Biology 120 Genetics Exam Study Guide
Biology 120 Genetics Exam Study Guide BIOL120
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Delaluz on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL120 at Towson University taught by Dr.Partain in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Principals of biology in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
BIOL 120 Principles of Biology Dr Partain Week 3 Notes 2 19 226 GENETICS Heirarchv of Genetic Information I Traits an inherited characteristic controlled by genes found on DNA 0 Chromosomes structural unit containing part or all of an organisms genome consisting of DNA and its associated protein 0 Pairs homologous pairs I in sexually reproducing organisms one of the pair is inherited from dad one from mom 0 Karyotype A pictorial arrangement of a fall set of an organism s chromosomes I Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes amp 1 pair of seX chromosomes 0 Chromatids I of the 2 identical strands of chromatin 0R 12 of a replicated chromosome 0 Genes segment of a chromosome that carries specific information about a trait 0 They are instructions carried by DNA contain info about body needs 0 These instructions are for building all of the proteins that the cells require 0 Sometimes genes carry mutations that cause disease or changes in traits I Genome The entire suite of genes present in an organism 0 Complete set of instructions about how to make cells their components amp their component s components Each cell in your body has this DNA DeOXVribonucleic Acidamp Its Structure 0 The information molecule stored in the nucleus of eakaryotic cells and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells I Composed of nucleotides 0 Nucleotides have 3 parts a phosphate a sugar deoxyribose and 1 of 4 bases 0 Adenine A Guanine G Thymine T Cytosine C O Complementary Base Pairs I specific pattern of the bases that connect the two strands of DNA mm WW I A always bonds across from T I C always bonds across from G I I If only 1 strand of DNA is known other can be deciphered GUM mm 0 EX one side I ATCGGCA O Other side I TAGCCGT E39Igaquot pl39clspquotan sackbcne O SugarPhosphate Backbone I Connected end to end to form a structure that is like the hand rail of the spiral staircase supports and gives shape to DNA molecule Chromosome A long single molecule of DNA and associated proteins 0 Housed in nucleus can carry hundreds of genes along its length 0 Each cell has a complete set of chromosomes all genes are present M molecule of heredity that stores info required for making all of the proteins required in a cell 0 Manages info stores info duplicates info transfers and decodes info M information carrying molecule composed of nucleotides PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 2 Step Process 0 Transcription copying of DNA gene into RNA 39 DNA polymer Of HUClCOtldCS two complementary strands 0 Translation RNA is translated into a protein polymer of amino acids enzyme is made I RNA polymer of nucleotides single strand I Decodes the copied RNA sequences produces the protein for which it codes I DNA one side ITAGCAG I DNA other side IATCGTC 39 RNA Translation DAUCGUC RNA does not have T it has U MEITOSIS 0 Happens in Somatic Cells body cells 0 Mitosis happens everywhere but seX cells I For growth and repair makes identical copies Happens in Germ Cells seX cells 0 Meiosis I To make gametes eggssperm I Makes aniqae cells I 12 chromosomes I one of each type of chromosome OVERVIEW OF CELL DIVISION Interphase I Mitosis I Cytokinesis CELL CYCLE Interphase Protein synthesis happens contemplates cell suicide 0 DNA is copied replication I Chromosomes are ancondensed unduplicated at this stage Mitosis Chromosomes are condensed duplicated now X shape 0 DNA is split equally into two halves of the chromosome 0 Moving to opposite sides of the cell 0 Cytokinesis Parent cell is divided in half into two daughter cells PROTEIN SYNTHESIS VS DNA REPLICATION 0 SIMILARITES A DNA unzips and unwinds B Free nucleotides are matched C Takes place during Interphase 0 DIFFERENCES A Protein Synthesis starts in the nucleus continues in Ribsomones B DNA Replication all takes place in the nucleus C Protein Synth is a 2 step process DNA rep is not CANCER A g Part Failure in the Cell CVcle 0 When the cell is unable to repair DNA stop growth or commit suicide 0 Benign tumor not mutated just a mass of cells not aggressive O Formed if cell division is over stimulated 0 Malignant tumor mutation occurs if cell unable to correct it or commit suicide 0 Problem with tumor suppressor gene I mutated cell will keep going metastasis invading surrounding tissue I become malignant cancerous Detecting Cancer 0 Risk factors chemical sun eXposure nutrition amp health age 0 Genetic testing looking for mutations 0 Detecting chemicals in the blood secreted by cancer cells 0 Biopsy take a portion of tumor and examine the cells Treating Cancer 0 Chemotherapy highly toxic chemicals that will kill cells 0 Radiation Therapy high energy radiation pointed at tumor cells will destroy DNA therefore destroying the cell What is the Mode 0 Sexual Reproduction Two unique individuals contribute half of their own DNA toward creating a new individual 0 New individual has its own unique set of DNA 0 ADVANTAGES I A lot of genetic diversity fewer mutations fights disease 0 DISADVANTAGES I Social behavior increases risk of spreading disease I Physically demandingtime consuming raising young I Requires time at the cellular level I Time amp energy devoted to finding the right mate I Only some can reproduce 0 Asexual Reproduction A single individual gives rise to identical offspring O Passing along an exact copy of instructions to an individual No new combos of DNA produced except through random mutation O ADVANTAGES I Guarantees passing along genes to one s offspring I No care for young required I Easier to carry outmore efficient faster rate I All can reproduce more offspring can be made 0 DISADVANTAGES I No genetic diversity produced a lot of mutations I Maybe increased susceptibility to diseasesenvironment change 0 How Many Chromosomes are In Our Gametes Germ Cells gametes egg and sperm in humans 23 chromosomes one from each of the pairs Somatic cells every other cell in the body in humans 23 pairs or 46 How Are Gametes Made 0 Diploid stem cells undergo Meiosis and become haploid cells 0 Diploid having a full set of chromosomes one from each parent IN humans that means 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 O Haploid having half the of chromosomes one form pair for a total of 23 in eggs and sperm Meiosis 0 process where chromosomes number is reduced in half to produce the gametes 0 Chromosomes match up as homologous pair 1 from mom and 1 from dad 0 They trade genestwo sets pulled to opposite ends of the cell turned them into haploid cellsthese cells then become sperm or egg Diversitv Arises From Sexual Reproduction amp Random Fertilization Alleles from 2 parents Genetic Recombination 0 Independent Assortment I Homologous pairs one from mom amp one from dad are situated at the metaphase state The homolog s orientation is random 0 Crossing Over I Gene for gene exchange of genetic info between members of a homologous pair of chromosomes occurs during meiosis I it is believed to occur several times on each homologous pair Formation of Twins 0 Identical 1 sperm fertilizes 1 egg it splits the genetics are identical 0 Fraternal 2 eggs fertilized by different sperm Modern Genetics H E Gregor Mendel Father of genetics published work on peas in 1865 0 Law of Segregation from meiosis I Each organism has 2 hereditary units for each trait during gamete formation I These units segregate from each other and pass on to different gametes Each gamete receives only one copy allele 0 Law of Independent Assortment from meiosis I I In the formation of gametes the distribution of hereditary unites for one trait is independent of the distribution of hereditary units for the other unit I Different traits are inherited independently of each other Mendelian Inheritance Terms Genotype genetic composition of an individual Phenotype physical traits Allele alternate versions of the same gene 0 The effect of and individual s genotype on her phenotype depends on the nature of the alleles she carries Dominant when one allele completely covers up the other allele for a gene Recessive when one allele is completely covered up by the other allele in a gene Homozygous genotype where the alleles are the same Heterozygous genotype where the alleles are different 0 Heterozygous genotype carries the gene but does not have it themselves EX BALDNESS GENOTYPE Bb not bald but carries gene Punnett Square P p PP Pp Homozygous Heterozygous Dominant O Pp pp Heterozygous Homozygous Recessive Extension of Mendelian Genetics 5 Environmental effects 6 Lethal effects Incomplete Dominance Co dominance 7 Continuous Variation 8 One Gene has multiple effects Sex linked traits Multiple alleles Incomplete Dominance 0 If a heterozygous genotype is present then the phenotype is intermediate 0 Aa genotype shows a mixture for phenotype Hair curl I A straight 0 AA straight hair 0 a curly Aa wavy hair aa curly hair 2 Codominance 0 If a heterozygous genotype is present both phenotypes eXist side by side 0 Both alleles are fully seen in the phenotype 0 Sickle cell hemoglobin N normal 8 sickle O NN all normal SS all sickle NS half normal half sickle 3 SexLinked Traits 0 Genes on the seX chromosomes usually on the X but can be on the Y The X chromosome is much larger than Y which carries little genetic info 0 Males more likely to suffer from diseases caused by recessive alleles on X chromosome they only have 1 copy of X linked gene 0 Ex red green colorblindness C normal Q color blind Xc Xg XC c Xc Xc X9 Iormal girl Carrier girl lPunnett Square Y c Y X9 Y Jormal boy Colorblind boy 4 Multiple Alleles Have more than two possibilities for alleles ABO blood types Both multiple alleles IA IB and i and co dominance IA and IB are co dominant O is genotype recessive ii Environmental Effects 0 Malnutrition and height temperaturealtitude and plant growth 0 Environment determines the phenotypic pattern of eXpression Lethal Alleles 0 A mutated allele that fails to code for the production of a functional protein that is vital for life 0 The combination of two lethal alleles usually recessive cause death Continuous Variation 0 Several genes working together producing many phenotypes for that trait One Gene Multiple effects 0 1 gene can cause several different problems sickle cell disease Mutations through N onDisjunction 0 PROBLEMS chromosome number NonDisjunction O Improper separation of chromosomes during cell division I Somatic mitosis only affects individual I Germ meiosis affects offspring o Autosomal Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome 0 Sex Chromosomes XO missing 2 sex chromosome I XXX one extra X YO lethal missing X I XXY one extra X male XYY one extra Y I Mutations affect protein synthesis 0 A protein specified by a mutated gene may have harmful neutral or beneficial effects on the ability of an individual to function in the prevailing environment Form amp Function I Chromosomes need to have a specific shapecarry the correct genes 0 Problems with chromosome structure 1 Deletion missing a gene 2 Inversion upside down gene 3 Duplication extra gene 4 Translocation traded gene w other chromosome Studying Human Genetics 0 Due to difficulty long lifecycle gestation amp low number of offspring amp ethical issues geneticists use records such as family tree amp pedigree Topics in Biotechnology 0 How can we use our knowledge of DNA and heredity tour advantage and to improve our lifestyles and overcome disease Modified Foods 0 Increasing food nutritional value preventing spoiling 0 Preventing frost damage prevent plant diseases Helping Humans 0 Insulin used to help diabetics 0 BHG protein blood clothing factor 0 Fertility hormones hormones used in fertility treatments to stimulate ovulation 0 Human growth hormone some vaccines 0 Breeding sterile vectors such as mosquitoes Issues with Modified foods amp Therapeutics 0 Allergies diseases resistance 0 Transgenic organisms breeding with native species 0 Decreasing variation within a species I Unexpected side effects Genetic Engineering GMOS 0 Recombinant Growth Hormones 0 Foods containing GMOS have been on the market since the 1990s 0 Its involved in more than 23 of foods sold in the US 0 The new organism that s formed is called a Transgenic Organism or GMO O Genetically Modified Organism using Recombinant T echnology inserting genes from one type of organism into another Gene Therapy 0 Insert a normal gene into the appropriate cells of an individual affected with a genetic disease thereby permanently correcting the disorder 0 A retrovirus virus rendered harmless is used as a vector 0 It eXploits the ability of the virus to insert DNA into the chromosomal DNA of its host cell Cloning 0 Produces one or more organisms genetically identical to the parent that donated the single cell 0 First attempted over 50 years ago 0 Current interest in organismal cloning comes from its potential to generate stem cells 0 Problems with animal cloning O Prone to illness amp premature death Reduced genetic variation 90 failure rate lifespan greatly reduced many anomalies in clones high fatality rate in neonatal state contamination of cell lines makes them unsubtle OOOOOO Stem Cells 0 Class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiated into specialized cell types 0 2 main sources 0 Embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development embryonic stem cells 0 Adult tissue adult stem cells 0 Both types of generally characterized by their potency or potential to differentiate into different cell types skin muscle bone etc Bioethics 0 Discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation 0 Set or moral principles a theory or system of moral values 0 Principles of conduct governing an individual or a group a guiding philosophy a consciousness or moral importance 0 Set of moral issues or aspects rightness
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