MKT 302 Test 3
Popular in Consumer Behavior
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Marketing
This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie S on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MKT 3020 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Siemens in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at Clemson University.
Reviews for MKT 302 Test 3
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/08/16
▯ Chapter 6: Personality, Lifestyles, and Self-Concept ▯ ▯ Personality = The totality of thoughts, emotions, intentions, and behaviors that a person exhibits consistently as he or she adapts to his or her environment. Thoughts, feelings and the underlying foundation Is not directed towards anything (that would be affect) ▯ Personality qualities: 1. Is unique to individual 2. Combination of specific traits/characteristics 3. Traits are relatively stable and INTERACT with stimulant to influence a behavior 4. Specific behaviors can vary across time, BUT Traits stay the same ▯ ▯ OCEAN Personality traits “The Big 5”: ▯ 1. Openness to experience – intellectual curiosity ▯ ▯ 2. Conscientiousness – persevering, orderly, and Trustworthy/reliable ▯ ▯ 3. Extraversion – tendency to be social ▯ ▯ 4. Agreeableness – altruism, confidence, want everyone to get along ▯ ▯ 5. Neuroticism – Anxiousness, unstable, nervous ▯ ▯ *** Traits are very unique to the individual and vary in level ▯ ▯ ▯ Hierarchical approaches to studying personality: Begin with the assumption that personality traits exist at varying degrees of absorption Two degrees: o Broad traits= behaviors performed across many different situations OCEAN o Specific traits = tendencies to behavior in a very well- defined situation Compliant, finicky ▯ ▯ ▯ What about brand personality? What contributes to brand personality (Jennifer Aaker- see Exhibit 6.4)? Product Quality = price, advertisement, promotion/sponsorship o The perception of the actual product’s quality Packaging = brand characters/concrete o The persona of the brand ▯ ▯ Brand personality dimensions- use the 4 p’s to reinforce brand personality ▯ ▯ 1. Competence – responsible/dependable/know what you are getting Appliances ▯ ▯ 2. Excitement – daring, spirited Nike, mountain dew ▯ ▯ 3. Ruggedness – toughness Ford/Cars, ▯ ▯ 4. Sincerity – Honest, genuine Honest Tea, Levi jeans, ▯ ▯ 5. Sophistication – luxury, glamor, charm Designer brands ▯ ▯ What companies try to match consumers and products based on their personality? Companies try to target personalities based on OCEAN/5 Brand personalities o Pandora – cultivate a station unique to you o Fashion – Stich ▯ ▯ Lifestyles refer to: Ways consumers live and spend their money/time o Extrovert – like to have parties and plans – might buy a karaoke machine or solo cups in order to be “the life of the party” ▯ ▯ ▯ Psychographics- way consumer LIFESTYLES are measured What they want, how they want it, what do they do Measured in AIO statements ▯ ▯ Ways of measuring psychographics include: ▯ AIO statements a. Activities i. Interests o. Opinions ▯ ▯ VALS- Values and Lifestyles Tool used commercially for marketers to classify/evaluate AIOs/ interpret psychographics 8 Segments based on: 1. resources available And Primary motives: 2. Ideals – beliefs 3. Achievements 4. Self-expression ▯ ▯ ▯ PRIZM measures Geodemographics- Overlay psychographics with geography o Draw conclusions based on area o Lifestyle necessitates area/similar desires Predict lifestyle o Potential Ratings Index by zip code market Commercially available tool o Assumes similar people live close to one another and emulate each other’s behaviors/lifestyles o 66 segments ▯ ▯ Self-Concept- Refers to the totality of thoughts and feelings that an individual has about him or her self. How do I identify self- internal/personal ▯ People have many self-concepts, such as: ▯ 1. Actual-self = Current perception ex: student; stressed ▯ ▯ 2. Ideal-self = what you Want to be/ the person you want to be employed; relaxed ▯ 3. Social/looking glass- self = How you think others perceive you others think I am composed ▯ 4. Ideal social self = how I want them to see me ▯ ▯ 5. Extended self = possessions/our self concept expressed through our possessions purse – reflects lifestyle/idea of self ▯ ▯ Self-congruency theory- Proposes that much of consumer behavior can be explained by the congruence (match) between a consumer’s self-concept and the image of typical users of a focal product. Purchases that reflects a self concept That isn’t me… I want to be more… Brand personality tries to use these o Wants to understand the consumer self concept Strategize based on “who” is buying o Actual or ideal??? ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 7: Attitudes ▯ ▯ Attitude = lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues Mood is temporary Emotion is a response to a specific situation Attitude is general; applies to more than 1 moment ▯ ▯ What is an attitude object? Anything TOWARDS an object o Product, service, place, idea, person ▯ ▯ ABC approach to attitudes: Affect – feelings; ex: “I really like…” Behavior – doing/actions ex: “I always buy…” Cognition – Thinking/belief ex: “My car gets good mileage” ▯ ▯ Attitude formation- depends on the Hierarchy of Effects, and how the attitude was learned ▯ ▯ What are the 4 possible Hierarchies of Effects? (Exhibit 7.2) ▯ ▯ 1. High Involvement = Cognition – affect - behavior Ex: Car purchase ▯ 2. Low Involvement = Cognition – behavior – affect ▯ ▯ 3. Experiential = Affect – Behavior - Cognition Ex: Cinnabon = smell rolls, buy, realize it’s too big ▯ 4. Behavioral Influence = Behavior – belief – affect Ex: grocery store = food sample, read/think about package, like ▯ ▯ ▯ Fishbein Model of Attitude Formation (ATO- attitude toward the object model) ▯ Assesses 2 things: ▯ 1. Belief ratings does the product perform well on given attribute ▯ ▯ 2. Evaluative rating of attribute How important is This attribute to customer ▯ ▯ Attitude = sum of beliefs * Evaluation rate of each belief Important to know which attitudes are highest rated – compensates ▯ ▯ Attitude of … = Belief1 * Rating1 + Belief2 * Rating2 … ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Theory of Reasoned Action (Behavioral intentions model) Focuses on behavioral intentions, not just attitudes o Attitude towards the behavior = my belief that performing a behavior will lead to a consequence and my evaluation of that result o Subjective norm o A = Belief1 * R1 + B2 * R2 … + Subjective Norm R is the Belief that behavior will cause X Consequence ▯ ▯ What weakens attitude/behavior consistency? ▯ 1. Weak attitude positive attitude, but lack behavioral intent ▯ ▯ 2. Environment out of stock, no size, money ▯ ▯ 3. impulse less thinking involved, purchased impulsively, but didn’t like the actual product ▯ ▯ 4. Time Pressure – need to meet deadline or lag ▯ ▯ PERSUASION – refers to specific attempt to change attitude Knowing how an attitude is formed helps ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Changing attitudes with the Fishbein Model (5 strategies) ATO Attitude Towards Object Assesses belief ratings o Does the product perform well on a given attribute o Evaluating rating of the attribute = how important is it ▯ 1. Increase Belief Ratings for brand on most important attributes ▯ ▯ 2. Increase importance of an attribute convince consumers why X attribute is more important ▯ ▯ 3. Add new attribute to consumer’s attitude product modification ▯ ▯ 4. Decrease importance of weak attribute if we can’t modify, convince consumer’s attributes we don’t do well aren’t the important ones ▯ ▯ 5. Decrease belief ratings for competitive brands ▯ ▯ ▯ How can you change attitudes with behavioral intentions/Theory of Reasoned Action approach? Behavioral influence approach o Changing behavior can lead to belief and attitude change Encouraging consumers to do something can lead to persuasion Ex: test drive, trial, sample ▯ ▯ Elaboration Likelihood Model (handout) Involvement is Key Measuring focus point in advertisement and how it influences them o Product-related or non All depends on level of involvement with product o 2 routes to persuasion: Central and peripheral Central = high elaboration High Involvement// product info Peripheral = low elaboration Low Involvement//Non product info ▯ Attitude change is relatively enduring when it occurs in the central route. o increase involvement by making the product/message highly relevant. target to motivated audiences. Most ads are processed with low involvement processing. o reliance on peripheral cues (attractive models, music, imagery). ▯ ▯ Message and Source Effects on persuasion ▯ (Peripheral – nonproduct) Message effects- appeal of a message and its construct o Ex: sex appeal = not too explicit; romantic theme. o Humor = attract attention; positive attitude. Attract attention and enhance mood Can’t use to persuade if negative already o Fear = moderate levels; show effects if not using product. ▯ Source effects- characteristics of person/deliver message ▯ ▯ ▯ Most common message effects (ad appeals): ▯ 1. Credibility – brand/celebrity – trustworthiness or expertise ▯ ▯ 2. Attractiveness ▯ ▯ 3. Likeability – Q-scores ▯ ▯ 4. Meaningfulness – relevance ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ What is a Q-Score? Likability score ▯ ▯ Meaningfulness (match-up hypothesis): Sources feature is most effective when matched with relevant products ▯ Chapter 8: Consumer Culture ▯ ▯ What is culture- Commonly held societal beliefs that define what's socially gratifying. Find value ▯ ▯ ▯ Consumer culture- what a person consumes helps define individuals in society Consumption is meaningful only relative to the environment in which it takes place. Environment defines context ▯ ▯ ▯ Values and Norms: ▯ ▯ Values = What we believe to be right/good. ▯ Norms = Social guidelines of what is appropriate in a given situation. ▯ Folkways- Routine norms of everyday life (dress code, manners, etc). ▯ Mores- Norms that are central to societal functioning (adultery, incest, drinking and driving, etc). ▯ ▯ Hofstede’s Cultural Values: ▯ 1. Individualism or collectivism Where does your identity reside Family-oriented; use of I or we; sense of self-importance o USA very individualistic – somewhat looking out for self; o China – communal; the common good ▯ 2. Power Distance Distance between authority/power figures and the people o USA power distance is smaller than in China/East Authority can direct or collaborate o Shapes the place a person has in hierarchy and how they can interact in the “caste” system ▯ 3. Uncertainty Avoidance The willingness to take on a risk/step out of comfort zone o USA is fairly low on UA – take a lot of risks o France/Japan very high – goes along with the collectivism ▯ 4. Masculinity or femininity Gender Role definition and assignment/duties o Shapes the idea of gender and place in society o Authority ▯ 5. Long-term or Short-term Goals and decisions based on longevity and desired pay out Immediate vs future o USA – short-term; quarterly/daily reports To engage in a behavior with immediate outcome o China – more long-term; benefits come later ▯ ▯ ▯ How is culture learned? Through socialization ▯ Socialization- Learning through observation Ex: wearing shoes ▯ ▯ Encultration- learn your native culture. ▯ ▯ Acculturation- learning another culture. Difficult ▯ ▯ Japanese Wa (value of group loyalty and consensus) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Chinese Guanxi (relationships backed by reciprocity) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Consumer ethnocentrism- belief among consumers that their ethnic group and native products are superior to other ethnic groups and their products. ▯ ▯ Culture is learned through Modeling and Shaping ▯ ▯ Shaping = behaviors slowly adapt through series of rewards and sanctions ▯ What cultural behaviors have you learned through shaping? Shoe tying ▯ ▯ Modeling = process of imitating others’ behavior Causes shaping ▯ What cultural behaviors have you learned through modeling? ▯ ▯ Verbal and Nonverbal communication/Language ▯ What issues arise with spoken language? Nonverbal = body language, distance stood apart Verbal = translation issues ▯ ▯ How does culture vary in unspoken language? Example: Asian culture o Mandarin Chinese is the mother tongue with English 2 nd o There are many variations o Not only words, but in conversational norms: “uhms” o Unspoken = personal space; thumbs up is obscene in Greece 3-5’ of personal space in Latin America, but 5-8’ in America ▯ ▯ ▯ Glocalization: Represents the idea that marketing strategy may be global but the implementation of that strategy at the marketing tactics level should be local. ▯ ▯ Brand Classifications (Shultz and Schultz 2004) ▯ ▯ Local brands- specific to local/limited Market Core identity only works in region ▯ ▯ Transnational brands- offered in multi regions under common brand name, but may have different pricing, distance, or brand identity strategies Core works in nationwide scale ▯ ▯ Global brands- maintains a unified and consistent identity around Same core identity with same meaning (glocalization) o Localization of a global product ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 9: Microcultures/Subcultures ▯ Microculture (usually called a subculture) – a group of people who share similar values and tastes that are subsumed within a larger culture. Micro-cultures = subcultures of people with similar aspirations and values o Ex: Graphic Communications, ROTC, Senior class, Sports, Clubs ▯ ▯ Micro-cultures have certain roles and expectations Unique to the subculture Set own norms, role expectations ▯ ▯ Role Conflict = when a person has conflicting expectations based on cultural expectations Products like frozen meals target Working Moms o Moms who work have their career expectations as well as caregiver – often time conflicts lead to role conflicts ▯ ▯ Divergence = when consumers choose membership in micro- culture in order to stand out or define self Identifications through the culture o People who are defined by a subculture – it is part of who they are Regional Micro-culture = “Nine Nations of North America” ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Appalachia – Ashville/Knoxville, WV, VA, PA, NC Region dictates language – colloquialism o “Mountain Talk” slang terms used like: Poke = bag, Sigogling, dope = soda, boomer = red squirrel Mountain talk = the accent/dialect as well as the words/phrases commonly chosen Culture of region is often sold back to people o Bluegrass music, red clay pottery, authentic products All embody a regional micro-culture and are unique o Market directly back to the micro-culture or by “looping” outsiders in ▯ Age = a micro-culture People tend to share values/consumer preferances in the same age group Teens/teen culture worldwide act similar/like certain brands, celebrities and prodcuts ▯ ▯ Cohort = Generation Microculture group of people who have had a SHARED/SAME Major experience o United by a common generational event o shared major experiences end up shaping their core values ▯ 1. The Greatest Generation – The Great Depression Survivors Almost ended Built America/factories, hard-working Americans ▯ 2. Baby Boomers – surge/influx generation After the war, many children were born First to have buying power at a young age o Child target market because of TV and sheer population # Now 65ish people Vietnam War o Hippies/opposed o 60-hr work weeks/supported first spike in divorces ▯ 3. Generation X = Beginning of Technology boom Children of divorce – 2 homes o Independent kids ▯ 4. Generation Y/ Millennial 9/11, Recession, Social Connection through internet/media, o Social Tolerance Nostalgia – popular culture based on these cohorts Appealing to a specific memory/side of a person ▯ ▯ Religion as a micro-culture Weekend days = Holy days Material acquisitions = bibles, crosses, religious purchases Food/beverage choices = Kosher, no meat Fridays in Lent Clothing Choices Charity giving/budgeting ▯ ▯ Ethnic Micro-cultures – 3 big: Asian Hispanic = growing in America African-American Social Class = social stratification 1. Capitalist Class Top executives, CEOs, .ox% Ivy League education ▯ 2. Upper-Middle Class Salaried Professionals, $100,000 MBA, well educated ▯ 3. Lower-Middle Class White Collar, semiprofessionals, Management/lower Management College educated ▯ 4. Working Class Blue Collars, factory/skilled labor o Still have a retirement plan, benefits, etc. High School educations ▯ 5. Working poor Service industry, waitress, low-rung clerical o BUT do have a Min wage job Some High School education ▯ 6. Under-class Unemployed Government assistance ▯ ▯ Consumption is affected by class Attracted to different things o Disney targeted both upper and lower classes by highlighting the differences in products Pooh Bear: One was brightly colored – lower class The other pastels – upper class o Boar’s Head won’t allow Wal-Mart to carry their products Perceived as higher standards Street Microculture Subcultures often arise from pop culture o Gaming, sports, music, fashion, entertainment Harry Potter, Clemson, Comicon o Often created through affiliation with genera of music/sports Affects languages as well as consumption Develop own lingo/terms Ex: Parrots = Jimmy Buffet fans Different micro-cultures exist globally o Popular global micro-cultures include: Cosplay, K-pop, etc. More meaningful to these subcultures than just a hobby or interest Sense of divergence/identification
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'