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Study Guide for Prelim 1

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Study Guide for Prelim 1 PAM 2030

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Compiled Notes from lectures during weeks 1 through 7 and readings (except for Weeks, since she covered that in lecture)
Population and Public Policy
Professor Sassler
Study Guide
PAM, population
50 ?




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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eunice on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PAM 2030 at Cornell University taught by Professor Sassler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 249 views. For similar materials see Population and Public Policy in Political Science at Cornell University.

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Date Created: 03/08/16
PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 Prelim 1 Study Guide (Class and Reading Notes) Compiled Class Notes  demography: the scientific study of human population o Mathematical knowledge of populations; general movements; physical, civil, intellectual and moral state  Components of population: ex. o Size o Distribution o Composition o Changes in above variables o Components of change (ex. mortality, fertility, migration)  growth o the “doubling time” (time it takes for a population to double in size) o track:  fertility  mortality (recently slowed by technology, medicine and agriculture)  migration (domestic migration looks at incoming and outing populations unlike global migration because aliens aren’t coming in) o historically: the combination of fertility, mortality, migration  most of human history: hunter gatherer existence  fertility and mortality: high o infant mortality was high so a woman would have many children as a social insurance o slow population growth o carrying capacity was low (if population grew too quickly then there would be a food shortage)  agricultural revolution  increase in carrying capacity  population grew leading to survival challenges o upheavals, plague  significant decrease in population due to disease (modern ex. college students and meningitis)  urbanization lead to more disease  poor sanitation, living conditions, dangerous working conditions, scarcity of fresh food, pollution, overcrowding, nonexistent sewage and hygiene system o modern ex. NYC 1900-1910 Tenement  “Death Trap” cities  Civilizations peaked  Modern era: stabilized population  Enlightenment and industrial revolution brought improved technology, application of science and medicine  Further increase in population o 20 century public health improvements  Immunizations, disease control, safe food, workplace safety, healthier mothers and babies, water fluoridation, decrease in heart disease and stroke, car safety, family planning, decrease in smoking (just don’t smoke) o Population is growing fast  Low mortality, relatively high fertility (although fertility has been decreasing)  More births than deaths  Births – Deaths = Natural increase/population growth  Hans Rosling  In 1963, developed countries had low mortality and relatively low fertility while developing countries had higher mortality and relatively higher fertility o As time passes/passed, the trends showed developing countries shift in mortality and fertility rates to match that of developed countries  World population will plateau: the adult population is increasing but the children population is stable, so when the children become adults (and the adults have died off in proportion) the population will have plateaued (think toilet paper example) o Now:  Europe has slow population increase; Middle East still has high population growth  This will cause a change in population distribution, shift in power potentially, and increased migration from less to more developed countries  Low fertility in developed countries also means an aging population  Decrease in economic growth  differences in political ideology  increase in social welfare programs  side note: the younger generation is more diverse than the older generation  counting populations: data o Census: not all but mostly demographic in material  Conducted by the government  required by the Constitution for apportionment o Constitution says: who to include in census**, when and how often to conduct the census (every 10 years) o **Original instructions include discussion of slaves (Archaic) (changed by the 14 amendment)  Now: everyone is counted (Regardless of citizenship, documentation status, age, ethnicity)  being included in the census does not imply voting rights or citizenship o citizens: all born or naturalized (birthright citizenship)  issue: “anchor babies” o voting right: age based (given citizenship)  citizenship and voting rights are involved in the census question because the census affects representation and congressional district boundaries o concerns with gerrymandering (drawing of state boundaries to retain recumbents) o border states have a higher number of immigrants  De facto population: the people on the territory on a given day (the US method)  Census counts based on usual residence o Issues: College kids, snow birds (people with multiple homes), Mormon missionaries  De jure population: the people who legally belong to a certain area (other countries’ method)  Issues: homeless, soldiers, immigrants  Determines tax payers, how many marriages, deaths  Affects taxing, planning (labor force, education, businesses, health facilities), resource allocation, military  Determines the number of representatives: fixed at 435 representatives  30,000 people per representative (this changes with population growth)  Minimum 1 representative per state o Historically: in the Bible, Islam, Roman empire  Changes in how the census is conducted reflects social values and focus  “modern era” of census starts around late 1700s o Issues with the census  Coverage error: people aren’t counted correctly  net census undercount = (Not counted) – (Counted twice (think snow birds))  Some populations are counted better than others: differential undercount  Content error:  Questions are misunderstood or incorrectly answered  Age heaping: rounding ages  Nonresponse problem: (people don’t answer income questions)  Imputation: estimating who wasn’t counted mathematically  Not used for apportionment  demographic perspective o population growth is….  good: population is power (tax souces, military, increased human resources intelligence creativity  bad: population increase leads to misery, poverty, overcrowding (Malthusian)  both: “it depends”  views are also changing o pronatalist vs. antinatalist (ex. ZPG) o population affects social welfare policy among other things  aging population affects economic growth o historically: more pronatalist than anti-  pro: rome, khaladun, Aquinas; anti: augustine; in between: china, greece  religious affiliations (st. Augustine and Aquinas) o Malthus  first to identity the two natural increase components (births and deaths)  Poor laws help the poor which will only increase the numbers and dependency, ultimately leading to national bankruptcy  laws of population  we need food: food increases arithmetically  people like reproduction: humans increase geometrically  formula for doubling time: 70/(growth rate)  power of population o populations will growth until they outstrip their lands’ resources o leads to poverty  population checks  preventative checks o moral restraint: no sex until marriage and also marry late o vice: checks through abortion, infanticide  positive checks o war, disease, famine, (the ultimate checks)  neo-malthusian: use contraceptives! o Engels and Marx  poverty is a fault of the economy  more people means more laborers which is good  a socialist economy will absorb population growth with no effects  demographic transition theory (DTT) o model: describes patterns of population change over time o framework: population growth is determined by two crude vital rates (fertility and mortality)  (CVR: vital stats, births, deaths from births, death certificates)  fndst: mortality falls  2 : commensurate fertility falls o demographic accounting equation:  P2– P 1 B 1,2– D1,2+ IM 1,2– OM 1,2  P:ipopulation size at time i (i=1, 2)  B:ibirths at time i (i=1, 2)  D:ideaths at time i (i=1, 2)  IM:iin migration at time i (i=1, 2)  OM: iut migration at time i (i=1, 2) o 2 basic rates: combined = rate of natural increase = CBR - CDR  crude death rate (CDR)  (number of deaths in a calendar year)/(mid year population) * k o arbitrary constant k  infant mortality rate would have only the infant population in the denominator  crude birth rate (CBR)  (number of births in a calendar year)/(mid year population) * k o the history of DTT  early developments  warren Thompson: divided world into three groups (A, B, C) and characterized them by development level and population growth rates o A: N and W Europe, US: from 19 c. through 1927, went from very high to very low rates of natural increase o B: S and central Europe: birth and death rates declined but not as much change as group A o C: rest of world: no control in these areas over births/deaths  Frank Notestein: proposed types of growth patterns o incipient decline o transitional growth o high growth potential  Kingsley Davis: coined the term “DTT”  modernization theory  DTT: predicts and explains how fertility falls, when population will rise and fall  changes in social institutions lead to change in birth and death rates  Stage CBR CDR 1 High High (baby bank, (disease, famine, religion war, lack of encourages sanitation, limited pronatalism, education and workers and kids medicine, needed) competition for food) 2 High Lowered (mentality of stage (improved 1 CBR persists) medicine, hygiene, sanitation; lowered baby deaths) 3 Lowered Lowered (improved family (same as stage 2) planning, change in mentality, mechanization lowers need for workers, status of women evolves) 4 Low Low (established (improved economy, education and existence of healthcare) middle class, political stability)  DTT: society vs. economy o economy  no economic gain from restriction vs. economic gains from restriction  Caldwell: the movement from economically unrestricted to restricted fertility is a social change and is economically rational o society  traditional society: children work  wealth: from children to the parents  modern: increased importance of education and investment  wealth: from parents to children  critiques o DTT is ethnocentric (focused on the western sphere) o DTT has preconditions of industrialization and urbanization o the original assumption that homeostasis would be reached has not been true in parts of the world  Age o age transition:  age structure: the interaction of fertility, migration, mortality  the “master transition” o Age Stratification Theory: distribution of resources according to age  according to roles and responsibilities  see slides for tables that show Category Characteristic/Activity Social Demography Economic o age cohort: group of people who experience an event at the same time  cohort flow: people of same age are influenced by the same historical events  changes are measured over time, separating effects of age(A), period (P), cohort (C)   sex ratio: time constant, ratio of men to women o masculinity ratio:  (populations of men)/(populations women)*1000 o 100 is the balance point  sex ratio > 100: excess men  sex ratio < 100: excess women o at birth, there are more men, but men have high mortality rates at all ages  feminization of old age  consider the marriage market, “marriage squeeze” in China  old vs. young o young: younger than 15 o old: older than 65 o DR: dependents: 0-14, 65+  ratio increases = increased burden on the working aged population  increased DR in developing nations: caused by high number of children  issue with current definition of dependents’ age: education extends the age at which people stop being dependent  DR = ((population of 0-14 yr olds)+(population of 65+yr olds))/(# of people between 15-64 yrs)*100 o population pyramids  3 shapes  expansive, classic: broad base, high fertility, high morality o issues caused: limited schools, jobs, housing  constrictive, barrel: low fertility o issues: aging population o generally has feminized old age  stationary: unchanging patterns of fertility and mortality, rectangular  Age transition: o drivers:  lowered mortality: population youngs  lowered fertility: population ages  migration: relocates (generally the younger) populations from donor to host regions (characteristics of population depends on distance of migration o population processes’ influences of age/gender structure  migration: dramatic short run impact  change the prevailing age if the age composition of migrants is significantly different  tend to be younger child bearing aged populations  mortality: affects both the short and long run, not dramatic unless a pandemic occurs  all ages and gender are affected with consistent patterns in all countries  improved health means decreased death rates at all ages  fertility: most important influence though with relatively small short run impact o generally, global populations are aging faster than the US is  US: aging: 14.5% is 65+ o old age  Third Age: 65-84, limited physically but able to work  Fourth Age: 85+, senescence, retirement o implications: health and expenditures  welfare  older people tend to have chronic conditions and more than one of them  politics: party split along generational lines  Social Security  better education >> better health (easier jobs physically) >> longer life, better pay o SS works better for some people than it does for others  should there be a change o change the calculation method used to decide monthly benefits o raise income taxes on SS benefits o increase flow of payroll taxes o change the cost of living index o change retirement age  what about child poverty, why don’t we care as much o the younger generation is racially diverse  America’s Changing Racial/Ethnic Composition o ethnicity v. race  race is defined on basis of physical characteristics  skin color, hair textures, shape of features  ethnicity: based on culture: language, religion, appearance, ancestry, region  sense of identity and membership in a particular ethnic group  historically: race has gone from an essentialist to a constructionist  biological (primordialist) to situational definition o directive No.5: 5 categories for the census, not mutually exclusive  American Indian/Alaska Native  Asian/Pacific (divided towards Native Hawaiian)  White  Black  Hispanic (been removed) o Census, history and race  1980: first appearance of classification questions  questions about ancestry  1990: not much change  “negro” and “Indian (Amer.)” were used  order matters o Q4 asked about race, Q7 asked about Spanish/Hispanic  2000: change: allowed people to claim more than one race group  order changed o Q5: Hispanic/Spanish/Latino?  this is an ethnicity question o Q6: race? o Q10: ancestry? ethnic origin?  examples provided which skews responses  give white people something  2010: more change  “For this questions, Hispanic origins are not races”  2020: ?  testing combination of ethnicity and race/origin questions o AQE: Alternative Questionnaire Experiment o combination of race and ethnicity in a question: higher response rate with unchanged proportions o Hispanic: race vs. ethnicity  note, ethnicity is subjective, more so than race  assumes a common bond among those in an ethnicity  OMB : Directive No.5 says this is an ethnic category  vs. Asians? (Asians are pan-ethnic)  Latinos are under this category although the term only exists in America o Public Law 94521: religious affiliation questions are not allowed  questions and concerns do exist particularly about Jews and Muslims o future of America: majority minority population  mortality translation o morbidity vs. mortality  morbidity: prevalence of disease in a population  mortality: patterns of death o epidemiologic transition  transition from prevalence of communicable diseases to degenerative diseases o 3 eras  era of pestilence and famine  life expectancy: 20-39  infectious disease, malnutrition, infant related deaths  era of receding epidemics  life expectancy: 30 to 50 yrs  infectious diseases are still prevalent, large mortality fluctuations less common  era of degenerative and man-made disease  life expectancy: 50+  cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes  4 limitations  eras are not sequential, are reversible, no explanation of disease patterns, discusses mortality not morbidity o health eras  age of environment (up to 1935)  vaccination, antiseptics, health department development, cleaner water, pasteurization  age of medicine (1935 to 1950)  sulfa, penicillin, anti TB, antibiotics  age of lifestyle  diet, exercise, smoking  Mortality o postponing death by preventing and curing disease  prevent disease from occurring/spreading when they do occur  vaccinations, clean water, sanitation, good nutrition  no physicians needed  examples: resurgence of measles due to anti vacc movement o flint’s lead poisoning  curing disease when people are sick  diagnostic technologic, drugs, skilled physicians o how to measure mortality improvements  life span: oldest age of human survival, potential  almost entirely a biological phenomenon  longevity  ability to remain alive, resist death  measured by life expectancy (average expected age at death, currently 71y)  people can live a long but not healthy life (mortality and morbidity relationship) o social and bio factors and health and mortality  behaviors that shorten longevity:  poor diet: fatty foods, rapid weight gain/loss, excessive alcohol, smoking, drugs  lack of exercise: sedentary activities, sporadic excessive exertion  behaviors that increase longevity  regular exercise, daily breakfast, normal weight, moderate drinking, adequate sleep, no smoking o age and death  J shape curve  youngest and oldest have the highest mortality rates  declining infant death  rectangularization of mortality (sudden drop off at a later life expectancy age) o gender variations in mortality  women: lower probability of death o causes of death  communicable diseases  bacterial, viral, protozoan  maternal  prenatal conditions  noncommunicable diseases  injuries o “real causes” of death  tobacco, diet and activity, alcohol, microbial agents, toxic agents, disease, guns, violence o Measurements  use rates (for comparison and to see frequency of events)  crude rates: for entire population  E/P *K o E: number of events occurring among residents of a specific area over an accounting period o P: total population o K: constant, usually 1000 or 100,000  crude: don’t account for which people are at risk for the event o useful: easy to obtain the data (think: resources available to poor and less developed countries)  helps in funding, allocations  measures change over time  vs. specific rates: for subgroups  age specific death rate o 1000*(number of deaths in age group/number of people in group) o similar formulas can be refined for race, causes, gender,  pros: can control for age differences and show timing of events  cons: unwieldy lots of data points, difficult to summarize  other common refinements: cause specific, IMR  IMR: infant mortality rate o younger than one year old o a ratio, not a rate o pros: measures development o cons: dependent on stats and reporting; not a rate o general influences: low birthweight, preterm birth, poor prenatal care, low education of mother (less than HS), tobacco, sudden infant death syndrome o refine:  Neo-natal mortality rate (younger than 28 days)  endogenous factors (genetic make up)  post neonatal (between 4 to 52 weeks)  exogenous (external) o survival rate:  Lx+N/x  fertility transition: o high to low (largely under women’s control)  later start, earlier end o terms  fertility: actual birth performance  fecundity: (limits fertility) physiological ability to reproduce  usually greater than actual fertility  impaired fecundity: infertility, sterility  fecund women: can reproduce; sterile woman: can’t  controlling vs. limiting  controlling: when you star and spacing  limiting: stop/reduce o natural fertility, family planning  natural fertility: number children that can be born without birth control  max level of reproduction  theoretical figure  ~6 to 7 (which is a number that matches the high mortality rates)  hutterites (~11)  method of calculation  start young: menarche, ~15  end old: menopause: 49  no birth control  less than 9 months per pregnancy  18 months between end of one pregnancy and start of another  not deciding on a certain number/continuing through entire reproductive span  totals to about 1 kid per 2.2 years, summing to 16 kids o assuming no multiple births o historically  kids = status and prestige for women  women had kids, early and often and abortion/contraception was highly stigmatized o social and economic factors  physiological and biological  marriage traditions  sexual mores  preferences  attitudes  employment and childcare opportunities o (Coale’s) requirements for lowered fertility  control (choice over options)  ideational change  READY  belief in clear advantages of lowered fertility and reason for having fewer kids  more live  invest more in each kid  moms can be healthier and better parents  WILLING  knowledge and mastery of effective contraception  how women get pregnant (when in cycle)  conception delay/prevention  methods: effective  ABLE o perspective (innovation diffusion and social strata): 2 theories of social stratification  culture innovation occurs in the higher social strata and trickles down to the lower strata as they imitate  privilege, edu, resources  rigid social stratification inhibits downward social mobility and diffusion of low fertility ideals o historical dealing with high fertility  infanticide, neglect, inattention (death)  fosterage of kid by another family who needs/can afford it  orphanage (abandon kid to be found by strangers) o proximate determinants of fertility (7 of these according to Davis&Blake, #1 being number of married women among all reproductive aged women):  intercourse  forming/dissolution of sexual unions o age of entry o permanent celibacy o time period spent after/between unions  divorce, separation, desertion  death of partner/spouse  exposure to intercourse o voluntary abstinence o involuntary abstinence (illness, temporary separation) o coital frequency #2  conception  exposure to contraception o fecundity/infecundity (voluntary/involuntary) o non/use of contraception #3  breastfeeding during the 6 months following birth #4 o voluntary fecundity/infecundity (medical treatments, sterilization) #5  gestation  successful parturition  fetal mortality (involuntary: miscarriage, still births) #6  fetal mortality (voluntary: abortion)#7  4 major variables: permanent celibacy, infecundity/fecundity, contraception, fetal morality (voluntary)  indirect factors of fertility o education, income, gender differences (affects proximate determinants  fertility o at risk of fertility: women, fecund, between menarche and menopause, not sterile, had sex, not currently pregnant o period vs. cohort data  period: cross section of population at a specific time (snapshot)  ex. CBR  cross sectional data makes for period analysis  cohort: focuses on experience of a particular group of people (ex. women) who share demographic experience (ex. as women go through their childbearing years of life)  longitudinal data: over time, across a life course, before after a certain period (ex. recession)  more data necessary but reveals how events affect a population o period measures: simplest, readily available data  CBR: crude birth rate  (# of live births in year X)/(midyear population in year X) *1000  ignores age structure  GFR: general fertility rate  requires gender and age structure data  (# of live births in year X)/(midyear population of women aged 15 to 44 in year X) *1000  refined by those at risk of birth  GFR = approx. 4.5xCBR  shortcomings o GFR is influenced by shifts in the age distribution o not age specific  ex. if more women are older than 35, there will be a downward effect  doesn’t reveal delayed childbearing  can be refined into General Marital Fertility Rate and General Non-Marital Fertility Rate o the denominator is refined by marriage status of the women o recently: GMFR has decreased as GNMFR has increased  GPFR: general paternal fertility rate  men’s reproductive span in longer than women’s (15 to 44): 15 to 54 years aged men; so the overall GPFR<GFR  CWR: child woman ratio  (# of children younger than 5yrs)/(#number of women 15-49) *1000  vital rates information not required  tends to understate fertility o due to greater mortality rates among children than among childbearing women o the 0 to 5 year range for kids lessens this effect  rate vs. ratio:  rate: frequency of an event, allows comparison between countries and populations  ratio: relation between subgroups (ex. dependency ratio) o cohort measures:  TFR: total fertility rate  calculated from age specific fertility rates  assumes a stable population in each age group o creates a synthetic cohort:  examine 1000 women and then scale by fertility rates o longitudinal data o standardizes the population  note: assumes that every age group will have the same birth rate regardless of the cohort that passes through it  how to calculate o per age group of x to x+4 (5 year groups) o (# of births to women aged x to x+4)/(# of women aged x to x+4)*K = age specific fertility rate o multiply age specific fertility rate by 5 o sum all age specific fertility rate from (15 to 19) to (45 to 49) = TFR  hypothetical measure based on fertility information from one point in time  can fluctuate dramatically if there’s a shift in the timing of the births among women in their childbearing years  meaningful numbers o should be 2.1 (in developed countries) o “lowest low” <1.3 TFR  GRR: gross reproduction rate  measures number of female children (potential mothers of the future)  = ~.492xTFR  doesn’t consider age structure  NRR: net reproduction rate  considers the likelihood of surviving childbearing years  if NRR=1, means exactly enough daughters are born to replace the mothers’ population  doesn’t consider age structure  CEB: children ever born  completed fertility rate  counts the number of children a women has in her lifetime Compiled Reading Notes (minus Weeks—was covered in class)  Sanburn, 2010 Census o Growth rate has slowed  “aging momentum”  Migration and economic growth are down o Americans are less mobile  Young people are staying home or moving back with parents  due to poor economy  which effects a poor economy o “majority minority” nation  Minority population is increasing o Getting older o Making less money than 10 years ago  Real median household income fell  Goldstone, “The New Population Bomb” o Fertility rates are dropping o Four historic shifts  the relative demographic weight of developed countries will drop by 25%  shifts economic power to the developing nations  developed countries' labor are aging and declining  constrains economic growth in developed nations  raises demand for immigrant workers  most of expected population growth will increasingly occur in the poorest, youngest, and most heavily Muslim countries  lack of quality education, capital, and employment  global urbanization  largest urban centers: poorest countries (scarce policing, sanitation, and health care) o occidental GDP on the decline (historical, GDP was in sharp growth)  increase in the middle class  global economic expansion will be driven by the growth of newly industrialized countries o age  developed countries have aging populations that decrease economic dynamic (ratio of workers and retirees)  affects economic growth (proportionally fewer works, consumerist youth), health care (rising medical costs), military strength  youth are concentrated in Muslim countries with poor education and employment opportunities  results in poverty, social tension, ideological radicalization o urbanization  can be destabilizing  lower per capita incomes  cyclical employment, inadequate policing, limited sanitation and education o effected labor strife, periodic violence, revolutions o defusing the “bomb”  government regulation and reform  retirees retire in developing countries  alliances between First World (pioneers) and Second World (drivers) to reach out to Third World  NATO  Malthus o We need food and we will always reproduce o Population is kept in check  Population grows geometrically  Subsistence grows arithmetically o Hunter and gatherers have gender inequality and tougher more savage societies and lives o In order to have agriculture in more places, migrate the poor to places and subsidize land so they can work it.  Engels o Malthus is wrong o There will always be poverty o “we have to recognize that the earth was already overpopulated when only one man existed” o Poor should starve to death o Science increases as fast as the population  Hardin o Issue: acquisition of energy and dissipation of energy o Tragedy of the commons: adding one more unit has what utility  Positive: a function of the increment of one animal, nearly +!  Negative: a function of the usage of resources to add the one unit, a fraction of -1 o freedom to breed is intolerable (if overbreeding had a consequence then there’d be no need to publically control it) o coercion rather than prohibition o rejection of reforms:  status quo is perfect  imperfect proposed reform worse than no action? then wait for perfect proposal  James o Population growth is up but growth rate is down o Adverse sex ratio in India, China  Stone o due to wealth and middle class ambitions, fertility was already dropping before the one child policy in China  Qing o one child policy was a way for the communist party to control its people o women should have a right to control their bodies o you can have another only if one or both parents are only child or if it’s a girl with a deficiency  Perez and Hirschmann o race definitions have changed over time o the tendency to report as mixed race varies o identities have become so complex that the rate of return of reports is decreasing o race began to be recorded during civil war and antebellum period o race was classified by observation for awhile o census history (as discussed in class) o ancestry  people share more ancestry than they think o one drop policy: if even partly black, the race is black o value of ancestry has dropped significantly among whites and blacks  Putman o social capital o diversity increase >> constrict theory  not conflict or contact  vaupel o gender affects how people report and seek treatment o disability, ability of life o healthy, unhealthy, dead o life expectancy increasing o older people have inexact records o geriatrics have become more popular  Lamptey o hiv and aids influenced by  sex workers, war, stigma o more women get aids/hiv than men due to biological reception methods differences o sick people need more medicine and calories  developed countries have better health care availability and access so they have lower rates o no cure, no vaccine o in undeveloped countries: girls become sex workers or enter into relationships with older men o health workers are in danger o orphan correlation o issues to deal with: patient psychology, drug tolerance o improved drugs o research is blocked by the absence of a test animal  Pollard o things that differ by races and ethnicity  life expectancy  certain diseases are more common in certain races  telomerase differences in races  health and lifestyle behaviors  stress due to economics  probability/accuracy of reporting  end of life medical spending, legal involvement depends on race and religiosity o diversity among the elderly is increasing o Alzheimer’s directly related to education levels  so we need to improve edu policy  Tavernise o white people with low edu have dropping life expectancy o drugs, life style, obesity  Lowrey o poor people have shorter life expectancy  affects SS calculations o the gap between classes have policy implications o more stress equals more cortisol, shortening lives  Boling o France vs. Japan o japan works harder o France has more social welfare o cultural, ideal, social changes  Shorto o Europe: fertility is declining o east Europe: social problems, ex communist  germany and austria : change in attitude o childlessness is a new ideal o young people stay with their parents longer o late start to childbearing o working moms are having more kids than stay at home moms o south vs. north Europe: more social welfare in the north, childcare availability o why is US okay?  workplace is more flexible allowing women to exit and enter as necessary for children o traditional mindset (mothers shouldn’t work) but with increased modern pressure for women to work (everywhere else, Italy, korea, japan)  feminism is the new natalism: moms can work  Jones o abortion rates influenced by  location: Midwest has fewer abortion options  clinics, physician offices, hospitals  number of clinics (if one is removed then it can make a bigger difference in areas that had few to start out with)  some women go out of state to get abortions  different types of abortion procedures have different popularity  some take place over a period of time and require multiple visits  laws requiring multiple visits and consultations discourage abortion rates  efficacy of contraception and availability of it  Tavernise o more women are getting sterilized (second most popular option after pills)  BC benefits o services covered without copayment  barrier methods (diaphragms, sponges)  hormonal methods (BC pills, vaginal rings)  implanted devices (intrauterine devices, IUDs)  emergency devices (plan B, ella)  sterilization procedures  patient edu, counseling o plans aren’t required for coverage of abortion drugs or male services


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