Criminology Exam 2 Study Guide
Criminology Exam 2 Study Guide 3600
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathryn Hardison on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3600 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Andrew Fisher in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Criminology Study Guide – Test 2 Chapter 5: Development of Trait Theory o Sociobiology The view that human behavior is motivated by inborn biological urges to survive and preserve the species o Differential Trait Susceptibility Crime producing interactions involve: Personal traits Environmental factors o Vulnerability Model Direct link between traits and crime Some people are just vulnerable to crime from birth o Differential Susceptibility Model Some traits make the individual more susceptible to environmental influences Biological Trait Theories o Diet, sugar levels, hormonal influences, premenstrual syndrome, lead exposure, environmental contaminant o Neurophysiological Conditions ADHD, brain chemistry, arousal theory o Genetics Antisocial behavior is inherited The genetic makeup of parents is passed on to children Genetic abnormality is linked to a variety of antisocial behavior o Evolutionary Evolution of gender and crime Women nest, men hunt o Evaluation of the Biological Branch Explaining geographic, social, and temporal patterns in the crime rate Explaining existence of crime across differing individuals Psychological Traits o Sigmund Freud (18561939) Id (Es) Ego (Ich) Superego (UberIch) o Principles of Psychoanalytic Criminality Adult criminality is caused by lack of development in a personality as a child Behavior is intertwined with unconscious motives Criminality is a representation of internal conflict o Attachment Theory The view that forming emotional bond to another person is an important aspect of mental health throughout the life span Specificity, duration, emotional engagements, ontogeny, learning, organization, biological function o Behavioral Perspective The view that all human behavior is learned through a process of social reinforcement Social Learning Theory o Behavior Modeling The process of learning behavior by observing others Family interactions, environmental experiences, mass media o Cognitive Theory Perspective that focuses on the mental processes by which people perceive and represent the world around them and solve problems Cognitive problems Pedophilia o Distorted thinking patterns Child as a sexual being, nature of harm, entitlement, dangerous world, uncontrollable o Social Policy and Trait Theory Primary prevention programs Programs such as substance abuse clinics and mental health associations that seek to treat personal problems before they manifest themselves as crime Secondary prevention programs Programs that provide treatment, such as psychological counseling, after an individual commits a crime Top limitations for providing inmate treatment o Budgetary constraints, space limitations, limited number of counselors, lack of volunteers, frequent movement of inmates, general correction problems, problem with aftercare provision, and legislative barriers Biological Control Moodaltering drugs Diet Psychosurgery Chapter 6: Social Structure Theory o Definitions Social structure theory: social forces are the cause of crime and not individual traits. Disadvantaged class positions are primary cause of crime. Social stratification: a system of structured inequality in which people receive different amount of society’s valued resources. Video on US distribution of wealth o Intersecting Stratification Categories of class/habitus, race/ethnicity, and sex/gender are socially constructed categories that reflect power structures of society (privilege and oppression) Classism Racism Sexism Ideology of Isms o Society is naturally divided into parts o The different parts displayed intrinsically relate to one’s nature o The different among natures are innate, not subject to change, and on the basis of their legitimacy from Society, some natures are innately superior to others o Theories Social Disorganization theory Poverty Social disorganization o Broken families/households may experience more crime o Anything that isn’t as “society” should be Breakdown of traditions Criminal areas o Crime rates are elevated in commercial and residential neighborhoods experiencing change (business closing, buildings torn down or renovated) o Columbia neighborhood experiences a high number of shooting and they are paying a police officer to live there Cultural transmission Criminal careers o People will join criminal groups to get attachments and social needs to feel less alienated o Gangs claim territory and have authority with lack of external support or investments. People don’t care that much and then crime grows. People become career criminals Shaw and McKay o Transitional neighborhoods: an area undergoing a shift in population and structure, usually from middleclass residential to lowerclass mixed use o Studied Chicago o Explained that Chicago had developed into distinct neighborhoods and poverty neighborhoods were unable to come together as a community o Concentric zones Crime rate as you leave downtown gets lower and lower Social Ecology o Community disorder Crime rates are associated with community deterioration. Areas with high percentage of deserted and abandoned homes and businesses o Community fear In neighborhoods where people interact with each other, they are less likely to be afraid of crime If they are a afraid, they’ll get scary dogs and put bars on their windows o Siege mentality Leads to sense of powerlessness and a hostile worldview. They may think that police are there to harass them, not to protect and serve o Community change Can’t just be a poor community, but a poor, unchanging community leads to the fear of crime o Collective efficacy o Informal social control Neighbors disciplining other children and disagreements being handled outside of the courts. Ex: He stole my lawnmower so let’s get a neighbor to help steal it back o Institutional social control Institutions being a part of neighborhoods… schools and churches, for example, help prevent crime. After school programs help monitor children. Community centers and churches are often available o Public (formal) social control Government services, clinics, police are often ineffective in neighborhoods that are afraid of crime or are disorganized. Do police only monitor wealthy neighborhoods? Strain theory Suicide as a social fact o Social integration: the degree of attachments and inclusiveness a member of society has relative to others You’re included in society somehow Altruistic integration Too much integration to a degree that you lose your self identity Ex: kamakazi bombers who selfdestruct Egoistic No integration... feeling lonely Ex: jumping off the Golden Gate bridge o Social regulation: the degree to which rules, norms, and values are expected to be followed by members of a society Fatalistic Too much regulation makes you feel powerless and causes you to do harm Anomie The lack of regulation. You have so much power and you end up doing harm to yourself AnomieStrain theory o Anomie: a disconnect between socially defined and universally mandated goals and the legitimate means and reality to achieve these goals You see the goals and you know you’re supposed to do it, but you are detached and feel strained. You can’t do what you need to do o Strain: the difficulty in attaining positive social things o How do social structures exert positive pressure upon certain parts of society to engage in nonconforming rather than conforming conduct? Deviance and conformity are both psychologically normal o Assumptions of AnomieStrain We should all strive for the same goals Failure is a waystation to ultimate success Real failure consists only in lessening or withdrawal of ambition and goals o Culturally defined goals: the goals, purposes, and interests seen as legitimate objectives for a group of people o Acceptable means: the normal ways of achieving cultural goals Institutional anomie theory o Devaluation of the noneconomic o Subordination to the economic o Penetration of the noneconomic by economic o There’s a drive for material wealth o Changing our traditional values due to the desire to succeed o Ex: We used to go to school for education, but now we go for economic reasons Relative deprivation o A precursor to crime that incites envy, mistrust, and aggression resulting from perceptions of economic and social inequality o Being deprived of social status and wealth will make people feel a certain way to make them commit crime o Ex: when you see people on vacation on Facebook General Strain Theory (agnew) o Failure to achieve positively valued goals Someone who aspires to wealth and fame but lacks the resources to achieve those goals (financial, personal, etc.) Ex: You’re a good singer, you should apply for American Idol… then they fail and go bankrupt and commit crime o Disjunction of expectations and achievements Ex: Just sitting behind a desk all day when you were picturing something else o Removal of positive stimuli The loss of a job or loved one might lead someone to delinquency A person may seek out the person who was responsible for their loss o Presence of negative stimuli Child abuse, victimization, conflicts, physical harm Critiques of Strain theory o Assumes universality Changing goals and means of society due to laws and wealth o Class bias Success and pressures to succeed is greatest for the lower class but they don’t commit crime as much as highend businesses. They may experience strain o Simplicity of explanation Why one would choose one adaptation than another. Are you a rebel or innovator? o Retreatism from one perspective People often consume drugs whether conscious o Alternative perspectives Strain theory can explain crime attached to goals and means Cultural Deviance theory Conceptual Hierarchy o Society o Culture o Institutions o Organizations o Groups o Individuals Culture o The expressive aspect Norms Values Beliefs Symbols o As a tool kit A repertoire of habits, skills, and styles from which people construct strategies of action Ex: learning how to eat at a fancy dinner o The Location of Culture by Homi Bhabha (the time shared) o Subculture: a culture with different values and ideas than the dominant culture it is embedded within without conflict o Counterculture: a culture with conflicting values and ideas of the dominant culture Cultural Deviance theory o Focal concerns: values that have evolved specifically to fit conditions of classed environments o Subcultures of violence (1950s gangs) Trouble, toughness, smartness, luck/fate, autonomy o Delinquent subculture: a value system adopted by individuals that is directly opposed to that of the larger society o Differential opportunity the view that people whose legitimate opportunities are limited, join gangs and pursue criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal success goals Criminal gangs Conflict gangs People who fight to fight Retreatist gangs Alcoholics or druggies who give up and run away Social structure and social policy o Government spending vs. charity Public assistance Social stability Community improvements Chapter 7: Social Process Theories o Definition The view that criminality is a function of people’s interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes in society It happens because of what happens in society Theorists believe this is from politics, religion, economy, schools, etc. All people have the potential to commit crime o Institutions of Socialization (the process of becoming a member of society) Family relations Major determinant of behavior. Criminologists find strong relationships between supportive parents and noncriminals, but kids with troubled homes are more antisocial. Teenagers with fighting parents are more likely to be antisocial. Kids who don’t receive affection are more likely to be aggressive and use drugs. Abused children are more prone to crime, depression, suicide, etc. Educational experiences The type of classes and education you get depends on what school you go to. Different schools have different kinds of kids. You may not be as motivated at one school than another. Vastly different experiences in life Most likely to engage in criminal activity: less motivation in school and feel like they don’t fit in Peer relations Kids who hang out with friends for long spans of unsupervised time are more likely to commit crime Kids who completely reject people and don’t spend time with anyone are more likely to commit crime Peer pressure Prosocial friends may help shield you from criminality Religions and beliefs Belief systems bind people together Religious service attendance = less criminality You can’t be legal and illegal at the same time Church = less drug use Holding religious beliefs aren’t enough to combat criminality. You have to engage in the beliefs o Social Process Theories Social learning theories Criminal behavior is learned through social interaction with criminal peers Crime is like any other activity… you have to learn the techniques Ex: How to hotwire a car, roll a joint Becker, Howard, “Becoming a Marihuana User” o You can only use marihuana after you learn how to smoke it right. Then you can enjoy it Differential Association theory o Sutherland Began with idea that crime has nothing to do with your class, gender, etc. but can affect anyone because it’s a learning process o 9 Points Criminal behavior is learned Just like writing, reading, driving, etc. Criminal behavior is learned by interacting with others Learning criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups Learning criminal behavior involves assimilating the techniques of committing crime The direction of motives and drives is learned from perceptions of various aspects of the legal code as favorable or unfavorable A person becomes a criminal when they perceive more favorable than unfavorable consequences to violating the law Can be from peer pressure and then parent restriction Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anticriminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning process Although criminal behavior expresses general needs and values, it is not excused by those general needs and values, because noncriminal behavior expresses the same needs and values o Testing Studies (observations) Scales (numbers and rates) o Critique It can’t account for the very first criminal. Someone had to start the criminal behavior for it to be passed on Assumes criminal acts are rational and ignores irrational crime and random acts of violence Serial killers learn on their own Neutralization theory o The view that law violators learn to neutralize conventional values and attitudes, enabling them to drift back and forth between criminal and conventional behavior o Enables people to commit crime and then return to a conventional behavior o Criminals don’t commit crime 24/7 So there has to be some sort of process to prevent that o When a person moves in and out of delinquency, that is referred to as drift o Techniques Denial of responsibility They made me do it Denial of injury They have insurance and too much money Denial of the victim He had it coming Condemnation of the condemners Everyone steals Appeal to higher loyalties I have to protect my friends o Testing o Critique Social control theory The view that everyone has the potential to become a criminal, but most people refrain due to their bonds with society Theorists are interested in why people obey laws Selfcontrol or moral senses keep people from breaking laws o Ex: I think about the ducks and birds so I don’t litter Socialized to conform to society’s rules o Ex: family is dependent on them or their job. Santa Claus is watching you! Hirschi’s “Social Bonds” o Attachment Weakening of ties that attach people to society Family, friends, community o Commitment Will their commitment to other people keep them from behaving in such a way? Future, career, goals, success o Involvement You’re involved in school activities, organizations, religious groups, sports teams, social clubs, etc. Little time for involvement in illegal activities o Belief Honesty, morality, fairness, patriotism, responsibility, etc. You have similar beliefs to people around you o Individuals are more likely to engage in illegal activities without these bonds o Testing Youths who are more attached to their parents are less prone to crime People who shun antisocial behaviors will be closer to their peers and will commit less crime o Critique Influence of friendship Can be negative, rather than positive Family connection is more positive Group activities and peer pressure lead to criminal activity Failure to achieve You can be committed to doing something great, but if you fail, are you crimeprone? Deviant involvement Multiple romantic relationships = more trouble Deviant peers and parents If you’re attached to deviant peers and parents, then you’ll copy their acts Mistaken causal order Is it the bond that came first or the criminality? Kids with more problems are provided with more support Labeling Theory o Definition The view that people become criminals when they are labeled as such and the label is applied to their identity It’s not until you’re labeled successfully that you’re labeled that way There has to be an action (you’re caught) Criminals emerge out of stigmaproducing encounters Labels are internalized and acted on as truth o Theory Assumptions Behaviors that are considered criminal are highly subjective Even the worst crimes in society are never crimes until we decide that they are. It’s simply a matter of perspective Crime is defined by those in power Labels apply to people and acts Positive and negative labels involve subjective interpretation of behavior o Consequence of Labeling Theory Selflabeling Joining deviant cliques Retrospective reading o Primary Deviance A violation with little or no longterm effects Ex: DUI, noise complaint, etc. o Secondary Deviance A violation that leads to the offender being successfully labeled deviant o Research on Social Reaction Theory Targets of labeling Minority group members, poor and powerless, etc. Effects of labeling Negative labels dramatically influence the self esteem of a person Children negatively labeled by parents are antisocial and self image Helps sustain criminality over time o Validity 3 important contributions Definition of law. This is criminal. This is a thing. Crime isn’t a disease, they’re acts. Different conceptual realities of criminals and these concepts have to be treated differently. Labeling dictates actions of all parties. Consequences of Social Process Theory o Social Process Theory and Public Policy Relearning You have to relearn how to live a life without crime Paying back in society Rehabilitation We don’t want to label and punish them… but drug offenders may need to go to rehab Chapter 9: Developmental Theories o Definition A group of theories that attempt to explain the “natural history” of a criminal career; its onset, the course it follows, and its termination o Life Course Theory The view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by many characteristics, traits, and experiences, and that behavior changes accordingly over the life course Sensitive to changes in individuals lives As people travel through life, they are constantly changing, sometimes for the better or worse Relationships and behaviors determine life course Conformity to social rules and function effectively in society Later begin careers, leave parental homes, find permanent relationships, and marry and begin families Transitions take place in order o Transitions can occur too early o Transitions may occur too late o Interruption of one trajectory can harm another The propensity to commit crimes is neither stable nor constant: it is a developmental process Offense Specialization/Generalization Age of Onset/Continuity of Crime Criminal career starts early in life Persistent criminal offenders begin their careers early in life Early onset creates a downward spiral AdolescentLimited LifeCourse Persisters Problem Behavior Syndrome A cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, precocious sexuality, physical abuse, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, and unemployment, as well as crime o Crime is a social problem rather than a result of other social problems AgeGraded theory The view that discrete factors influence people at different stages in their development, so the propensity to commit crimes is neither stable nor unyielding Linked to your decisionmaking Turning points o Places in your life where you shifted ideas/doings o Life events that alter the development of a criminal career Social capital o Positive, lifesustaining relationships with individuals and institutions o More relationships = more social capital o Supports conventional behavior, not deviant behavior o Ex: Having cultural knowledge, education, being social Trajectories, transitions o Trajectories: Longterm patterns in life o Transitions: Shortterm events embedded in trajectories o Ex: Going to college (trajectory), changing major (transition) o Propensity Theory The view that a stable, unchanging, feature, characteristic, property or condition make some people crime prone Propensity vs. Latent trait o Latent trait: a number of people have a characteristic that controls their inclination to commit crime Genetic abnormalities, drugs, chemicals, injuries General Theory of Criminality Impulsive personality/ lack of selfcontrol o 2 latent traits o The impulsivity and selfcontrol are linked o Intergenerational Learning or biological o You learn or genetically get it from parents Act and offender o Like labeling theory o Males have lower selfcontrol Analyzing the general theory Critiques o Repetitive o Different classes of criminal Different criminal paths Different external forces o People change Doesn’t allow for change in the GTC Crime and human nature Are humans naturally violent? o Trajectory Theory The view that there are multiple independent paths to a criminal career and that there are different types and classes of offenders Different trajectories have different outcomes Pathways to crime Authority conflict pathway o Path to a criminal career that begins with early stubborn behavior and defiance of parents Covert pathway o Path to a criminal career that begins with minor underhanded behavior and progressed to property damage and theft Overt pathway o Path to a criminal career that begins with minor aggression, leads to physical fighting, and eventually escalates to violent crime Other trajectories Adolescentlimited offenders (faze out) Life course persisters (always will be criminals) Late starters (lose job, have to support family, etc.) Abstainers
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