis Mundi – mast, “access of the world” d. Torana – gate way leading into temple, figurative imagery vi. Yakshi figure – Buddhism, fertility, half naked, symbolic of Buddha’s mother vii. Ushnisha – symbol of wisdom, top knot on head viii. Urna - whirl of hair between eyebrows, 3 external signs of eternal events ix. Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya – downward hand 1. When hand is up means have no fear x. Mahayana Buddhism 1. Multiple Buddhists 2. Bodhisattvas – new Buddha, not a figure that has not been enlightened, blend between monk & priest a. Wants global enlightenment b. Princes’, shown as wealthy religious figure xi. Mural Painting – large continuous wall painting/ scene Early East Asian Art a. Oracle Bones – cow or livestock bone used to communicate with gods to get answers b. Tortoise Shell – turtle shell used to communicate with gods c. Qi (Chi) – ‘breath & energy’ like prana d. Tian – ‘heaven & earth’, all of the cosmos in the earthly realm, a will to choose who the next ruler is. e. Emperors refer to themselves as son heaven f. The dragon – symbol of the emperor, being that which lives between heaven & earth g. Piece-mold Casting – bronze, physically carved molds that uses as a cavity i. Used as fine art ii. Super heavy 2. Zhou Dynasty – 100’s of philosophies i. Confucianism 1. how the men should behave in home, government, with order to the cosmos ii. Daoism 1. “map is not the territory”, no matter how perfect you think there are thing that do not fit the system b. Incense Burner – mortality, land of the mortals, Daoism i. Used stonze & hammared gold 3. Qinshihuangdi – 1 emperor of china a. Standardized the written language of China b. Started the Great Wall c. No one is allowed in the Tomb of the Emperor d. Tomb at Xian – 8,000 full sized terracotta warriors, highly detailed, specific 4. Buddhism in China a. Spread by the silk roads b. Monumental Buddha – in far east particularly in China, loess mounds & rock-cut dwellings, sand stone 5. Calligraphy – highest form of art, highest of all art 6. Paper – invented in China 7. Ink – red & black ink 8. Stamp Seals – red ink seals, gives information of thee owner of the artist & everyone else who owns the document adds their own stamp seal 9. Silk – woven & painted a. Unraveled & boiled from silk worms 10.Jade – highly prized material in Chinese culture, expensive a. Sometimes people would be covered in a shroud of jade Architecture a. Temples – “anything you loved in life that you then bring with you in death” b. Nanchan Temple – tall watched towers blends with Indian stupp c. Pagoda – Chinese structure, has interior space & multiple levels & layers d. Ceramics – lead glazed, dripping of lead paint became accepted and the style Art 100 Week 6 Quiz 2 & Test 2 Ancient Asian Art Korean: 1 “Gilt Bronze” & Gilding a Starting with bronze & have a small layer of gold on the surface 2 Popular Materials a Sheet gold, gold wire, jade Japanese: 1 Haniwa – placed outside of tombs of burial mounds a 20-30 or up to 20,000 placed around tombs b Abstracted clay cylinders 2 Shinto Shrines – native/ indigenous religion, emphasizes purity a Large alters, small temples, each one dedicated to a Kami 3 Kami – spirits or gods, natural forces or location 4 Jataka Tales – stories about the Buddha before he was the Buddha a Sacrificed himself to feed a pack of lions, jumped on rocks 5 Lacquer on Wood – tree sap used to seal & decorated the wood, mix in colors & used in layers Early Christian Art 1 Ethical Monotheism (Judaism, Christian, Islam) a Belief in one God b All knowing c All powerful d God is good – interested in the flourishing of man kind 2 Classical Polytheism (Greek & Roman) a Multiple gods b Limited in their power c Not especially fond of the flourishing in human nature Early Judeo-Christian Context: 1 The God of Abraham – another name of God Judaism (Hebrew/Israelites/Jews) 1 Torah – first 5 books of the Old Testament 2 The Torah Niche – formed out in a wall which holds the torah 3 Synagogue – wall with a Torah Niche, comes in any shape & size 4 The Exodus – Moses leading his people out of Egypt 5 The 10 Commandments – received from God, laws 6 The Menorah – 7 branched candelabra, used in the Exodus, primary symbol of Judaism 7 The Temple of Jerusalem – built by Salomon 8 The Arch of Titus – the concurring of Jerusalem & the destruction of the 2 temple 9 The Jewish Diaspora – after Romans destroyed the temple & city and they are forced to leave 10 Catacombs – underneath the cities, burial of the full body 11 Representational Art – art captured the actual look in the real world 12 Idolatry – creating more art with other people in the painting 13 Didactic – teaching & creating stories 14 Tempera on Plaster – egg-yolks mixed together & added pigments, relatively dull colors 15 Mosaic – individual stone & glass that you used to create artwork, like reflection of the light like a disco ball 16 Tesserae – the little squares that are used to make the overall picture/ mural, sometimes they would stick out to add reflective color a Mariano’s & Hanina Early Christian Art 1 “The Good Shepard” – old Jewish image transformed in Christian artwork, deep rooted in the early classical world 2 The Lamb of God – the sacrificial lamb who is then sacrificed on the cross 3 The Catacomb of Commodilla – Alpha & Omega a Beginning and end 4 The Trinity – father, son , and Holy Spirit (usually portrayed as a dove) 5 The New Testament – had the books of the Gospels along with other important Christian writings 6 The Gospels – proclaim, 4 books who were Apostles of Jesus 7 The Evangelists – proclaimers of the Gospel who wrote the Gospels a Mathew – represented as a male b Mark – represented as a lion c Luke – represented as a winged ox d John – represented as an eagle 8 Disciples – any follower of Jesus 9 Apostle – divine followers who also spread the word of the Gospel 10 Martyrs – someone who was killed for their faith 11 Saints – a person of great holiness recognized unanimously in the Christian Church 12 The Virgin Mary – major figure in the Christian art 13 Baptism –to clean/ wipe away of all sins 14 The Eucharist – communion bread & wine a Representational of The Last Supper b Oldest motif of Christian Art 15 The Last Supper – the meal Jesus had with his Apostles before his Crucifixion 16 Christian Architecture a Old St. Peter’s Basilica – created with help of Constantine who legalized Christianity i This design becomes the format of the Christian churches b Church – religious sanctuary c Basilica – longitude plan, large church d Cathedral – “the seat of the power of the Bishop”, every cathedral is a Basilica but not every Basilica is a cathedral 17 Basilica a Nave – large central gathering place in the center of the Basilica i Taller than the other b Apse – where the judge sits or image of Jesus, focus point of liturgy, layers of symbolism c Transept – pg.166 18 Central Plans a Altar in the middle b Ambulatory – outer most part, goes around the altar i Covered hallway that circumnavigates the center holy space c Pendentive – translates from a square base to a circular dome d Hagia Sophia – windows at base that made it look like the dome was floating 19 Iconoclasm vs. Religious Icons a Iconography – symbolism & the meanings behind those meanings b Religious Icons – special kinds of paintings, spiritual powers in their own right, blessed the artwork c Iconoclasm – Christians went into churches and broke/stripped away. i Thought they were disgracing the religion Early Islamic Art (Non-Narrative or Figurative Art) 1 Muhammad – founder of Islam 2 Aniconism – no representational images whatsoever (some exceptions) a Calligraphy – writing on physcal buildings or other artworks b Arabesques – abstract geometric patterns of flowers or vines that wined & twist 3 Hijira – 4 Mecca – location of the major pilgrimage still popular today 5 The Mi’raj – “right journey” while Muhammed was sleeping he was lifted & moved to Jerusalem & spoke with God (Allah) 6 The Dome of the Rock – centrally planned building, covered with calligraphy & arabesques 7 The Quran – see examples of the calligraphy in the text 8 Muslim – someone who surrendered to God 9 Caliph – successor to Muhammad leaders 10 First 4 Caliphs – the round circles in the Hagia Sophia 11 Weavings – the weavings of carpets major for decoration that are covered the bottom of the mosques Art 100 Week 7 Quiz 2 & Test 2gal Islamic Architecture 1 Mosque – central gathering center to pray, wide variety of formats a Prayer Hall – columned hallway to gather & pray b Mihrab Niche – part to a larger structure attached to a wall, orientates entire mosque towards Mecca, serves as the tip of the arrow 2 Technique a Tile Mosaic – individually cut out pieces and made to fit together, curved along walls and shapes and the curvature of the base 3 Minaret – a symbol of the Islamic faith, like to call people to come together to worship a Mosque of Sultan Selim 4 Horseshoe Arch – continues past virtual post a Continues to horseshoe arch, decorative & structural decoration 5 Squinches – square base & has a 45 degree angle that sets up as to a dome 6 3D Crystal Symmetry – new forms of geometry, bricks that are carved out a All individual blocks carved individually b Maryarnes Islamic Manuscripts 1 Ink 2 Vellum – animal skin like sheep or goats that is stretched out Islam Luxury Arts 1 Glass – blowing glass 2 Enamel – colored glass, decorative aspects, slivers to create color, glass on glass Material 1 Brass 2 Silver & Copper 3 Wool 4 Weaving – knotted/pile carpets a Warp – vertical thread connected to a loom b Weft – horizontal, colored strands that weaves in & out of the wrap Early Medieval 1 Gummersmark Brooch – precious metals, animal style, animal based images 2 Exterior of Stave Church – animal style doors, the start of gargoyles 3 Sutton Hoo Burial Ship–traveled with them 4 Material & Technique a Cloisonne – glass crushed in powdered 3D pockets filled with crushed glass & bake in a fire b Enamel – the powdered glass separated from each other c Millefiori – “checker-boards” or “1,000 little flowers” hand-made & hand set before the firing of the creation of the Hinged Clasp 5 Manuscripts a Ink or Tempera b Vellum/ Parchment – thick, shinier colors are more dull on parchment c The Book of Kells – opening of Biblical text Carolingian Period 1 Gallery – second floor of occupiable space 2 Monasteries – established schools, breweries, horse stables, learning rooms 3 Westworks – entrance of the building on the west end, has towers and is the face of the building 4 Celtic Cross – Celtic sun symbol and mixed with Christian cross 5 Cloister – Christ on the cross, carved, painted wood, Gilded 6 Reliquary – relics or holy items where bones of saints or owned by saints Ottonian 1 Crossing Square – where the transept & the nave cross gives the perfect square of holy space 2 Bay Unil – modules made out of squares, measurement system (bay units wide x bay units tall) 3 Doors – single piece of bronze 4 Typology – 2 stories side-by-side that form a story from the New Testament Romanesque Art – High Middle Ages 1 The Worcester Chronicle – Parchment a 3 Levels i Peasants - those who work ii Clergy – those who pray iii Crusaders – those who fight 2 Knights – fought a New fighting techniques b Key figures in European expansion c High saddles & stirrups who fought with a lance 3 Crusaders – knights went to Jerusalem to fight for the Holy Land & brought back relics 4 Radial Structure – 5 Cathedral of St. James a Many people took pilgrimages there Cathedrals competed with each other on which structure was the tallest b From interior/nave i Vaulted cailings added 6 Butress – extra support on side of column 7 Groin Vault – a vault produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel (tunnel) vaults. 8 Barrel Vault – the simplest form of a vault, consisting of a continuous surface of semicircular or pointed sections 9 Buttressing – Rib Vault, compound piers a 4 columns come together to form a single strong column at bottom Architectural Structure 1 Ambulatory – wrapped around the alter 2 Radiating Chapels – outer parts that had relics where pilgrims went to pray Medieval Painting 1 Mandorla – “body halo”, ring of fire of shiva, Christian Majesty 2 Romanesque & Gothic Churches a Sculptures & Mosaic Paintings – mostly on the exterior of the churches 3 Historiated Capitals – stories at top of the columns 4 Romanesque Church Portal a Post and lintel design b Tympanum – largest semi-circle on the portals c “The Last Judgement” d free standing wood carvings 5 Ivory – main material used for decoration 6 Campanile – bell tower 7 Tapestry – weave image in as a weaving clothe 8 Norman Conquest of England Art 100 Week 8 Test 2 Gothic Art in France High Gothic Periods – “The Age of Cathedrals” 1 Merchants – own the shops & sell the goods, almost as wealthy as nobles 2 Craftsman – have the tools & create the goods, closer to the peasants 3 Guild System – Union mixed with Fraternity, pricing & quality is controlled Reims Cathedral – 2 different guilds helped create these sculptures 4 Master Mason – “fore man” or supervisor who is in charge of the craftsman 5 Mason – someone who is building the stone 6 Abbot Suger –head monk who invented the design of the Gothic Style Church 7 Gothic vaulting added – pointed arch & has groin vault, “pointed groin vaulted” a By being pointed it distributes out the weight evenly b Unlimited ribs coming out of the center 8 Stained Glass – the purpose was light from God, passes through stories & projects on the people during the mass 9 Master Designer – creator/ designed the stain glass 10 Glassblowers – making the colored glass 11 Glaziers – shape/ fuses them and adds the cut glass into each individual shape 12 Leading (Cames) – placed in-between the areas of smaller glass to separate & create the picture a Leading (cames) Iron Framework Stone Framework Notre Dame Cathedral Paris 1 Flying Buttresses – invented in Paris, buttressing continues to outside the building & then connects to the outside of the building a Lets/ allows more light in 2 Pinnacle – helps to counter balance the weight coming down 3 Gargoyles – dragon & functioning water spout 4 Grotesque – same as gargoyles, just different designs on the buildings
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