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PSY/CLDP 3362 Exam 2 Review

by: Kimberly Notetaker

PSY/CLDP 3362 Exam 2 Review CLDP 3362.001

Marketplace > University of Texas at Dallas > CLDP 3362.001 > PSY CLDP 3362 Exam 2 Review
Kimberly Notetaker

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These notes cover the material for Exam 2, including the Short Answer portion.
Cognitive Development
Dr. Meridith Grant
Study Guide
cognitive development
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLDP 3362.001 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Meridith Grant in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 195 views.


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Date Created: 03/08/16
LANGUAGE 1. What makes something a “language”? » Rules for language that aid in communication (e.g., grammar) » Expresses new meaning by combining words in different ways » Displacement 2. What is categorical perception and how does categorical perception of speech change over development (e.g., universal to culturally bound language speakers)? Do children learn phonemes from video? » 1 mo can make categorical discriminations between sounds (e.g., “ba” vs. “pa”) » Infants sensitive to phonemic contrasts in non-native languages (unlike adults) » Sensitivity to non-native phonemes declines around 10mo. o Universal to Culture Bound (or Specific) Language Speakers o @ 9mo, infants prefer listening to native phonemes o @ 4 days can distinguish native language from other languages (not specific to humans; rats can do this as well) » Social interaction crucial for retention of phonemic awareness. 3. How do infants find words in speech? How does IDS help? » The word-segmentation problem » Infants learn statistical regularities (i.e., associative learning) o 8 mo infants dishabituate:  novel words  “part” words o In most situations they dishabituatue (example of bottom-up processing) suggesting infants do learn statistical regularities o NOT species specific IDS (Infant Directed Speech) » Babies prefer » Helps babies find words » Highlights new words o Target words stressed more o Place new words at end of sentence » May help for words with unusual prosody o “Her guitar is too fancy.”  7.5 months “taris” vs. “guitar” (unusual word in English, has the reversed prosody)  10.5 months goes away 4. What can research using the Child Language Checklist tell us about lexical development? » Comprehension then production  Child Language Checklist: o Parent report measure o Data for toddlers across 12 languages 5. How does lexical development help in terms of use of gestures? Learning words? Expectations?  Word learning moves quickly o Main indications:  Comprehension @ 8 to 10 mo  Production @ 11 to 13 mo  LOADS of variation  Exponential growth (opposed to word spurt) in words produced/sentence complexity  Use of gestures declines as language skills improve  Attending to Words o Use of infant’s name/or “mom” helps 6 mo learn novel words o Anchor points o Top-down processing  Words Guide attention o 10 mo look longer at objects that are labeled o Labels help 9 mo make perceptual discriminations  “Look a duck” “Look a ball” vs. “Look a toy” 6. What is fast mapping? Is it language or species specific? o Fast mapping: ability to form quick hypotheses about the meaning of new words; Not language or human specific (e.g., Rico the dog) o 2, 3, & 4 year old children fast map novel words o Fast mapping is not a language specific ability 7. What types of lexical and grammatical mistakes do children sometimes make? o Overextensions: extending the use of word o Underextensions: limiting the use of a word o Overlaps: overextending and underextending a word  Charlie refers to his raincoat as an “umbrella” and calls a closed umbrella a “stick”. This is an example of an: Overlap 8. How do we tend to correct the grammatical mistakes that kids make? What types of corrections seem to help children most? » Learning pragmatics correlated with age and separate from MLU; use more imperatives (request for assistance) than declaratives (comment on state of the world) at a younger age in an experiment, however, learn labels first. **Main point: keep kids talking & engaged 9. How can we promote communication? (Be sure to include the “home- school study” and “story-book study” in your response.) i. Children learn the words that they hear most. (Provide a language rich environment) o Early language exposure related to later language and reading levels. o Home School Study of Language and Literacy » Longitudinal study of low-income families with children, beginning at age 3. » Examines (among other things) children’s development in language, literacy, and reading. Parent factors that are predictive: 1. Parents talk about issues that go beyond the here and now. 2. Parents use a sophisticated vocabulary. 3. There is support for children’s literacy. Preschool factors that are predictive: 1. Teachers use “cognitive engaging talk” (e.g., hypothetical situations). 2. Teachers use more sophisticated vocabulary. 3. Teachers have a content-oriented curriculum (engaging kids in experimental activities; teaches them ideas and to think abstractly). ii. Social interaction matters (Talk and play with children) o Children under 3 unlikely to learn language from television. (but can from Skype) o Positive social interactions are linked to learning in homes, relative care, and preschools. iii. Children learn from what interests them (Follow child’s interests) iv. Children learn words best in meaningful contexts. o Books are different from flashcards!  Children who are read to more tend to have better language skills.  Lots of potential reasons, including that books have diverse vocabulary. o Books have diverse vocabulary (1.72 times more unique words) o Interactive (dialogue; shared) Reading:  Child taken an active role, with adult engaging child.  Tips: 1. Read the cover 2. Slow down and engage child (keep their interest) 3. Let child turn pages 4. Talk about the pictures, then real words (maybe) 5. Choose picture-rich books 6. Ask open ended questions (why do you think he did that, what are they doing, what do you see, etc; teaching them broader literacy skills) v. Keep it positive! (“Strive for five.”) o Conversation that keeps going 5 times 10.What are some similarities between the ways in which infants’ process speech and music? o Young infants can imitate pitch, loudness, melodic contour, and rhythm, of their mother’s songs o Specific types of brain damage affect musical ability (fMRI’s) o Babies can distinguish between “good” and “bad” music o Babies can distinguish “regular” from “irregular” patterns of music across cultures 11.Would you recommend to another parent that their child participate in a music program (refer to Assignment 2; Kraus et al., 2014)? o Findings:  Children with 2 years of music training distinguished syllables better (at neurological level).  Overall, more training led to better language processing; linear relationship. 12.Know terms such as displacement, phoneme, morpheme, pragmatics, syntax, overextension, underextension, overlap, overregularization, and fast mapping. » Displacement: we can talk about things beyond here and now; we can refer to things that aren’t immediately present » Phoneme: sounds that make up words in a language; different languages use different phonemes » Morphology: the rules that govern structure of words o “Drive” ing but not “Car” ing » Pragmatics: the rules for engaging in effective communication o Involves social awareness o The basis of metaphors and some humor » Syntax: the rules that determine how words can be combined into phases o “The goulp was pudaded under his limex.” » Over-regularization: errors in which rules of grammar applied to exceptions o Rare (“cactuses” vs. “cacti” / “foots” vs. “feet”)  Conclusions: o Statistical learning processes are important for language acquisition (phonological and grammatical development) o Social interaction really important too 1. Provide a language rich environment. 2. Talk and play with children. 3. Follow children’s interests. 4. Language in context. 5. “Strive for five.” 6. Music (?) SOCIAL COGNITION 1. What is social cognition? Why do we care? » Social cognition: ability to understand the mental states (e.g., thoughts, desires, beliefs, knowledge) of someone else (AKA “Theory of Mind”); ToM is NOT just false belief – much more than that » Why do we care? o Predict behavior o Enables successful communication 2. Describe the “Gross cracker study”. What does that tell us about infant’s understanding of emotions? What is one of the later developing components of understanding of emotion (Hint: it involves a lady who wants/does not want to eat cookies.)  Gross cracker study** » Establish child’s preference for broccoli/crackers (usually for the crackers) » Researcher demonstrates opposite preference (“gross crackers, yummy broccoli”) » Researcher asks child for some more (does the child recognize the researcher has a preference different from their own and acknowledge it?) » Finding: 18 m.o. (but NOT 14 m.o.) understand that others can want different things 3. What are some individual differences in recognizing emotion? o Understanding people can experience two emotions at the same time—not till 7 y.o. or later! o It’s impossible to feel both because:  “You haven’t got two heads – you don’t have enough brains.” o Focus on successive emotions:  Feel one thing, and then you’d feel the other. o Individual Differences WRT Emotion:  Display rule understanding develops  Differences in how parents talk about emotion  In general, in US, more explanations for negative emotions than positive ones  “Positive parent-child” relationships - better understanding of others’ emotions  Sometimes reading emotions is even hard for adults (e.g., Reading the mind in the eyes) 4. Describe what false belief tasks measure and the overall findings. What kinds of task manipulations tend to improve performance?  False Belief o Unexpected Transfer Task: Sally-Ann Task o False Contents Task: Smarties Task o Appearance-Reality Task: Sponge-Rock (tends to be the easiest task)  False Belief Tasks o Results:  Most 5 y.o. pass  About half 4 y.o. pass  3 y.o. don’t typically pass o Findings seen across cultures o Microgenetic studies (super compressed) indicate gradual understanding – have to pull in a lot of information o Manipulations to improve performance:  Emphasis on time frame/language (where will sally look first?)  Deception as motive for change  Children carry out transformation 5. What are a copy-theory of mind and interpretive theory of mind? Describe the basic task that is used to measure this transition.  Theory of Mind - Originally looked at as Brief-Desire Psychology (most 2 y.o. were better at desire (93%pass) than belief (73% pass) stories); BUT TOM IS MORE COMPLEX - Includes desires, beliefs, feelings, thoughts - Depends on type of measure (implicit or explicit; experimental, mental state descriptions) - False Belief is NOT JUST Theory of mind - What else develops:  Intentions  Feelings/Desires  Interpretive Theory of Mind: » Ambiguous information can be interpreted in different ways » Not until age 6 or 7 that kids understand people may interpret ambiguous information in different ways o Before age 6/7, “copy theory of mind” (it is or it isn’t) o After, “interpretive theory of mind” (information can be ambiguous; shades of green) 6. How does children’s use of mental states terms fit with the experimental research examining theory of mind?  USE OF MENTAL STATE TERMS o Mother’s record their children’s use of mental state terms from 20 – 28 m.o.  Mental State Terms About Self: o Toddlers - refer to age, sex, physical characteristics, evaluative qualities (e.g., good or bad) o Preschoolers - concrete, observable characteristics o Middle childhood - psychological aspects; abstract, compared to others o Late childhood - general dispositions or traits; reference to situational changes o Shifts from stable, observable --> variable, internal, nonobservable o Young children tend to be fairly positive and optimistic about their abilities (“Pollyanna” view)  By age 11 or 12, children finally differentiate ability and effort  Having a slightly overly positive perception of one’s competence is associated with mental well-being in adults  Mental State Terms About Others: o Development: progression from concrete (very factual), external observable characteristics to more abstract, internal characteristics. o Traits: Stable, psychological phenomena expressed in various situations over time.  For children in the US:  5 to 7 y.o. understand traits sometimes predict behavior (someone who is generous will share their lunch) o BUT overpredict the power of positive traits: “halo effect”; someone who is nice, will also be generous o Optimistic about bad traits; someone who is messy that wants to be neat, they will be! (takes lots more examples of negative behavior before they’re able to infer someone has a negative trait) o Rarely bring up traits when describing other people (early on we’re very concrete)  Middle childhood begin to talk about traits more  Cultural differences:  Collectivist cultures – more focus on contextual cues (due to the context, etc.)  Individualist cultures – more focus on dispositional factors (someone shows up to work late, he’s just lazy) o Fundamental attribution error: focus more on dispositional factors versus contextual cues (focus more on … than the situation) 7. What types of experiences facilitate the development of the understanding of mental states?  Conversation: o Discussion of emotions at 33 to 36 m.o. predicts ability to correctly attribute emotions and pass false belief tasks later on (could explain gender differences) o Experimental training indicates causal link between dialogue and mental state understanding for 3 y.o.  Using the mental state word, “thought” leads to better understanding of labels of what they otherwise may not know  Mind-Mindedness o Treat young children as individuals with mind (thoughts, feelings, volitions,…) – parent can understand the “babble”  Measure mind-mindedness at 20 m.o. and 3 y.o.  20 m.o.: “He says XXX to mean YYY” vs. mom endorsing vocalizations not understandable  3 y.o.: “He’s an outgoing and friendly kid who really enjoys…” vs. “He’s a tall but typical boy.”  One is much richer than the other  Measure false belief understanding at 5 y.o. o Mothers of securely attached infants more likely to be mind-minded o All mind-mindedness measures predict better false belief performance at 5  Siblings o Siblings contribute to more advanced ToM skills beyond age and language and are even more important for children with lower vocab skills 8. Are young children gullible? (Consider fantasy-reality and evaluations of knowledge states.)  Fantasy-Reality o Fantasy Characters:  Santa Claus, Tooth Fairy, etc. » 80% of 4-6 y.o. believe in Santa Claus » Extensive parental and community support  Imaginary Companions: » Rich background and personalities to these imaginary characters » But children realize that they are not real  Fantasy vs. Reality:  Children as young as 3 can distinguish between fantasy and reality in some situations  Still sometimes have fears of imaginary creatures  4 and 6 y.o. don’t rule out the possibility that pretend entities might be dangerous  Deception o 3 and 4 y.o. can be remarkably gullible, seeming to believe that ghosts could come out of books and break glasses o 5 and 6 y.o. discount lies that refer to magical explanations **You can make your kids believe in things  Understanding Knowledge States - How do we decide what someone else knows and who knows what?  Knowledge: o Acquisition: Poor at monitoring the source of new information across development, but especially in preschool  Minutes after learning a new fact/game, 3 and 4 y.o. claim they knew it forever! o Determining expertise  Use information about knowledge, ignorance, and inaccuracy to learn new words  3 year olds trusted knowledgeable source over ignorant one. Mixed with inaccurate source. (having a lot more trouble tracking the accuracy over time)  4 year olds trusted knowledgeable source over both ignorant AND inaccurate. (understanding some people have a tendency to be accurate and some do not) o Asking questions to obtain knowledge o 4- and 5-year-olds can direct questions to appropriate sources to solve problems  Better at avoiding ignorant sources (i.e., don’t know) than inaccurate (i.e., wrong) ones  5 y.o. ask more effective questions (more task-relevant) 9. What is the difference between circular and noncircular explanations?  Noncircular explanations: Explanations that provide new and meaningful information Ex: The Dana Octopus Squid lives very deep underwater because that’s where it finds most of it’s food.  Circular Explanations: Explanations that reiterate the information in the original question without adding new information Ex: Tarsiers have huge eyes because they are born with two eyes that are very large on their faces. 10.What are the 3 general findings from the Mills et al. research study regarding children’s abilities to evaluate explanations?  Asking questions to obtain knowledge:  4- and 5-year-olds can direct questions to appropriate sources to solve problems  Better at avoiding ignorant sources (i.e., don’t know) than inaccurate (i.e., wrong) ones  5 y.o. ask more effective questions MEMORY 1. Know the modular account of memory, including definitions for the subparts of memory. o Table o Infantile Amnesia (don’t remember much before 3): » Magic shrinking machine: o If they had the word at the time of encoding, they are more likely to have a verbal memory for that word. o If not verbally encoding, may make retrieval more difficult » No sense of self » Infants may just focus on events differently (Symbolic Understanding) o Snoopy Study (big room vs. little room) o The Development of Scripts (we get a cart, onions, we leave)  When you add a novel event, they believe that is part of the overall script  younger kids  Novel event stands out; we already have the script down  older kids  Maternal elaborateness (Circus example) – try to make it a very developed, richer memory » Neurological structures o Plausibly relates to some extent, but not the only explanation. 2. What factors can help children to remember temporally ordered events better (e.g., causal event sequences versus arbitrary event sequences)?  Temporal Events o 16 to 20 m.o. recall temporally ordered causal sequences even 6 weeks later o Memory better when:  Order Matters (memory better when sequence of events matter)  Action relevant o Age differences in recall for explicit memory temporally ordered events 3. What are some potential explanations for infantile amnesia? Is there evidence to support any of these explanations (e.g., “Magic Shrinking Machine”; Symbolic Understanding)?  Autobiographical Memories  Infantile Amnesia: 1. Freud: Repressed memories 2. Sense of self (before the age of 3, children don’t have a sense of self) 3. Neurological structures 4. Infants may focus on events differently, making retrieval difficult (the memories are there, but stored differently) 5. Differences in encoding and retrieval  Females tend to have earlier memories than males AND females tend to have more advanced language development than males (links to the possibility of encoding and retrieval differences)  Magic shrinking machine o 27- 39 m.o. play with shrinking machine, language skills assessed o 6 months or 1 year later test memory verbally and nonverbally o Findings: 1. Good nonverbal memory 2. Verbal memory connected to words children knew at time of encoding (if they did not know the vocab word at the time of encoding, they did not know it at the time of retrieval – suggests the difference in how the memory was stored)  Symbolic Understanding:  2.5 and 3 y.o. asked to use a scale model (archiacal mockup of the room) to find a hidden item (viewing the world differently  General finding: 3 y.o. succeed, 2.5 y.o. fail (suggesting they don’t have the same symbolic understanding we do as adults) o Magical shrinking machine (more engaging, leads to a hazier connection to the actual room) o Line/drawings/photographs  Trouble with: o Representational Correspondence 4. How does maternal elaborateness influence the development of scripts?  Maternal elaborateness related to better event memory o Longitudinal study: 40, 46, 58, 70 m.o. o Moms asked about singular past event o Finding: children of more elaborative mothers tended to recall more at 58 and 70 m.o. (very parallel to how dialogue reading is done; much richer understanding) 5. Children have difficulty providing accurate eyewitness testimony for a number of reasons. What are some of the factors that can influence children as witnesses? Know the Sam Stone, Bike Theft, and “Trailer” study.  Eye-Witness Memory  …in children: o CAN provide accurate information in some situations o BUT (like adults) also susceptible to errors…  Recall vs. Recognition o Recall involves intentionally remembering information (i.e., like a short answer) o Recognition involves matching encoded input to a stored representation (i.e., like a multiple choice question) o Recognition, in theory, is easier than recall BUT can be misleading…  Leading Questions  Sam Stone study: o Sam described as being clumsy o Uneventful visit to class o Dirty teddy bear discovered o Finding: With leading questions, 3 and 4 y.o. said they saw Sam commit the “crime”  Bike Theft Study: o 6 and 8 y.o. see video and interviewed: Free recall then misleading questions  Positive: things that happened  Negative: things that did NOT happen o Findings:  Accurate free recall, but less info  Errors of commission (they agreed to things that didn’t really happen)  BUT less susceptible when it’s central information  **Trailer Study: (important for eye-witness) o 4 & 7 y.o. taken to old trailer in pairs o Played games with male stranger o Interviewed later: recall and recognition o Findings:  Recall – correct  Recognition  4 yo accurate about 80%  7 yo accurate about 93%  Errors of commission o Bottom lines:  More accuracy with specific, non-leading questions  Most suggestible in terms of:  Errors of commission  Repeated questions  Other factors can also influence testimony  Social demands and compliance  Source amnesia (prone to this as adults)  ToM (related to better ability to answer these questions)  Intelligence 6. What is the evidence to indicate that implicit and explicit memory are separate constructs in adults? What do we know about the development of that separation? (Recognition memory could fit into this explanation as well.)  Henry Gustav Molaison, H. M. o Dissociation between Explicit and Implicit memory: did not explicitly remember new people and experiences but showed implicit memory o Things became more familiar over time (implicit) even if he couldn’t express explicitly (just showing the procedural memory for it) o Suggesting the distinguish between explicit and implicit memory  Perceptual Learning Tasks: » Learning: children view images that they are to processes in deep shallow ways » Tested with implicit or explicit memory tasks (ask if something is old or new (explicit) and reaction time (implicit)) » Findings: Dissociation between implicit and explicit memory – depth of processing impacts explicit more than implicit o No effect of age for recognition memory (were developmental difference for explicit memory, NOT for implicit)  Fragment Completion Tasks: » Learning: name images » Test: o Explicit: free recall and recognition o Implicit: fragments (present just some of the picture); if they have an implicit recognition, they should need less of the picture » Findings: more developmental changes in explicit versus implicit memory o Young children needed more information for implicit recall  Recognition Memory o Bottom lines:  Implicit and explicit memory are separate in adults and children  More developmental change in explicit than implicit memory 7. What do we know about the development of sensory memory? Discuss the Sperling task in your answer.  Sensory Memory:  Sperling’s Findings  All rows - 4-5 correct (~40% of list)  One row - 3-4 correct (~80% of list)  The longer the delay for the arrow, the worse the recall Conclusions:  Sensory memory has a large capacity and short duration o Capacity increases over development o Training children does not seem to have a huge impact 8. What are the “slave systems” in wording memory? What types of developmental differences do we see in the way that “slave systems” process information? How does phonological confusability fit in?  Development of “Slave Systems” AKA Baddeley and Hitch’s Model of WM o Some plausible possibilities:  Children initially rely on visual codes and switch to phonological codes (around 5 y.o.)  As get better at information processing, become more efficient at using both o Phonological Confusability  For adults and children over 5 y.o.:  Easier: egg, pig, car, boy Vs. Phonologically similar: bat, cat, hat, rat, tap, mat Long: bicycle, umbrella, banana, elephant  3 to 5 y.o. do not show “phonologically confusavility” (confusing words that sound similar) o Not rehearsing? o Not show pronunciation effects? o Development of “Slave Systems”  Phonological confusability develops (around 5) suggesting changes in “slave systems”  With development children less likely to rely on visual systems? (rehearse more)  May also depend on medium that is presented ASSIGNMENT 2: - How could we follow up the research examining how the Harmony Project may help the development of communication skills to address some of the important limitations? o Neurological distinction between sounds (i.e., stop consonants) o No behavioral measure in there o Pretty late for a program to continue having issues like that; similar intervention with head-start programs to see if the plasticity earlier on was even more so. - Main Weaknesses: o Expensive, no true control group (we can’t rule out the possibility for a Hawthorne effect), small/specific sample **SA // Review:  What is one important limitation to the study examining how music influences language development (i.e., Assignment 2)? What follow up research could be conducted to address the limitation? » The original study only looked at neurological evidence; new research should look to see if it connects to a benefit academically – or is it just a social benefit? Does it actually impact language ability? Other changes: larger sample size, (starting the program in at least one other school, maybe more rural), having a true control group, etc.  What are three important things that we can do to promote communication? » Interactive/shared reading (allowing child to turn the pages, ask open- ended questions), try not to use prohibitive language (stay positive, “strive for five”), and follow children’s interests.  Do English-speaking infants retain the ability to distinguish Mandarin phonemes by watching television? o Between 10-12 mos.  Describe the “Gross Cracker” study with 18-month-old. What does this say about infants understanding of desires/preferences? o Goldfish crackers vs. Brocolli; child chooses the crackers, experimenter says gross – they understand that someone else might want something different from their own preference. o Finding: 18 m.o. (but not 14 m.o.) understand that others can want different things.  What is a temporally ordered event? o Sequence of events o Recall that 16 to 20 m.o. recall temporally ordered causal sequences even 6 weeks later o Memory better when:  Order Matters (have to do it in sequence or you won’t get the same results)  Action relevant (know what this means) o What type of memory is this?  Explicit-Episodic-Temporally Ordered Events


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