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Criminology Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Kathryn Hardison

Criminology Exam 2 Study Guide 3600

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Sociology > 3600 > Criminology Exam 2 Study Guide
Kathryn Hardison

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criminology exam 2 study guide
Andrew Fisher
Study Guide
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathryn Hardison on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3600 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Andrew Fisher in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 03/08/16
Criminology Study Guide – Test 2  Chapter 5:   Development of Trait Theory o Sociobiology  The view that human behavior is motivated by inborn biological urges to  survive and preserve the species o Differential Trait Susceptibility  Crime producing interactions involve:  Personal traits  Environmental factors o Vulnerability Model  Direct link between traits and crime  Some people are just vulnerable to crime from birth o Differential Susceptibility Model  Some traits make the individual more susceptible to environmental influences  Biological Trait Theories o Diet, sugar levels, hormonal influences, premenstrual syndrome, lead exposure,  environmental contaminant o Neurophysiological Conditions  ADHD, brain chemistry, arousal theory o Genetics  Antisocial behavior is inherited  The genetic makeup of parents is passed on to children  Genetic abnormality is linked to a variety of antisocial behavior o Evolutionary   Evolution of gender and crime  Women nest, men hunt o Evaluation of the Biological Branch  Explaining geographic, social, and temporal patterns in the crime rate  Explaining existence of crime across differing individuals  Psychological Traits o Sigmund Freud (1856­1939)  Id (Es)  Ego (Ich)  Super­ego (Uber­Ich) o Principles of Psychoanalytic Criminality  Adult criminality is caused by lack of development in a personality as a child  Behavior is intertwined with unconscious motives  Criminality is a representation of internal conflict o Attachment Theory  The view that forming emotional bond to another person is an important  aspect of mental health throughout the life span  Specificity, duration, emotional engagements, ontogeny, learning,  organization, biological function o Behavioral Perspective  The view that all human behavior is learned through a process of social  reinforcement  Social Learning Theory o Behavior Modeling  The process of learning behavior by observing others  Family interactions, environmental experiences, mass media o Cognitive Theory  Perspective that focuses on the mental processes by which people perceive  and represent the world around them and solve problems  Cognitive problems  Pedophilia  o Distorted thinking patterns  Child as a sexual being, nature of harm, entitlement,  dangerous world, uncontrollable o Social Policy and Trait Theory  Primary prevention programs  Programs such as substance abuse clinics and mental health  associations that seek to treat personal problems before they manifest  themselves as crime  Secondary prevention programs  Programs that provide treatment, such as psychological counseling,  after an individual commits a crime  Top limitations for providing inmate treatment o Budgetary constraints, space limitations, limited number of  counselors, lack of volunteers, frequent movement of inmates,  general correction problems, problem with aftercare provision,  and legislative barriers  Biological Control  Mood­altering drugs  Diet  Psychosurgery  Chapter 6:  Social Structure Theory o Definitions  Social structure theory: social forces are the cause of crime and not  individual traits. Disadvantaged class positions are primary cause of  crime.  Social stratification: a system of structured inequality in which people  receive different amount of society’s valued resources.  Video on US distribution of wealth o Intersecting Stratification  Categories of class/habitus, race/ethnicity, and sex/gender are socially  constructed categories that reflect power structures of society (privilege  and oppression)  Classism  Racism  Sexism  Ideology of Isms o Society is naturally divided into parts o The different parts displayed intrinsically relate to one’s  nature o The different among natures are innate, not subject to  change, and on the basis of their legitimacy from Society,  some natures are innately superior to others o Theories  Social Disorganization theory  Poverty  Social disorganization  o Broken families/households may experience more crime o Anything that isn’t as “society” should be  Breakdown of traditions  Criminal areas  o Crime rates are elevated in commercial and residential  neighborhoods experiencing change (business closing,  buildings torn down or renovated)  o Columbia neighborhood experiences a high number of  shooting and they are paying a police officer to live there  Cultural transmission  Criminal careers o People will join criminal groups to get attachments and  social needs to feel less alienated o Gangs claim territory and have authority with lack of  external support or investments. People don’t care that  much and then crime grows. People become career  criminals  Shaw and McKay o Transitional neighborhoods: an area undergoing a shift in  population and structure, usually from middle­class  residential to lower­class mixed use o Studied Chicago o Explained that Chicago had developed into distinct  neighborhoods and poverty neighborhoods were unable to  come together as a community o Concentric zones  Crime rate as you leave downtown gets lower and  lower  Social Ecology o Community disorder  Crime rates are associated with community  deterioration. Areas with high percentage of  deserted and abandoned homes and businesses o Community fear  In neighborhoods where people interact with each  other, they are less likely to be afraid of crime  If they are a afraid, they’ll get scary dogs and put  bars on their windows o Siege mentality  Leads to sense of powerlessness and a hostile  worldview. They may think that police are there to  harass them, not to protect and serve o Community change  Can’t just be a poor community, but a poor,  unchanging community leads to the fear of crime o Collective efficacy o Informal social control  Neighbors disciplining other children and  disagreements being handled outside of the courts.  Ex: He stole my lawnmower so let’s get a neighbor  to help steal it back o Institutional social control  Institutions being a part of neighborhoods… schools and churches, for example, help prevent crime.  After school programs help monitor children.  Community centers and churches are often available o Public (formal) social control  Government services, clinics, police are often  ineffective in neighborhoods that are afraid of crime or are disorganized. Do police only monitor wealthy neighborhoods?  Strain theory  Suicide as a social fact o Social integration: the degree of attachments and  inclusiveness a member of society has relative to others  You’re included in society somehow  Altruistic integration  Too much integration to a degree that you  lose your self identity  Ex: kamakazi bombers who self­destruct  Egoistic  No integration... feeling lonely   Ex: jumping off the Golden Gate bridge o Social regulation: the degree to which rules, norms, and  values are expected to be followed by members of a society  Fatalistic  Too much regulation makes you feel  powerless and causes you to do harm  Anomie  The lack of regulation. You have so much  power and you end up doing harm to  yourself  Anomie­Strain theory o Anomie: a disconnect between socially defined and  universally mandated goals and the legitimate means and  reality to achieve these goals  You see the goals and you know you’re supposed to do it, but you are detached and feel strained. You  can’t do what you need to do o Strain: the difficulty in attaining positive social things o How do social structures exert positive pressure upon  certain parts of society to engage in nonconforming rather  than conforming conduct?  Deviance and conformity are both psychologically  normal o Assumptions of Anomie­Strain  We should all strive for the same goals  Failure is a way­station to ultimate success  Real failure consists only in lessening or withdrawal of ambition and goals o Culturally defined goals: the goals, purposes, and interests  seen as legitimate objectives for a group of people o Acceptable means: the normal ways of achieving cultural  goals  Institutional anomie theory o Devaluation of the noneconomic o Subordination to the economic o Penetration of the noneconomic by economic o There’s a drive for material wealth  o Changing our traditional values due to the desire to succeed o Ex: We used to go to school for education, but now we go  for economic reasons  Relative deprivation o A precursor to crime that incites envy, mistrust, and  aggression resulting from perceptions of economic and  social inequality o Being deprived of social status and wealth will make  people feel a certain way to make them commit crime o Ex: when you see people on vacation on Facebook  General Strain Theory (agnew) o Failure to achieve positively valued goals  Someone who aspires to wealth and fame but lacks  the resources to achieve those goals (financial,  personal, etc.)  Ex: You’re a good singer, you should apply for  American Idol… then they fail and go bankrupt and commit crime o Disjunction of expectations and achievements  Ex: Just sitting behind a desk all day when you were picturing something else o Removal of positive stimuli  The loss of a job or loved one might lead someone  to delinquency  A person may seek out the person who was  responsible for their loss o Presence of negative stimuli  Child abuse, victimization, conflicts, physical harm  Critiques of Strain theory o Assumes universality  Changing goals and means of society due to laws  and wealth o Class bias  Success and pressures to succeed is greatest for the  lower class but they don’t commit crime as much as high­end businesses. They may experience strain  o Simplicity of explanation  Why one would choose one adaptation than another. Are you a rebel or innovator? o Retreatism from one perspective  People often consume drugs whether conscious o Alternative perspectives  Strain theory can explain crime attached to goals and means  Cultural Deviance theory  Conceptual Hierarchy o Society o Culture o Institutions o Organizations o Groups o Individuals  Culture  o The expressive aspect  Norms  Values  Beliefs   Symbols o As a tool kit  A repertoire of habits, skills, and styles from which  people construct strategies of action  Ex: learning how to eat at a fancy dinner o The Location of Culture by Homi Bhabha (the time shared) o Subculture: a culture with different values and ideas than  the dominant culture it is embedded within without conflict o Counter­culture: a culture with conflicting values and ideas  of the dominant culture  Cultural Deviance theory o Focal concerns: values that have evolved specifically to fit  conditions of classed environments o Subcultures of violence (1950s gangs)  Trouble, toughness, smartness, luck/fate, autonomy o Delinquent subculture: a value system adopted by  individuals that is directly opposed to that of the larger  society o Differential opportunity the view that people whose  legitimate opportunities are limited, join gangs and pursue  criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal  success goals  Criminal gangs  Conflict gangs  People who fight to fight  Retreatist gangs  Alcoholics or druggies who give up and run  away   Social structure and social policy  o Government spending vs. charity  Public assistance  Social stability  Community improvements Chapter 7:   Social Process Theories o Definition  The view that criminality is a function of people’s interactions with  various organizations, institutions, and processes in society  It happens because of what happens in society  Theorists believe this is from politics, religion, economy, schools, etc.  All people have the potential to commit crime o Institutions of Socialization (the process of becoming a member of society)  Family relations  Major determinant of behavior. Criminologists find strong  relationships between supportive parents and non­criminals, but  kids with troubled homes are more anti­social. Teenagers with  fighting parents are more likely to be anti­social. Kids who don’t  receive affection are more likely to be aggressive and use drugs.  Abused children are more prone to crime, depression, suicide, etc.  Educational experiences  The type of classes and education you get depends on what school  you go to. Different schools have different kinds of kids. You may  not be as motivated at one school than another.  Vastly different experiences in life  Most likely to engage in criminal activity: less motivation in  school and feel like they don’t fit in  Peer relations  Kids who hang out with friends for long spans of unsupervised  time are more likely to commit crime  Kids who completely reject people and don’t spend time with  anyone are more likely to commit crime  Peer pressure  Pro­social friends may help shield you from criminality  Religions and beliefs  Belief systems bind people together  Religious service attendance = less criminality  You can’t be legal and illegal at the same time  Church = less drug use  Holding religious beliefs aren’t enough to combat criminality. You have to engage in the beliefs o Social Process Theories  Social learning theories  Criminal behavior is learned through social interaction with  criminal peers  Crime is like any other activity… you have to learn the techniques  Ex: How to hotwire a car, roll a joint  Becker, Howard, “Becoming a Marihuana User” o You can only use marihuana after you learn how to smoke  it right. Then you can enjoy it  Differential Association theory o Sutherland  Began with idea that crime has nothing to do with  your class, gender, etc. but can affect anyone  because it’s a learning process o 9 Points  Criminal behavior is learned  Just like writing, reading, driving, etc.  Criminal behavior is learned by interacting with  others  Learning criminal behavior occurs within intimate  personal groups  Learning criminal behavior involves assimilating  the techniques of committing crime  The direction of motives and drives is learned from  perceptions of various aspects of the legal code as  favorable or unfavorable  A person becomes a criminal when they perceive  more favorable than unfavorable consequences to  violating the law  Can be from peer pressure and then parent  restriction  Differential associations may vary in frequency,  duration, priority, and intensity  The process of learning criminal behavior by  association with criminal and anti­criminal patterns  involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in  any other learning process  Although criminal behavior expresses general needs and values, it is not excused by those general needs  and values, because noncriminal behavior expresses the same needs and values o Testing  Studies (observations)  Scales (numbers and rates) o Critique  It can’t account for the very first criminal. Someone had to start the criminal behavior for it to be passed  on  Assumes criminal acts are rational and ignores  irrational crime and random acts of violence  Serial killers learn on their own  Neutralization theory o The view that law violators learn to neutralize conventional values and attitudes, enabling them to drift back and forth  between criminal and conventional behavior o Enables people to commit crime and then return to a  conventional behavior o Criminals don’t commit crime 24/7  So there has to be some sort of process to prevent  that o When a person moves in and out of delinquency, that is  referred to as drift o Techniques  Denial of responsibility  They made me do it  Denial of injury  They have insurance and too much money  Denial of the victim  He had it coming  Condemnation of the condemners  Everyone steals  Appeal to higher loyalties  I have to protect my friends o Testing o Critique  Social control theory  The view that everyone has the potential to become a criminal, but  most people refrain due to their bonds with society  Theorists are interested in why people obey laws  Self­control or moral senses keep people from breaking laws o Ex: I think about the ducks and birds so I don’t litter  Socialized to conform to society’s rules o Ex: family is dependent on them or their job. Santa Claus is watching you!  Hirschi’s “Social Bonds” o Attachment  Weakening of ties that attach people to society  Family, friends, community o Commitment  Will their commitment to other people keep them  from behaving in such a way?  Future, career, goals, success o Involvement  You’re involved in school activities, organizations,  religious groups, sports teams, social clubs, etc.  Little time for involvement in illegal activities o Belief  Honesty, morality, fairness, patriotism,  responsibility, etc.  You have similar beliefs to people around you o Individuals are more likely to engage in illegal activities  without these bonds o Testing  Youths who are more attached to their parents are  less prone to crime  People who shun anti­social behaviors will be  closer to their peers and will commit less crime o Critique  Influence of friendship  Can be negative, rather than positive  Family connection is more positive  Group activities and peer pressure lead to  criminal activity  Failure to achieve  You can be committed to doing something  great, but if you fail, are you crime­prone?  Deviant involvement  Multiple romantic relationships = more  trouble  Deviant peers and parents  If you’re attached to deviant peers and  parents, then you’ll copy their acts  Mistaken causal order  Is it the bond that came first or the  criminality?  Kids with more problems are provided with  more support  Labeling Theory o Definition  The view that people become criminals when they are labeled as such and  the label is applied to their identity  It’s not until you’re labeled successfully that you’re labeled that way  There has to be an action (you’re caught)  Criminals emerge out of stigma­producing encounters  Labels are internalized and acted on as truth o Theory Assumptions  Behaviors that are considered criminal are highly subjective  Even the worst crimes in society are never crimes until we decide  that they are. It’s simply a matter of perspective  Crime is defined by those in power  Labels apply to people and acts  Positive and negative labels involve subjective interpretation of behavior o Consequence of Labeling Theory  Self­labeling  Joining deviant cliques  Retrospective reading o Primary Deviance  A violation with little or no long­term effects  Ex: DUI, noise complaint, etc. o Secondary Deviance  A violation that leads to the offender being successfully labeled deviant o Research on Social Reaction Theory  Targets of labeling  Minority group members, poor and powerless, etc.  Effects of labeling  Negative labels dramatically influence the self esteem of a person  Children negatively labeled by parents are anti­social and self  image  Helps sustain criminality over time o Validity  3 important contributions  Definition of law. This is criminal. This is a thing.  Crime isn’t a disease, they’re acts.  Different conceptual realities of criminals and these concepts have  to be treated differently. Labeling dictates actions of all parties.  Consequences of Social Process Theory o Social Process Theory and Public Policy  Re­learning  You have to relearn how to live a life without crime  Paying back in society  Rehabilitation  We don’t want to label and punish them… but drug offenders may  need to go to rehab Chapter 9:   Developmental Theories o Definition  A group of theories that attempt to explain the “natural history” of a  criminal career; its onset, the course it follows, and its termination o Life Course Theory  The view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by many  characteristics, traits, and experiences, and that behavior changes  accordingly over the life course  Sensitive to changes in individuals lives  As people travel through life, they are constantly changing, sometimes for  the better or worse  Relationships and behaviors determine life course  Conformity to social rules and function effectively in society  Later begin careers, leave parental homes, find permanent  relationships, and marry and begin families  Transitions take place in order o Transitions can occur too early o Transitions may occur too late o Interruption of one trajectory can harm another  The propensity to commit crimes is neither stable nor constant: it is a developmental process  Offense Specialization/Generalization  Age of Onset/Continuity of Crime  Criminal career starts early in life  Persistent criminal offenders begin their careers early in life  Early onset creates a downward spiral   Adolescent­Limited  Life­Course Persisters  Problem Behavior Syndrome  A cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include family  dysfunction, substance abuse, precocious sexuality, physical abuse, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, and  unemployment, as well as crime o Crime is a social problem rather than a result of other social problems  Age­Graded theory  The view that discrete factors influence people at different stages  in their development, so the propensity to commit crimes is neither stable nor unyielding  Linked to your decision­making  Turning points o Places in your life where you shifted ideas/doings o Life events that alter the development of a criminal career  Social capital o Positive, life­sustaining relationships with individuals and  institutions o More relationships = more social capital o Supports conventional behavior, not deviant behavior o Ex: Having cultural knowledge, education, being social  Trajectories, transitions o Trajectories: Long­term patterns in life o Transitions: Short­term events embedded in trajectories o Ex: Going to college (trajectory), changing major  (transition) o Propensity Theory  The view that a stable, unchanging, feature, characteristic, property or  condition make some people crime prone  Propensity vs. Latent trait o Latent trait: a number of people have a characteristic that  controls their inclination to commit crime  Genetic abnormalities, drugs, chemicals, injuries  General Theory of Criminality  Impulsive personality/ lack of self­control o 2 latent traits o The impulsivity and self­control are linked o Intergenerational  Learning or biological o You learn or genetically get it from parents  Act and offender  o Like labeling theory o Males have lower self­control  Analyzing the general theory  Critiques o Repetitive o Different classes of criminal  Different criminal paths  Different external forces o People change  Doesn’t allow for change in the GTC  Crime and human nature  Are humans naturally violent? o Trajectory Theory  The view that there are multiple independent paths to a criminal career and that there are different types and classes of offenders  Different trajectories have different outcomes  Pathways to crime  Authority conflict pathway o Path to a criminal career that begins with early stubborn  behavior and defiance of parents  Covert pathway o Path to a criminal career that begins with minor  underhanded behavior and progressed to property damage  and theft  Overt pathway o Path to a criminal career that begins with minor aggression, leads to physical fighting, and eventually escalates to  violent crime  Other trajectories  Adolescent­limited offenders (faze out)  Life course persisters (always will be criminals)  Late starters (lose job, have to support family, etc.)  Abstainers


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