Exam Two Study Guide
Exam Two Study Guide Psyc 2010-003
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alise Robison on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Chong Hyon Pak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 484 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Chapter 5 1. Dr. Matsuko’s major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a(n) _______ psychologist. a. Cognitive b. Developmental c. Biological d. Psychodynamic 2. Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to her developing fetus through the a. Embryo b. Ovaries c. Teratogens d. Placenta 3. Infants’ tendency to gaze longer at novel stimuli than at familiar ones provides compelling evidence regarding their a. Self-concepts b. Egocentrism c. Stranger anxiety d. Mental abilities 4. The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by a. Erikson’s psychosocial development theory b. Piaget’s cognitive development theory c. Harlow’s attachment theory d. Kohlberg’s moral development theory 5. Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a a. Sense of object permanence b. Concept of conservation c. Capacity for habituation d. Secure attachment 6. A child’s realization that others may have beliefs that the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of a. Object permanence b. Egocentrism c. A theory of mind d. Stranger anxiety 7. The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as a. Menarche b. Puberty c. Menopause d. A critical period 8. Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist’s waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother’s side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of a. Secure attachment b. Object permanence c. Egocentrism d. Conservations 9. “I don’t care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!” This statement is most representative of a(n) _______ parenting style. a. Preconventional b. Authoritative c. Formal operational d. Authoritarian 10. Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality. a. Conventional b. Unconventional c. Preconventional d. Postconventional 11. Jessica acts so differently with her parents than with her girlfriends that she often thinks her personality is completely phony. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Jessica is experiencing a. Egocentrism b. Insecure attachment c. Role confusion d. Infantile amnesia 12. A public initiation into adult responsibilities and status is called a a. Social clock b. Critical period c. Rite of passage d. Formal operational stage 13. The preferred age for retirement is quite different in Mexico than in Western Europe. This best illustrates that ________ differs from culture to culture. a. The maturational cycle b. Rites of passage c. Terminal decline d. The social clock 14. A researcher who administers a personality test to the same children every 3 years as they progress through school is conducting a(n) ________ study. a. Longitudinal b. Experimental c. Cross-sectional d. Chronological 15. Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are most directly relevant to the issues of a. Continuity and stages b. Stability and change c. Nature and nurture d. Primary and secondary sex characteristics 16. Taking certain drugs during pregnancy is likely to expose unborn children to a. Critical periods b. Role confusion c. Teratogen d. Schemas 17. By a week after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers’ and strangers’ a. Faces b. Voices c. Temperament d. Tender touches 18. After Nadia learned that penguins cant fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of a. Conservation b. Assimilation c. Habituation d. Accommodation 19. During Piaget’s sensorimotor stage, children acquire a a. Theory of mind b. Concept of conservation c. Sense of object permanence d. Capacity for abstract reasoning 20. Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others' emotional states is most characteristic of a. Autism b. Menarche c. Infantile amnesia d. Object permanence 21. Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of a. Egocentrism b. Object permanence c. Insecure attachment d. Post conventional morality 22. Compared with the children of authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative parents are a. Less likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and more likely to demonstrate social competence. b. More likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and less likely to demonstrate social competence. c. Less likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and less likely to demonstrate social competence. d. More likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and more likely to demonstrate social competence. 23. Female breasts are to ______ as male testes are to ____ a. Menarche; menopause b. Menopause; menarche c. Secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics d. Primary sex characteristics; secondary sex characteristics 24. Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ________ morality. a. Conventional b. Unconventional c. Preconventional d. Postconventional 25. The sexual abuse of a very young child is so emotionally repulsive to most people that they immediately recognize it as shamefully immoral. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect a. Habituation b. Insecure attachments c. Affectively laden intuitions d. Formal operations 26. The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by a. Erikson’s psychosocial development theory b. Piaget’s cognitive development theory c. Kohlberg’s moral development theory d. Harlow’s attachment theory 27. The tips of chromosomes that wear down as we age are called a. Teratogens b. Scaffolds c. Schemas d. Telomeres 28. A series of small strokes that progressively damage an older adult’s brain is most likely to produce a. Menarche b. Dementia c. Asperger syndrome d. Alzheimer’s disease 29. According to Erikson, older adults can most effectively cope with the prospect of their own death if they have achieved a sense of a. Conventional morality b. Object permanence c. Conservation d. Integrity 30. Mark thinks that language development over the life span requires a slow but steady shaping process. His belief is most directly relevant to the issue of a. Continuity and stages b. Secure and insecure attachments c. Concrete and formal operations d. Generativity and stagnation ANSWERS 1) B 2) D 3) D 4) B 5) B 6) C 7) D 8) A 9) D 10) D 11) C 12) C 13) D 14) A 15) B 16) C 17) B 18) D 19) C 20) A 21) C 22) D 23) C 24) C 25) C 26) A 27) D 28) B 29) D 30) A CHAPTER 6 1. The local fire department sounds the 12 o’clock whistle. The process by which your ears transform the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of a. Interposition b. Parallel processing c. Transduction d. Sensory interaction 2. A subliminal message is one that is presented a. Below one’s absolute threshold for awareness b. In a manner that is unconsciously persuasive c. With very soft background music d. Repetitiously 3. If you move you watchband up your wrist an inch or so, you will feel it for only a few moments. This best illustrates a. Parallel processing b. Accommodation c. Sensory adaptation d. Weber’s law 4. The wavelength of light determines its a. Retinal disparity b. Brightness c. Amplitude d. Hue 5. Multiple ______ send combined messages to a bipolar cell, whereas a single _____ may link directly to a single bipolar cell. a. Rods; cone b. Cones; rod c. Hair cells; basilar membrane d. Basilar membrane; hair cell 6. Some stroke victims lose the capacity to perceive motion but retain the capacity to perceive shapes and colors. Others lose the capacity to perceive colors but retain the capacity to perceive movement and form. These peculiar visual disabilities best illustrate our normal capacity for a. Sensory adaptation b. Parallel processing c. Sensory interaction d. Accommodation 7. The opponent-process theory is most useful for explaining a characteristic of a. Phantom limb sensations b. Weber’s law c. Accommodation d. Afterimages 8. The way in which you quickly group the individual letters in this test item into separate words best illustrates the principle of a. Closure b. Proximity c. Interposition d. Perceptual constancy 9. The fact that we recognize objects as having a consistent form regardless of changing viewing angles illustrates a. Interposition b. The phi phenomenon c. Perceptual constancy d. The McGurk effect 10. The Moon illusion refers to our tendency to perceive the Moon as unusually a. Large when it is near the horizon b. Large when it is high in the sky c. Bright when it is near the horizon d. Bright when it is high in the sky 11. Immanuel Kant and John Locke would have been most likely to disagree about the extent to which perception is influenced by a. Cucltural experience b. Retinal disparity c. Accommodation d. Relative luminance 12. Damage to the basilar membrane is most likely to affect one’s a. Vision b. Audition c. Sense of smell d. Vestibular sense 13. Holding a heavy rather than a light clipboard leads people to perceive job candidates as more important. This best illustrates a. Weber’s law b. Telekinesis c. Embodies cognition d. The McGurk effect 14. Receptor cells for the vestibular sense send messages to the a. Fovea b. Cerebellum c. Olfactory cortex d. Frontal lobes 15. Physchics are unable to make millions of dollars betting on horse races. This undermines their claims to possess the power of a. Clairvoyance b. Interposition c. Precognition d. Telepathy 16. Interpreting new sensory information within the framework of a past memory illustrates a. Accommodation b. Top-down processing c. Weber’s law d. Sensory adaptation 17. The size of the difference threshold is greater for heavier objects than for lighter ones. This best illustrates a. Sensory interaction b. The volley principle c. Weber’s law d. The opponent-process theory 18. After hearing that Bryce had served a prison sentence, Janet began to perceive his friendly behavior as insincere and manipulative. This best illustrates the impact of a. Interposition b. Retinal disparity c. The phi phenomenon d. Perceptual set 19. The central focal point in the retina where cones are heavily concentrated is known as the a. Lens b. Optic nerve c. Cornea d. Fovea 20. Which of the following types of cells are located in the brain’s visual cortex? a. Rods and cones b. Bipolar cells c. Hair cells d. Feature detectors 21. Rules for organizing stimuli into coherent groups were first identified by a. Evolutionary psychologists b. Behaviorists c. Gestalt psychologists d. Parapsychologists 22. The distance between our right and left eyes functions to provide us with a cue for depth perception known as a. Proximity b. Interposition c. Retinal disparity d. Linear perspective 23. Railroad tracks appear to converge in the distance. This provides a cue for depth perception known as a. Linear position b. Interposition c. Proximity d. Continuity 24. A door casts an increasingly trapezoidal image on the retinas as it opens; yet we still perceive it as rectangular. This illustrates a. Retinal disparity b. Interposition c. Shape constancy d. Linear perspective 25. Grass seen through sunglasses appears equally as green as it does without glasses. This best illustrates a. Weber’s law b. Sensory interaction c. Accommodation d. Color constancy 26. After some practice, Carol was able to read books while holding them upside-down. This best illustrates a. Perceptual adaptation b. Perceptual constancy c. Interposition d. Sensory interaction 27. The cochlea is a a. Fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses b. Fluid-filled tube that provides a sense of upright body position c. Fluid-filled tube that provides a sense of body movement d. Set of three tiny bones that amplify the vibrations of the eardrum 28. Nociceptors initiate the sensation of a. Color b. Pitch c. Taste d. Pain 29. A drink’s strawberry odor enhances our perception of its sweetness. This best illustrates a. Interposition b. Sensory adaptation c. Weber’s law d. Sensory interaction 30. The sensory experience of bending one’s knees or raising one’s arms exemplifies a. The vestibular sense b. Top-down processing c. Sensory interaction d. Kinesthesis ANSWERS 1) C 2) A 3) C 4) D 5) A 6) B 7) D 8) B 9) C 10) A 11) A 12) B 13) C 14) B 15) C 16) B 17) C 18) D 19) D 20) D 21) C 22) C 23) A 24) C 25) D 26) A 27) A 28) D 29) D 30) D CHAPTER 7 1. Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates a. The law of effect b. Spontaneous recovery c. Respondent behavior d. Associative learning 2. John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of a. Observable behavior b. Cognitive process c. Genetic predispositions d. All of these factors 3. Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n) a. Primary reinforcer b. Unconditional stimulus c. Immediate reinforcer d. Conditioned stimulus 4. Blinking in response to a puff of air directed at your eye is a a. UR b. US c. CR d. CS 5. Conditioning seldom occurs when a _____ comes after a(n)_____ a. CS; US b. UR; CS c. Secondary reinforcer; operant behavior d. Negative reinforcer; operant behavior 6. Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin's new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates a. Latent learning b. Spontaneous recovery c. Delayed reinforcement d. Shaping 7. A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates a. An unconditioned response b. Operant conditioning c. Latent learning d. Generalization 8. The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by a. Pavlov’s studies of conditioned salivation b. Garcia and Koelling’s research on taste aversion c. Skinner’s experiments on reinforcement d. Watson and Rayner’s findings on fear conditioning 9. In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as a. Generalization b. Partial reinforcement c. Spontaneous recovery d. Shaping 10. If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer. a. Partial b. Primary c. Conditioned d. Delayed 11. Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 50,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement. a. Fixed-interval b. Variable-interval c. Fixed-ratio d. Variable-ratio 12. Punishment ____ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcement ____ the rate of operant responding. a. Increases; decreases b. Decreases; increases c. Decreases; decreases d. Has no effect on; has no effect on 13. An organism's ability to mentally anticipate that a US will follow a CS is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) ________ perspective. a. Evolutionary b. Behaviorist c. Cognitive d. Neuroscience 14. If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates a. Operant conditioning b. Observational learning c. Respondent behavior d. Spontaneous recovery 15. An empathic husband who sees his wife in pain will exhibit some of the same brain activity she is showing. According to many researchers, this best illustrates the functioning of a. Cognitive maps b. Spontaneous recovery c. Mirror neurons d. Extrinsic motivation 16. If you have a "frightening experience" immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates a. Generalization b. Spontaneous recovery c. Classical conditioning d. The law of effect 17. Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n) a. Negative reinforcer b. Conditioned stimulus c. Conditioned reinforcer d. Unconditioned stimulus 18. You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a a. UR b. US c. CR d. CS 19. After being bitten by his neighbor’s dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of a. Extinction b. Discrimination c. Conditioned reinforcement d. Latent learning 20. The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the a. US b. UR c. CS d. CR 21. If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates a. Spontaneous recovery b. Respondent behavior c. Operant conditioning d. Latent learning 22. Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car’s irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of a. Respondent behavior b. Negative reinforcement c. Secondary reinforcement d. Spontaneous recovery 23. A word of praise is to a soothing back rub as ______ is to ______ a. Delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer b. Operant conditioning; classical conditioning c. Partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement d. Conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer 24. A pigeon receives food for pecking a key, but only rarely and on unpredictable occasions. This best illustrates a. Generalization b. Latent learning c. Partial reinforcement d. Higher-order conditioning 25. For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a _____ schedule a. Fixed-interval b. Variable-interval c. Fixed-ratio d. Variable-ratio 26. Some teachers have reduced the disruptive classroom behavior of students by imposing a time-out following disruptive behavior. In this case, the time-out is a a. Conditioned reinforcer b. Negative reinforcer c. Primary reinforcer d. Punishment 27. If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by a. Intrinsic motivation b. Biological predispositions c. Conditioned reinforcers d. The law of effect 28. Research participants formed more gut-level liking for Pokemon characters associated with positive rather than negative images. This best illustrates the impact of a. Classical conditioning b. The law of effect c. Negative reinforcers d. Intrinsic motivation 29. Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. This provides evidence for the role of ________ in operant behavior. a. Spontaneous recovery b. Primary reinforcers c. Cognitive processes d. Negative reinforcers 30. Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children’s behavior? a. John Watson b. Albert Bandura c. Ivan Pavlov d. B.F. Skinner 31. McKayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone a. Discrimination b. Spontaneous recovery c. Extinction d. Generalization 32. Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a a. CS b. UR c. US d. CR 33. Bill once had a blue car that was in the shop more than it was out. Since then he will not even consider owning blue- or green-colored cars. Bill’s aversion to green cars is an example of a. Extinction b. Discrimination c. Generalization d. Latent learning 34. Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Mary experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin’s new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates a. Delayed reinforcement b. Shaping c. Spontaneous recovery d. Latent learning 35. In Pavlov’s original experiment with dogs, the meat served as a a. CR b. US c. UR d. CS 36. Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates a. Spontaneous recovery b. Generalization c. Secondary reinforcement d. Shaping 37. In Pavlov’s original experiment with dogs, salivation to meat was the a. UR b. US c. CS d. CR 38. Learning is best defined as a. A change in the behavior of an organism b. Behavior based on operant rather than respondent conditioning c. Any behavior produced by an organism without being provoked d. A relatively permanent change in the behavior of an organism due to experience 39. Which of the following is an unconditioned response? a. Running through a maze to get a food reward b. Sweating in hot weather c. Clapping after a thrilling concert performance d. Playing jump rope 40. Which of the following types of cells are located in the brain’s visual cortex? a. Rods and cones b. Bipolar cells c. Hair cells d. Feature detectors 41. A door casts an increasingly trapezoidal image on our retinas as it opens, yet we still perceive it as rectangular. This illustrates a. Retinal disparity b. Interposition c. Shape constancy d. Linear perspective 42. When we look at a clock showing 8 AM, certain brain cells in our visual cortex are more responsive than when the hands show 10 AM. This is most indicative of a. Sensory interaction b. Feature detection c. Perceptual adaptation d. Accommodation 43. Early in the twentieth-century, a group of German psychologists noticed that people tend to organize a cluster of sensations in to a(n) a. Just noticeable difference b. Masking stimulus c. Nociceptor d. Gestalt 44. Carmella, Jorge, and Gail were all sitting behind the same bowling lane, so Ruth perceived that they were all members of the same bowling team. This best illustrates the organizational principle of a. Proximity b. Interposition c. Closure d. Continuity 45. The perception of the letter “t” as two intersecting lines rather than as four nonintersecting lines illustrates the principle of a. Accommodation b. Proximity c. Closure d. Continuity 46. Relative height is a cue involving our perception of objects higher in our field of vision as a. Brighter b. Farther away c. Hazier d. Smaller 47. Which theory best explains how we perceive low-pitched sounds? a. Place theory b. Opponent-process theory c. Frequency theory d. The Young-Helmholtz theory 48. As a rock musician who has experienced prolonged exposure to high-amplitude sounds, Rodney is beginning to lose his hearing. It is most likely that this hearing loss involves problems in the a. Auditory canal b. Eardrum c. Tiny bones of the middle ear d. Cochlea 49. The quick succession of briefly flashed images in a motion picture produces a. Retinal disparity b. Synaesthesia c. Stroboscopic movement d. Linear perspective ANSWERS 1) D 2) A 3) D 4) A 5) A 6) B 7) D 8) C 9) D 10) C 11) C 12) B 13) C 14) B 15) C 16) C 17) D 18) C 19) B 20) D 21) C 22) B 23) D 24) C 25) D 26) D 27) B 28) A 29) C 30) B 31) C 32) B 33) C 34) C 35) B 36) B 37) A 38) D 39) B 40) D 41) C 42) B 43) D 44) A 45) D 46) B 47) C 48) D 49) C CHAPTER 8 1. After Maya gave her friend the password to a protected website, the friend was able to remember it only long enough to type it into the password box. In this instance, the password was clearly stored in her ________ memory. a. Procedural b. Short-term c. Flashbulb d. Implicit 2. Mr. Nydam suffers amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf several times each week on a particular course. Yet the more he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the need to distinguish between a. Short-term memory and long-term memory b. Proactive and retroactive interference c. Explicit and implicit memory d. Recognition and recall 3. Another term for implicit memory is _____ memory a. Iconic b. Short-term c. Non-declarative d. State-dependent 4. Mentally rehearsing the glossary definitions of unfamiliar terms in order to remember them for a later test illustrates a. The peg-word system b. Procedural memory c. Effortful processing d. Echoic memory 5. Employing the single word HOMES to remember the names of North America’s five Great Lakes best illustrates the use of a. The spacing effect b. Serial position effect c. A mnemonic technique d. Implicit memory 6. The semantic processing of the words in a short poem illustrates a. Procedural memory b. The peg-word system c. The serial position effect d. Deep processing 7. Which of the following is central to the processing of procedural memories? a. Hippocampus b. Hypothalamus c. Basal ganglia d. Amygdala 8. Conscious memories of emotionally stressful events are especially likely to be facilitated by activation of the a. Basal ganglia b. Amygdala c. Cerebellum d. Hypothalamus 9. Which of the following is believed to be the synaptic basis for learning and memory? a. Priming b. Semantic encoding c. Proactive interference d. Long-term potentiation 10. At a block party, Cyndi is introduced to eight new neighbors. Moments later, she remembers only the names of the first three and last two neighbors. Her experience illustrates a. Source amnesia b. The misinformation effect c. Implicit memory d. The serial position effect 11. After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Arotza cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember events before the accident. Arotza’s memory difficulty most clearly illustrates a. Retroactive interference b. The serial position effect c. Anterograde amnesia d. Iconic memory 12. The happier Judie is, the more readily she recalls positive life experiences. This best illustrates that emotional states can become a. Retrieval cues b. Short-term memories c. Sensory memories d. Flashbulb memories 13. Mrs. McBride can't consciously recall how frequently she criticizes her children because it would be too anxiety-arousing to do so. Sigmund Freud would have suggested that her poor memory illustrates a. Source amnesia b. Proactive interference c. Shallow processing d. Repression 14. After Teresa was verbally threatened by someone in a passing car, she was asked whether she recognized the man who was driving the car. Several hours later, Teresa mistakenly recalled that the driver was a male rather than a female. Teresa's experience best illustrates a. Implicit memory b. Proactive interference c. Misinformation effect d. The serial position effect 15. Researchers now recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory and refer to it as _____ memory a. Sensory b. Working c. Flashbulb d. Implicit 16. When you hear familiar words in your native language, it is virtually impossible not to register the meanings of the words. This best illustrates the importance of a. Flashbulb memory b. Automatic processing c. Iconic memory d. The spacing effect 17. Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory? a. A mental image of one’s best friend b. The date of one’s own birth c. A conditioned fear of guns d. One’s own name 18. When you have to make a long-distance call, dialing an unfamiliar area code plus a seven-digit number, you are likely to have trouble retaining the just-looked-up number. This best illustrates the limited capacity of ____ memory. a. Long-term b. Implicit c. Short-term d. Explicit 19. Combining individual letters into familiar words enables you to remember more of the letters in this sentence. This best illustrates the value of a. The spacing effect b. Iconic memory c. The serial positioning effect d. Chunking 20. Which of the following questions about the word depressed would best prepare you to correctly remember tomorrow that you had seen the word on this quiz? a. How well does the word describe you? b. Does the word consist of ten letters? c. Is the word written in capital letters? d. Does the word rhyme with obsessed? 21. Having read a story once, certain amnesia victims will read it faster the second time even though they can’t recall having seen the story before. They have most likely suffered damage to the a. Hippocampus b. Cerebellum c. Basal ganglia d. Amygdala 22. Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they first learned of the death of a close friend or family member. This best illustrates ______ memory. a. Iconic b. Flashbulb c. Implicit d. State-dependent 23. A measure of your memory in which you need to pick the correctly learned answer from a displayed list of options is known as a measure of a. Recall b. Recognition c. Reconstruction d. Relearning 24. Activating memories of your childhood by forming vivid mental images of various locations in your childhood home best illustrates a. Automatic processing b. The spacing effect c. The serial position effect d. Priming 25. Wheneber Valerie experiences intense feelings of fear, she is overwhelmed with childhood memories of her abusive parents. Valerie’s experience best illustrates a. Repression b. Mood-congruent memory c. Retroactive interference d. The misinformation effect 26. The gradual fading of the physical memory trace contributes to a. Chunking b. Storage decay c. Anterograde amnesia d. Long-term potentiation 27. While taking the final exam in American history, Marie was surprised and frustrated by her momentary inability to remember the name of the current president of the United States. Her difficulty most clearly illustrates a. Implicit memory b. The serial position effect c. The misinformation effect d. Retrieval failure 28. Although Ron typically smokes two packs of cigarettes a day, he recalls smoking little more than a pack a day. This poor memory best illustrates a. The misinformation effect b. Motivated forgetting c. The self-reference effect d. The serial position effect 29. Several months after watching a science fiction movie about spaceship travel and alien abductions, Steve began to remember that he had been abducted by aliens and personally subjected to many of the horrors portrayed in the movie. His mistaken recall best illustrates a. Implicit memory b. The spacing effect c. Source amnesia d. Mood-congruent theory 30. If the onset of alight reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a _________ reinforcer. a. Partial b. Primary c. Conditioned d. Delayed 31. Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 50,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a _________ schedule of reinforcement. a. Fixed-interval b. Variable-interval c. Fixed-ratio d. Variable-ratio 32. An organisms ability to mentally anticipate that an US will follow a CS is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) _______ perspective. a. Evolutionary b. Behaviorist c. Cognitive d. Neuroscience 33. The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by a. Pavlov’s studies of conditioned salivation b. Garcia and Koelling’s research on taste aversion c. Skinner’s experiments on reinforcement d. Watson and Rayner’s findings on fear conditioning 34. A pigeon receives food for pecking a key, but only rarely and on unpredictable occasions. This best illustrates a. Generalization b. Latent learning c. Partial reinforcement d. Higher-order conditioning 35. For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a _______ schedule. a. Fixed-interval b. Variable-interval c. Fixed-ratio d. Variable-ratio 36. Some teachers have reduced the disruptive classroom behavior of students by imposing a time-out following disruptive behavior. In this case, the time-out is a a. Conditioned response b. Negative reinforcer c. Primary reinforcer d. Punishment 37. One difference between classical and operant conditioning is that a. In CC the responses operate on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli b. In OC the responses are triggered by preceding stimuli c. In CC the responses are automatically triggered by stimuli d. In OC the responses are reflexive 38. The highest and most consistent rate of response is produced by a _______ schedule. a. Fixed-ratio b. Variable-ratio c. Fixed-interval d. Variable-interval 39. Which of the following is an example of reinforcement? a. Presenting a positive stimulus after a response b. Removing an unpleasant stimulus after a response c. Being told that you have done a good job d. All of the above 40. Shelly was able to remember the names of three new class members for only a minute or two after they had been introduced to her. The new class members’ names were briefly stored in her _______ memory. a. Flashbulb b. Implicit c. Short-term memory d. Iconic 41. Highly durable memories can often be retrieved from _______ memory into ______ memory. a. Sensory; working b. Working; sensory c. Working; long-term d. Long-term; working 42. A conscious memory of the name of the first president of the United States is a(n) _______ memory. a. Iconic b. Explicit c. Procedural d. State-dependent 43. Cheri doesn’t remember that she got sick after eating oatmeal on several occasions in early childhood. However, whenever she smells oatmeal she experiences a classically conditioned feeling of nausea. Cheri’s conditioned reaction indicates that she retains a(n) _______ memory. a. Flashbulb b. Echoic c. Iconic d. Implicit 44. You are most likely to automatically encode information about a. Politicians’ names b. Friends’ birthdays c. New phone numbers d. The sequence of your days events 45. Encoding words based on the appearance of the word’s letters involves a. The spacing effect b. Shallow processing c. Flashbulb memory d. Deep processing 46. Ebbinghaus found that memorizing familiar words required much less effort than memorizing nonsense syllables. This best illustrates the advantage of a. The spacing effect b. Implicit memory c. Source amnesia d. Semantic processing 47. Cerebellum is to _______ memory as hippocampus is to _______ memory. a. Short-term; long-term b. Long-term; short-term c. Implicit; explicit d. Explicit; implicit 48. When people are asked to recall a list of words they had earlier memorized, they often substitute synonyms for some of the words on the original list. This best illustrates the effects of a. Implicit memory b. Source amnesia c. Semantic processing d. State-dependent memory ANSWERS 1) B 2) C 3) C 4) C 5) C 6) D 7) C 8) B 9) D 10) D 11) C 12) A 13) D 14) C 15) B 16) B 17) A 18) C 19) D 20) A 21) A 22) B 23) B 24) D 25) B 26) B 27) D 28) B 29) C 30) C 31) C 32) C 33) C 34) C 35) D 36) D 37) C 38) B 39) D 40) C 41) D 42) B 43) D 44) D 45) B 46) D 47) C 48) C CHAPTER 9 1. The original Atkinson-Schiffrin three-stage information-processing model introduced distinctions among a. Recall, recognition, and relearning b. Shallow processing, semantic processing, and deep processing c. Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory d. The serial position effect, the spacing effect, and the testing effect 2. A full week after Usha hears her mother read her a list of 12 different farm animals, Usha is most likely to remember the animals __________ of the list a. At the beginning and end b. At the end c. At the beginning d. In the middle 3. Eye witnesses to a crime often recall the details of the crime most accurately when they return to the scene of the crime. This best illustrates a. The spacing effect b. The peg-word system c. Source misattribution d. Context-dependent memory 4. The gradual fading of the physical memory trace contributes to a. Chunking b. Storage decay c. Anterograde amnesia d. Long-term potentiation 5. Faulty memory for how, when, or where information was leaned is called a. Source amnesia b. The misinformation effect c. Repression d. Déjà vu 6. Which of the following best describes the typical forgetting curve? a. A steady, slow decline in retention over time b. A steady, rapid decline in retention over time c. A rapid initial decline in retention becoming stable thereafter d. A slow initial decline in retention becoming rapid thereafter 7. After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of a. Source amnesia b. Retroactive interference c. Proactive interference d. Automatic processing 8. A measure of your memory in which you need to pick the correctly learned answer from a displayed list of options is known as a measure of a. Recall b. Recognition c. Reconstruction d. Relearning 9. During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary that she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates a. The spacing effect b. Proactive interference c. Source amnesia d. Retroactive interference ANSWERS 1) C 2) A 3) D 4) B 5) A 6) C 7) B 8) B 9) B
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