U.S History 222 Midterm Study Guide
U.S History 222 Midterm Study Guide History 222
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in History 222 the United States From 1865
Maria Luisa Cepeda
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria Luisa Cepeda on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 222 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Troutman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see History 222 the United States From 1865 in History at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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1. Richard Pratt: In 1879, Richard Pratt became the superintendent of the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania to “civilize” and assimilate American Indians. The children of indigenous people were sent to live with white families in order to educate them and transform them into American citizens. This creation of an Indian School symbolizes the war on Indian culture and the beginning of imperialistic attitudes of Americans emerging in the late 19 thcentury. (p. 36) 2. Thomas O’Donnell (from the reading “A textile worker explains the labor market” Thomas O’ Donnell’s appeared before a U.S Senate Committee in 1885 to answer questions about his personal work experience exposing the working th conditions of a typical employee in the late 19 century. He explained that he was a mule spinner for a long period of time but since he did not have a child to help him do the work in the mill, he could not work anymore for the steel mill. Also, he reveals how he makes only 150 dollars a year to sustain his wife and two childre n. O’ Donnell’s testimony reveals the relationship between labor and capital in a time in U.S history in which people worked endless hours with low pay and struggle to support their families. 3. Jacob Riis: In 1890 a photojournalist called Jacob Riis docume nted the poverty and harsh reality of New York City’s immigrant poor people in his best -selling book titled How The Other Half Lives . His pictures show people in the slums living in terrible conditions side by side to a picture of an extremely wealthy pers on which is why this opened the nation eyes to the excesses of the Gilded Age new millionaires and the growing gap between rich and poor in the cities by the end of the nineteenth century. 4. Sand Creek Massacre: In 1864, Colonel Chivington and his militia attacked a village of Cheyenne Indians in Colorado where there where mostly women and children. Even though their leader called Black Kettle, surrendered he and his army killed 270 Indians and they gruesomely displayed body parts to celebrate the slaughter in Colorado where at first they were regarded as heroes. This proves how Americans who were raised on theories of social superiority viewed the Indians as lesser people and it increased tensions between Native Indians and white Americans . 5. Compromise of 1877: After the intensely disp uted presidential elections of 1876 between Republican Hayes and the Democrat Tilden, the maj ority of votes in Congress put him over the top in electoral votes in every state there was immense conflict and fear of a new civil war. Hayes made an agreement with Democrats promising to pull out federal troops out of the South and stop supporting the remaining Republican regimen in the South. This compromise brought the Reconstruct Era to an end. 6. Eighteenth Amendment (Prohibition): Congress passed the amendment banning the manufacture transportation and sale of alcohol in 1917 and it was ratified three years later. One of the last reforms of the Progressive Era aimed to reduce crime and boost production by banning alcohol. This effort proved almost impossible to enforce and by the end of the 1920s most Americans wanted to end it . The Eighteenth Amendment was finally revoked in 1933 . 7. Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890: The Sherman Antitrust Act restrained the power of large corporations stating that businesses could not make agreements t o restrict competition. Congress passed this act demonstrating a concern over the growing power of monopolies in the late nineteenth century. Besides, this marked an era where federal measures be gan to be implemented to protect the public interest. 8. Pinkerton Guard Testimony , 1893 (p. 87 from readings) The Pinkerton Guard Testimony of 1893 is based on the events of the 1892 lockout of workers in Homestead, Pennsylvania steel mill after Andrew Carnegie refused to renew the contract of union workers and they decided to strike. Therefore, the draft Union supporters attacked the Pinkerton National Detective Agency guards who were hired to protect the mill . One of the guards shared his experience for Congress in 1893. His description of the workers destroying the property of the company, screaming and throwing different objects at the guards illustrates the struggle between working people and industrialists as well as their s upporters in the 1890s. 9. Marie Jenney Howe’s An Anti -Suffrage Address, 1895 (pg. 111 small book) Marie Jenney Howe, a member of the National Woman Suffrage Association and a progressive activist, published An Anti-Suffrage Monologue in 1913. She ridiculed various arguments of women suffrage opponents in her parody. She represents women’s reform movement during the Progressive Era to demand citizen rights to be considered equal to men. 10. Plessy v. Ferguson: In 1896 this Supreme Court ruling that legalized racial segregation based on the doctrine of “separate but equal .” According to this, black people could be segregated in different schools, restrooms, and other public facilities to those provided for whites. During this time, President Woodrow Wilson brought this attitude toward racial segregation to the White House. 11. Dawes Act of 1887: This law divided up reservations and allotted parcels of land to individual Indians as private property. The Indians who received the lands earned U.S citizenship. By the end of 1890, the United States controlled 97 percent of the territory formerly occupied by Native Americans. The passing of this law demonstrates an effort to encourage assimilation through farming and the ownership of private property. 12. The Gospel of Wealth : Andrew Carnegie published an essay in 1889 titled “The Gospel of Wealth” in which he explained the idea that the wealthier individuals in society should use their wisdom, money, and experience to help the poor. During this time, the concept of social Darwinism served as the means to justify the abuse and growing power of large corporations in the U.S. 13. William Randolph Hearst : He was the owner of the newspaper Journal that promoted the war with Spain through cartoons and depictions of Butcher General Weyler and other Spanis h atrocities. Hearst was one of the first to publish yellow journalism that fueled the Spanish American War in 1898. 14. Chinese Exclusion Act : 1882 law that restricted Chinese immigration and set a precedent for further immigration laws. There was a racial and cultural bitterness against Chinese in the West since there were thousands of them who moved to places like California to work in the mines. After this law was enacted the Chinese immigrant population reduced sharply. This shows who the rising of globa l immigration after the Civil War increased, and how many Americans began questioning racial equality. 15. In-mut-too-yah-lat-lat (pg 33 small book): In 1877, the Chief of the Nez Percé resisted the U.S government’s demands that his tribe relinquish their l and. In-mut- too-yah-lat-lat, also known as Chief Joseph (as he was called by the whites) fought against the odds. One of the Generals promised him that if they surrendered they could return to their homeland. He was betrayed, and therefore shipped off to I ndian Territory in Oklahoma. This indigenous leader represents the heroic resistance of the Nez Percé and the U.S determination to take over Indian lands. 16. Jim Crow Laws: The Jim Crow Laws enacted after the period of Reconstruction lasting in the Southern U.S until 1965, consisted of racial segregation restricting African Americans from using the same public facilities as whites. This was a clear sign of denying basic civil rights to black people and demonstration of the white supremacy doctrine that guided the minds of Democrats in the South. 17. Fourteenth Amendment: In 1866, Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which declared that every person born in the country was a U.S citizen, and therefore prohibited states to limit the right s of any citizen or deprive anyone from their rights to freedom and equality. The importance of this amendment was declaring black people as citizens and therefore protecting them against violations by southern state governments. 18. “Peace Policy”: In 1868, President Ulysses Grant Peacy Policy consisted of integrating Native Americans into the population. He placed religious leaders from different denominations to convince Native Americans to give up their land. It proved to be one of the first efforts to force the Indians to assimilate the culture of civilization. 19. “Ten Percent Plan”: In 1863, Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction was based on forgiving southerners by restoring their property, except slaves, political rights (except to high-ranking Confederate Military). The plan was that if 10 percent of a state’s voting population took an oath of allegiance, the state could be readmitted into the union. This proved that Lincoln’s interest was not to provide federal assistance to freedmen or establish their rights, but rather to bring a quick end to the war by persuading Southerners to surrender . 20. American Federation of Labor : Samuel Gompers created the American Federation of Labor in 1886 focused on leading skilled workers of work unions to go on strikes in order to improve working conditions such as obtaining higher pay and other benefits for employees. This organization proved that when the working class united it could bring the nation to attention and it could trigger improvement in working conditions. 21. “White man’s burden” : In 1899, the British novelist and poet Rudyard Kipling wrote the poem “White man’s burden: the United States and the Philippines . Kipling urged the U.S to take on the “burden” of being an imperial power as other European nations had. This happened while the Senate ratified the treaty that placed the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam and Cuba under U.S control. This phrase became a term used to refer to imperialism and President Roosevelt even acknowledged that it gave a good description of the concept of territorial expansion. 22. Progressivism: a reform movement that advocated government activism to reduce the problems created by urban industrialism. As the gap between the rich and poor widened in the 1890s, a group of individuals at the loca l, state and later national level began addressing the problems that affect the working class. This movement reached its peak in 1912 with the creation of the Progressive Party. During this time, there was new legislation and social welfare programs that s till exist today. 23. Gilded Age: In the last quarter of the nineteenth century , the dynamics of the American economy changed significantly. The Gilded Age became a period of economic expansion, increased greed and corruption. During this time, industrialization created a dominant group of extremely wealthy entrepreneurs and an extremely impoverished working class. Therefore, this shows how the gap between the rich and the poor began to grow significantly during this time. 24. Marcus Garvey’s The Negro’s Greates t Enemy (p. 159 small book) In the 1923, Marcus Garvey published The Negro’s Greatest Enemy in which he explains the origins of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and his ideas of racial purity, separatism, and nationalism. Opposite of Du Bois. Want improvement but don’t feel they should be doing this alongside white people. Jamaicaàsegregated society talks about his own experience of living in Jamaica 25. Spanish-American War: The Spanish-American War of 1898 that lasted only eight months was fought between Spain and the United States over control of Cuba and the Philippine Islands. This war proved how the nation began developing as an imperialist power seeking to acquire new territories overseas. Besides, patriotic fervor resulted in about 275,000 people volunteering to join military service. The U.S was extremely successful as not many men died in battle and the war resulted with the acquisition of new territories such as Cuba, Puer to Rico, Guam and the Philippines in the hands of the United States. 26. Tenements: tenements were narrow, low rise apartments often built in Manhattan’s Lower East side in the late nineteenth century to accommodate the growing population of immigrants that were moving to work in New York. They were often cramped, lacked indoor plumbing, and were built using cheap materials that made them very unsafe to live in. By 1900, when the horrible conditions under which people were living in tenements were exposed in Riis’ book, people began coming together in Unions to demand for better working conditions as well as living conditions. Therefore there were new laws that mandated to improve sanitary conditions, restrict construction of tenements and include fire scape systems. 27. Ku Klux Klan I (1860s -1870s): In 1866, the KKK was a social club of Confederate veterans that was founded in Tennessee. They supported Democrats and went on a rampage of violence to defeat Republicans and restore white supremacy in the South. 28. Ku Klux Klan II (1910s -1920s): This secret society that first aime d to limit black freedom after the Civil War was reborn in 1915 in Georgia to fight against threats posed by black people, immigrants, radicals, feminists, Catholics, and Jews. The new Klan spread beyond the South in the 1920s expanding in places like Indi ana. The rebirth of the Klan attracted many Americans who were frustrated in the countryside. 29. Presidential Reconstruction( From 1865 ending in 1877, failed ) Following the Civil War, Reconstruction was the period of struggle between Radical Republicans who wanted to punish the South, and Southern Democrats who wanted to preserve white supremacy. Under the presidency of Andrew Johnson, in 1865 and 1866,his lenient measures towards the South led to the adoption of a series of laws in the South called the Black Codes. This encouraged the northern -dominated Radical Republicans in Congress to intervene. They employed constitutional amendments to require the ex -Confederacy to accept legal equality and share political power with black men. In this era, many Sout hern whites refused to accept this which was when the KKK was born. Beatings, massacres, and lynchings began to take place in the South. In 1877, the Union withdraws troops from the South bringing new measures from South Democrats who had regained control, to strip African Americans of their rights. 30. George Washington Plunkitt (p 75 small book) He was a corrupt politician of New York’s political machine called Tammany Hall in the late 19 century. He was honest about practicing what is known as polit ical machines. He would get votes, especially among immigrants, by offering housing and jobs to them. The rapid growth of cities in the 19 thcentury as a result of immigration created challenges for city governments, which is why political machines began responding for the problems of the working class . 31. Andrew Johnson: became president in 1865 after Lincoln was assassinated. He was from a confederate state loyal to the Union. He believed that white aristocracy in the South was to blame for staring the ci vil war. He returned all confiscated property back to ex-members of the Confederacy. 32. Jane Addams: In 1898, Jane Addams opened a settlement house called Hull House to help immigrant women providing them shelter and work. Other college -educated women joined her efforts offering their talents in the service of society. Women like Jane Adams created a new profession in America called social work in which living and working among the poor was thought to be the way to tackle the issue of class divisions. She is considered part of the progressivist movement since her work was directed to solve urban problems. 33. Imperialism At the end of nineteenth century, the United States began expanding their territory developing as an imperial power as they took over Indian lands in the West. This involved the conquest, displacement, and rule over native Indians. Later the United States continued seeking to acquire foreign territory after the Spanish American War. 34. Assimilation Policy of immigrant 553 th In the late 19 Century the United States began determined to force Native Indians to give up their traditions, their lands, and ways of life to adopt American culture. At first reservations were used to relocate the Indians, then the Dawes Allotment Act of 1887 offered them new land to own and their children were often separated from them to attend schools like the Carlisle School to completely transition into an American citizen. 35. General Valeriano Weyler (Butcher) p. 603 In 1895 the Spanish General Valeriano Weyler herded Cubans intwo crowded concentration camps where thousands died of hunger and disease. By 1898, a quarter of Cuba’s population had died in the Cuban revolution. Spain’s regime and treatment of Cuban revolutionaries, represented by this General was the beginning of the Spanish American War. The United States got involved because Americans were outraged to read about Spain’s inhumane treatment of Cubans. 36. Freedmen’s Bureau: was a government organization that was created in 1865 to ease the transition of newly emancipated slaves to free people. Congress authorized this government agency to provided food, clothing, and divide abandoned and confiscated land to give it to freedmen and freedwomen. 37. Black Codes p. 463: by the end of the civil war in 1865, state gove rnments in the South enacted a series of laws that became known as black codes which sought to keep ex-slaves subordinate to whites by subjecting them to discrimination. The laws proved the desire of white southerners to force freedmen back to the plantati ons. 38. NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Ida B. Wells who began her anti-lynching campaign in 1892, became a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. W.E.B Du Bois who created a move ment that called for universal male suffrage, civil rights and leadership also helped to create the NAACP. This was a coalition between blacks and whites who sought legal and political rights for African Americans. The NAACP represented the future, a shift in African American’s mentality as opposed to Booker T. Washington’s ideals that represented the past. 39. Stanley B. Norvell’s Letter to Victor F. Lawson p. 137 from readings In 1919, after the bloody race riot in Chicago Stanley B. Norvell, an African Am erican from Chicago wrote a letter to Victor F. Lawson, the editor of the Chicago Daily who had been appointed as a white member of the commission, made up of blacks and whites, to study the riot. Throughout his letter, Norvel highlights the ignorance of w hite people and their prejudice towards African Americans. Besides, he believes that a “new negro” resulted from World War I, one that had widened his perceptions of the world and had witnessed lack of racism in Europe. This letter represents one of the African Americans who stood up against the indiscriminate injustices; beatings and lynching that were common in American cities in 1919. 40. Theodore Roosevelt: becomes president in 1901 because William McKinley is assassinated. During his presidency, he worked to strengthen the power of the federal government through political reforms. He enforced the Sherman Antitrust Act by filing suits against very large monopolist companies including the Mining Company where he acted as a mediator between labor and managem ent. Roosevelt’s term proves to be a deviation from the Gilded Age passive laws that did not really curb the power of big corporation s. 41. The “Square Deal”: The phrase “Square Deal” became Roosevelt’s campaign slogan in the 1904 election that involved th e ideal relationship between labor unions and large corporation. One of the main objectives of his “square deal” was to enforce the Sherman Antitrust Act and give the Interstate Commerce Commission the power to set the prices of goods and services. The pas sage of this law proved that for the first time a government commission had the power to investigate businesses and set rates. 42. Hiram W. Evans: (p 152 readings) The imperial wizard of the Klan, Hiram W. Evans published an essay in 1926 titled “The Klan’s Fight for Americanism” in which he described the idea of Americanism, people of Nordic race. He explains how the Klan defends family, morality and traditional American values against the threats of immigrants, black people, feminists, etc. Evans also spoke out against modernity proving that the idea of resisting to social change appealed to many Americans to join the KKK. 43. Booker T. Washington : During the Progressive Era, when Jim Crow Laws segregated public places in the south, Booker T. Washin gton talked about education and economic progress for his race and urged African Americans to accommodate in society. 44. Congressional Reconstruction : pg 467-470 In 1867, Congress passed the Military Reconstruction Act, overturning Johnson state governments and initiated military rule in the South. This congressional reconstruction divided the ten unreconstructed Confederate states into five military districts, each under the direction of a Union general. It established the procedure by which unreconstructed states could reenter the Union. 45. Muckrakers: The muckrakers were early twentieth century journalists who exposed corruption of big corporations and government. These individuals helped Roosevelt to secure progressive legislation. There were foods and dru g bills passed as authors wrote about the dangers of patent medicines or the unsanitary conditions in the meat packaging industry for instance. 46. Social Darwinism: a social theory that emerged in the late nineteenth century based on Darwin’s theory of evolu tion, by Spencer in Britain and William Sumner in the U.S. They believed that survival of the fittest meant that wealth was a sign of being better suited for society and poverty was a sign of unfitness for survival. This concept of social Darwinism was a w ay to justify the social inequality, the growing gap between the rich and the poor at the time. 47. Homestead Act of 1862 : An act that promised free 160 acres of land in the West to any citizen who settled on the land. This migration to the West was due to th e promise of owning land to farm and the opportunity for exploiting natural resources. In order to build more farms, federal troops negotiated with Native Americans so they gave up some of their land for these new settlements. 48. W.E.B. Du Bois : Du Bois was an educated African American who objected to Booker. T Washington’s policy of racial accommodation. He was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. In 1903, he countered Washington’s views in the book called The Souls of Black Folk. Du Bois urged African Americans to fight for civil right and racial justice as opposed to being submissive and adjusting in a white dominant society. W.E.B Du Bois represents a change, the search for progressivism for black people too. 49. Andrew Carnegie: was a Scottish millionaire who built a steel empire in Pittsburgh, and also published an essay in 1889 titled “The Gospel of Wealth” in which he encouraged the rich to display their wealth while also helping other people with their money. 50. Wounded Knee: In 1890, there was a massacre of Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Federal troops who were sent out to suppress the Ghost Dance rs shot over 200 Sioux as they attempted to surrender. The way that American Indians were conquered foreshadows the imperialistic attitudes of the U.S to expand its territory in Asia, Latin America, and other parts of the world. 51. Triangle Shirtwaist Company In 1911, The Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City, located in the top 3 floors of an 8-story building caught on fire killing 145 workers. This is remembered as one of the most tragic incidents in the history of American industrial society because it could have been prevented . The owners of the factories refused to install sprinkler systems, implement other safety measures, and the workers were locked inside the building. This tragedy revealed the dangerous working conditions in th factories in the early 20 century. As a result of this, a series of law and regulations were developed at th is time to protect the safety of workers. 52. Margaret Sanger : In 1915, Margaret Sanger launched a birth control movement in New York City’s Lower East Side. She hoped that contraception would alter social and political power relationships while reducing pov erty. The open talk about contraception created great controversy. She got arrested after opening the nation’s first birth control clinic. 53. Eugene V. Debs’ Speech Delivered in Canton, OH p. 632, p.126 small book In 1918, Eugene V. Debs, the presidential c andidate of the Socialist Party spoke in Canton, Ohio to a group of working people. He opposed to American involvement in World War I calling it a crime against the people of the U.S. Debs explained that the reason for this was the fact that he was completely against capitalism. His speech violated the Espionage Act, which is why he was convicted and sentenced to prison. 54. Emilio Aguinaldo (p 96 readings) Emilio Aguinaldo was a commander of the Filipino forces that allied with the United States to eradicate Spanish control of the Philippines in 1898. Once independence was declared, Aguinaldo became the first president of the Philippines. However, when the U.S refused to recognize their independence, he led a war against American military. Aguinaldo criticiz ed America for its imperialist attitude oppressing the Filipinos using ruthless war tactics. He also asked the U.S to let the Philippines govern themselves since the U.S were once rebels against the English Government. 55. “The New Woman”: The New Woman was an image of womanhood that came into the American mainstream in the 1920s. Mass media began portraying young, college - educated women who drank, smoked, and wore dresses. This concept of the New Woman challenged gender norms in a time where feminists f ought for the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment grating women the right to vote. This was a time where American women began feeling liberated and started pressuring Congress to pass laws that especially concerned women such as protecting women in fa ctories. 56. Josephine Baker (1920s see notes) Josephine Baker was a dancer, vocal civil rights activist, traveled around Europe. Example of someone who challenged ideas about women, sexuality (scandalous costumes) Jazz halls in NYC. 57. F. Scott Fitzgerald p. 691 Fitzgeral is part of the Lost Generation in the 20thcentury. He spoke of a disillusioned generation. His book The Great Gatsby is representative of life in the twenties. Fitzgerald wrote about his own experiences, how he experienced the 20s and the astronomical amounts of money in this time. His writing also reflect how traumatized he was by World War I. He is a literary figure who responded to changes in the 1920s, scarring from the war. 58. John T. Scopes: The 1925 trial of John Scopes, a biology t eacher in Tennessee for violating the state’s ban on teaching evolution created significant attention in the media. When a witness expressed his theory of creation based on religion, urban people mocked him and proved their disdain toward country people an d the values they clung to. The Scope Trial provoked intense tension and division between the city and countryside, the privileged and the poor, intellectuals and uneducated. 59. Andrew Mellon p 679 Andrew Mellon was one of the richest men in America during the 1920s. He became Secretary of Treasury in 1920 and lasted three different presidential terms . He stripped off tax structure, cut taxes on corporation, and broke down regulations of progressivists. During this time, the roaring twenties , the government moved away from government civic reforms toward promoting private firms and stimulating the economy. 60. The Jazz Singer The Jazz Singer is a 1927 movie that is characteristic of the movie style in the twenties, where the protagonists is rebellious and deci des to break social norms. 61. Immigration Act of 1924 The Immigration Law of 1924 severely restricted immigration to the United States from Southern, Eastern Europe and Asia. This was done through a quota that provided immigration visas to two percent of the total number of people of each nationality in the U.S. It did, however, protect immigration of people from Great Britain. The idea of Anglo-Saxon superiority manifested in the legislation of 1924. This was during the 1920s, framed as a period of time of white supremacy. 62. Coney Island th From the end of the 19 century through the end of World War II, Coney Island, nearby Brooklyn, marked the beginning of modern leisure in the U.S with the creation of modern amusement parks. It was a getaway from New York City. There were three different thematic parks: Dreamland, Lunapark and Steeplechase Park. This area was transformed from a resort to the rich to the playground of the people. 63. Queen Liliʻuokalani p. 599 She was the last queen to rule the monarcy in Hawaii. American sugar interests caused a rebellion in 1893, toppling her rule. Congress annexed the islands in 1898. This proved to be an expansionist movement that captured the nation during the 1890s. 64. The Yellow Press p. 603 term that was first implemented to describe the newspaper shocking and dramatic reports and cartoon images in yellow. It began as a war between two New York City papers, Hearst’s Journal and Pulitzer’s World that used this yellow journalism to encourage the was with Spain in 1898.
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