Gen chem II Exam 2 study Guide
Gen chem II Exam 2 study Guide 603613
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emmanuel Notetaker on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 603613 at University of Cincinnati taught by waddell, D in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Gen Chem II in Chemistry at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Gen Chemistry II Exam II Study Guide Q.Polyatomic cations containing one or more protons can be considered Ans:the conjugate acids of weak bases. Q.If the salt contains an anion that does not react with water and a cation that does not react with water, we expect the pH to be neutral. Q.If the salt contains an anion that reacts with water to produce hydroxide ions and a cation that does not react with water, we expect the pH of the solutions to be basic. Q.If the salt contains a cation that reacts with water to produce hydronium ions and an anion that does not react with water, we expect the pH of the solution to be acidic. Q.If the salt contains an anion and a cation both capable of reacting with water, both hydroxide and hydronium ions are produced. Whether the solution is basic, neutral or acidic depends on___ The relative abilities of the ions to react with water. Q.Factors that affect Acid Strength 1. The polarity of a molecule containing hydrogen. 2. The strength of the bond between H and X 3. The stability of the conjugate base, X^- As bond strength increases, strength of acid... Q.As stability of the conjugate base increases, strength of acid... decreases. Q.As the electronegativity of X increases, the acidity... increases. Oxyacids: Acids in which Oh groups and possibly additional oxygen atoms are bound to a central atom. Generally, as the electronegativity of the central atom increase, the acidity of the substance... increases. As additional electronegative atoms bond the central atom of an oxyacid, the strength of an acid... increases In a series of oxyacids, the acidity increases as the oxidation number of the central atom... increases. Carboxylic acids: acids that contain a carboxyl group. Two factors contribute to the nature of carboxylic acids: 1. The additional oxygen atom attached to the carbon of the carboxyl group draws electron density from the O-H bond, increasing its polarity Gen Chemistry II Exam II Study Guide and helping to stabilize the conjugate base. 2. The conjugate base of a carboxylic acid can exhibit resonance, which contributes to the stability of the anion by spreading negative charge over several atoms. Lewis acid: an electron-pair acceptor. Lewis base: an electron-pair donor. What is an indicator? Organic weak acid that have two forms (each with different color) that differs by a proton and they change color with a narrow pH range How do indicator work? Signal the end point of titration by changing color choose to EQ point (if selected property for the titration system) What is a polyoprotic acid and list two examples Acid with more than one ionizable proton ex: H2SO4 and H3PO4 What is the definition of soluble? Dissolve to form aqueous solution What is the definition of solubility? Maximum amounts of solute that can dissolve in given quantity of solvent at a specified temperature What is the definition of a saturated solution? Solution in which a solute(s) = solute (aq) equilibrium exists What is a precipitate? Compound created by chemical reaction in aqueous solution that is insoluble and therefore can be separates as a solid List the four main factors that affect solubility: Common Ion, pH, complex ions, temperature What is molar solubility? moles/liter of a solution of solute that dissolves to produce a saturated solution What is solubility product constant, Ksp? Equilibrium constant Gen Chemistry II Exam II Study Guide What is a solubility product quotient, Qsp? Same form as Ksp except conc may not be at equilibrium conditions What is the common ion effect? Shift in equilibrium caused by addition of ion involved in the reaction Is the common ion effect related to Le Chatelier's Principle? Yes, the result of addition or removal of common ions is predicted by the Le Chatelier's principle What impact does the addition or removal of a common ion have on the percent ionization of a weak electrolyte? Adding common ion - decreases % ionization Removing common ion - increase % ionization What is a complex ion? Ion composed of central metal covalently bounded to ligands What is a ligand? An anion or molecule covalently bounded to central metal in complex ion What is a formation constant, Kf? Equilibrium constant for formation of complex ions from metal ion + ligands What must be true at the equilibrium condition for each and every law of mass action expression for any given equilibrium system? When EQ concentration are substituted into all fo the Keq expression, the result must be the value of the constant (at that temp) Henderson-Hasselbach equation an equation for calculating the pH of a buffer system; pH=pKa + log (base/acid) Buffer capacity A measure of the ability of a buffer to resist a change in pH, related to the total concentration and relative proportions of buffer components Buffer range The pH range over which a buffer acts effectively Acid-base titration curve Aplot of the pH of a solution of acid (or base) versus the volume of base (or acid) added to the solution Gen Chemistry II Exam II Study Guide equivalence point the point in a titration when the number of moles of the added species is stoichiometrically equivalent to the original number of moles of the other species end point the point in a titration a which the indicator changes color solubility-product constant (Ksp) an equilibrium constant for a slightly soluble ionic compound dissolving in water complex ion an ion consisting of a central metal ion bonded covalently to molecules and/or anions called ligand ligand a molecule or anion bonded to a central metal ion in a complex ion formation constant (Kf) an equilibrium constant for the formation of a complex ion from the hydrated metal ion and ligands
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