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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlyn Notetaker on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1001 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Richards in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications in Communication at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
COMM 1001 Exam 2 Study Guide: Key Terms Chapter 5: Symbolic Interactionism 1. The ongoing use of language and gestures in anticipation of how the other will react; a conversation. Symbolic interaction 2. An inner dialogue used to test alternatives, rehearse actions, and anticipate reactions before responding; selftalk. Minding 3. The process of mentally imagining that you are someone else who is viewing you. Taking the role of the other 4. The mental selfimage that results from taking the role of the other; the objective self; me. Lookingglass self 5. The subjective self; the spontaneous driving force that fosters all that is novel, unpredictable, and unorganized in the self. I 6. The objective self; the image of self seen when one takes the role of the other. Me 7. The composite mental image a person has of his or her self based on societal expectations and responses. Generalized other 8. A method of adopting the stance of an ignorant yet interested visitor who carefully notes what people say and do in order to discover how they interpret their world. Participant observation 9. The tendency for our expectations to evoke responses that confirm what we originally anticipated. Selffulfilling prophecy 10. The self created by the way we respond to others. Responsive “I” 11. The reminder that we are responsible to take care of each other; I am my brother’s keeper. Ethical echo 12. A human signpost that points to our ethical obligation to care for the other before we care for the self. Face of the “Other” Chapter 7: Expectancy Violations Theory 1. The invisible, variable volume of space surrounding an individual that defines that individual’s preferred distance from others. Personal space 2. The study of people’s use of space as a special elaboration of culture. Proxemics 3. The hypothetical outer boundary of intimate space; a breach by an uninvited other occasions fight or flight. Threat threshold 4. A heightened state of awareness, orienting response, or mental alertness that stimulates a review of the relationship. Arousal, relational 5. What people predict will happen, rather than what they desire. Expectancy 6. The perceived positive or negative value assigned to a breach of expectations, regardless of who the violator is. Violation valence 7. The sum of positive and negative attributes brought to the encounter plus the potential to reward or punish in the future. Communicator reward valence 8. A systematic analysis of how people adjust their approach when another’s behavior doesn’t mesh with what’s needed, anticipated, or preferred. Interaction adaptation theory 9. A person’s initial stance toward an interaction as determined by a blend of personal requirements, expectations, and desires (RED). Interaction position 10. A strong human tendency to respond to another’s action with similar behavior. Reciprocity 11. Duty without exception; act only on that maxim which you can will to become a universal law. Categorical imperative Chapter 8: Constructivism 1. The cognitive templates or stencils we fit over social reality to order our impressions of people. Interpersonal constructs 2. A freeresponse survey designed to measure the cognitive complexity of a person’s interpersonal perception. Role Category Questionnaire (RCQ) 3. The mental ability to distinguish subtle personality and behavior differences among people. Cognitive complexity 4. The main component of cognitive complexity as measured by the number of separate personal constructs used on the RCQ. Differentiation 5. A tailormade message for a specific individual and context; reflects the communicator’s ability to anticipate response and adjust accordingly. Personcentered message 6. A personcentered message that accomplishes multiple goals. Sophisticated communication 7. A threestage process of goals assessed, plans selected, and tactics enacted (action). Message production 8. The recollection of an action taken in a specific situation paired with its consequences; an if- when-then memory. Procedural record 9. A hypothesis that relationships fare better when parties possess the same level of verbal sophistication. Similar skills model Chapter 9: Social Penetration Theory 1. The process of developing deeper intimacy with another person through mutual selfdisclosure and other forms of vulnerability. Social penetration 2. Onionlike layers of beliefs and feelings about self, others, and the world; deeper layers are more vulnerable, protected, and central to selfimage. Personality structure 3. The voluntary sharing of personal history, preferences, attitudes, feelings, values, secrets, etc., with another person; transparency. Selfdisclosure 4. The degree of disclosure in a specific area of an individual’s life. Depth of penetration 5. A paced and orderly process in which openness in one person leads to openness in the other; “You tell me your dream; I’ll tell you mine.” Law of reciprocity 6. The range of areas in an individual’s life over which disclosure takes place. Breadth of penetration 7. Relationship behavior and status regulated by both parties’ evaluations of perceived rewards and costs of interaction with each other. Social exchange 8. The perceived rewards minus the costs of interpersonal interaction. Outcome 9. People seek to maximize their benefits and minimize their costs. Minimax principle of human behavior 10. The threshold above which an interpersonal outcome seems attractive; a standard for relational satisfaction. Comparison level (CL) 11. The best outcome available in other relationships; a standard for relational stability. Comparison level of alternatives (CLalt) 12. The belief that individuals should live their lives so as to maximize their own pleasure and minimize their own pain. Ethical egoism 13. The assumption that people want both privacy and intimacy in in their social relationships; they experience a tension between disclosure and withdrawal. Dialectical model 14. The tendency to claim a physical location or object as our own. Territoriality Chapter 10: Uncertainty Reduction Theory 1. A systematic explanation of how people draw inferences about the character of others based upon observed behavior. Attribution theory 2. Increased knowledge of what kind of person another is, which provides an improved forecast of how a future interaction will turn out. Uncertainty reduction 3. A selfevident truth that requires no additional proof. Axiom 4. A proposition that logically and necessarily follows from two axioms. Theorem 5. Mental representations of action sequences that may be used to achieve goals. Message plans 6. Impression formation by observing a person interacting with others. Passive strategy 7. Impression formation by asking a third party about a person. Active strategy 8. Impression formation through facetoface discussion with a person. Interactive strategy 9. A characteristic of a message plan based on the level of detail it provides and the number of contingencies it covers. Plan complexity 10. Use of strategic ambiguity and humor to provide a way for both parties to save face when a message fails to achieve its goal. Hedging 11. The prediction that when people are thwarted in their attempts to achieve goals, their first tendency it to alter lowerlevel elements of their message. Hierarchy hypothesis 12. An intercultural theory that claims high levels of uncertainty and anxiety lead to greater misunderstanding when strangers don’t communicate mindfully. AUM theory 13. The feeling of being uneasy, tense, worried, or apprehensive about what might happen. Anxiety 14. The extent to which a person interpreting a message does so in a way that’s relatively similar to what was intended; minimizing misunderstanding. Effective communication 15. The process of thinking in new categories, being open to new information, and recognizing multiple perspectives. Mindfulness 16. A forecast of future benefits and costs of interaction based on limited experience with the other. Predicted outcome value Chapter 11: Social Information Processing Theory 1. Computermediated communication; textbased messages, which filter out most nonverbal cues. CMC 2. Suggests that CMC deprives users of the sense that another actual person is involved in the interaction. Social presence theory 3. Purports that CMC bandwidth is too narrow to convey rich relational messages. Media richness theory 4. Interpretation of CMC that regards lack of nonverbal cues as a fatal flaw for using the medium for relationship development. Cues filtered out 5. A statement that limits the context a theory is meant to describe. Boundary condition 6. The composite mental image one person forms of another. Impression formation 7. A way of extending psychological time; the likelihood of future interaction motivates CMC users to develop a relationship. Anticipated future interaction 8. The study of people’s systematic handling of time in their interaction with others. Chronemics 9. The claim that CMC relationships are often more intimate than those developed when partners are physically together. Hyperpersonal perspective 10. An online positive portrayal without fear of contradiction, which enables people to create an overwhelmingly favorable impression. Selective selfpresentation 11. A theory that suggests CMC users overestimate their similarity with others they meet in online interest groups. Social identitydeindividuation (SIDE) 12. A nonsimultaneous medium of communication that each individual can use when he or she desires. Asynchronous channel 13. The tendency for a person’s expectation of others to evoke a response from them that confirms what was originally anticipated. Selffulfilling prophecy 14. Reason to believe that information is accurate, typically because the target of the information cannot manipulate it. Warranting value
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