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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krista Lindenberg on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to soc 2083 at Arkansas Tech University taught by dr. huss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see history of social theory in Sociology at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Short answers List and describe o Three components of looking glass self A social theory of the self: The idea that we form our sense of ourselves by using others, their reactions to us, as mirrors to asses who we are and how we are doing. We imagine how we must appear to others. We imagine the judgement of that appearance. We develop our self through the judgements of others. o Four seeds of destruction Demands for labor saving machinery/technological innovation. Monopolies are inevitable (can hedge markets). Control of state by the wealthy. Lack of central planning leading to boom/bust cycles. Wealthy get richer, no matter what cycle. o Mechanical vs. organic solidarity In mechanical solidarity social cohesion and integration comes from the homogeneity of individuals: People feel connected through similar work, educational and religious training, and lifestyle, which is often based on the kinship ties of familial networks. In Durkheimian theory, this is the idea that primitive society is held together by the fact there is little division of labor and, as a result, virtually everyone does essentially the same things. Organic solidarity is social cohesion based upon the dependence individuals have on each other in more advanced societies. It comes from the interdependence that arises from specialization of work and the complementarities between people. To Durkheim, this is the idea that because of the substantial division of labor in modern society, solidarity comes from differences; that is, people need the contributions of an increasing number of people in order to function and even to survive. The two types of solidarity can be distinguished by morphological and demographic features, type of norms in existence, and the intensity and content of the conscience collective. (Read below for more details; not necessary) In sociology, "mechanical solidarity" and "organic solidarity" refer to the concepts of solidarity as developed by Émile Durkheim. They are used in the context of differentiating between mechanical and organic societies. According to Durkheim, the types of social solidarity correlate with types of society. Durkheim introduced the terms "mechanical" and "organic solidarity" as part of his theory of the development of societies in The Division of Labour in Society (1893). In a society exhibiting mechanical solidarity, its cohesion and integration comes from the homogeneity of individuals—people feel connected through similar work, educational and religious training, and lifestyle. Mechanical solidarity normally operates in  "traditional" and small scale societies. In simpler societies (e.g., tribal), solidarity is usually based on kinship ties of familial networks. Organic solidarity comes from the interdependence that arises from specialization of work and the complementarities between people—a development which occurs in "modern" and "industrial" societies. Definition: it is social cohesion based upon the dependence individuals have on each other in more advanced societies. Although individuals perform different tasks and often have different values and interests, the order and very solidarity of society depends on their reliance on each other to perform their specified tasks. Organic here is referring to the interdependence of the component parts. Thus, social solidarity is maintained in more complex societies through the interdependence of its component parts (e.g., farmers produce the food to feed the factory workers who produce the tractors that allow the farmer to produce the food). The two types of solidarity can be distinguished by morphological and demographic features, type of norms in existence, and the intensity and content of the conscience collective. Feature Mechanical solidarity Organic solidarity Based on resemblances Based on division of labor Morphologica (predominant in less advanced (predominately in more l (structural) societies) advanced societies) Segmental type (first clan- Organized type (fusion of basis based, later territorial) markets and growth of cities) Little interdependence (social Much interdependency (social bonds relatively weak) bonds relatively strong) Relatively low volume of Relatively high volume of population population Relatively low material and Relatively high material and moral density moral density Rules with repressive sanctions Rules with restitutive sanctions Prevalence of penal law Prevalence of cooperative law Types of norms (civil, commercial, procedural, administrative and (typified by constitutional law) law) High volume Low volume High intensity Low intensity Formal features of High determinateness Low determinateness conscience Collective authority absolute More room for individual initiative and reflection collective Highly religious Increasingly secular Content of Transcendental (superior to Human-orientated (concerned conscience human interests and beyond with human interests and open discussion) to discussion) collective Attaching supreme value to Attaching supreme value to society and interests of society individual dignity, equality of as a whole opportunity, work ethic and Concrete and specific social justice Abstract and general Short Essays Define stock knowledge, epoché, bracketing, and cultural capital and explain how they relate to one another. o Everyday life is interpreted through a stock of knowledge (meanings, categories, constructs). Stocks of knowledge are the cultural information that is available to any group. They are “what everybody knows” and thus aid in the takenfor grantedness of cultural reality. The world toward which we become intentional is an already existing ordered lifeworld. Stocks of knowledge are socially produced and impose an order on the universe and human experience within it. These stocks of knowledge are available to every one of us and are minimally modified as individuals encounter problems or differences that their stocks of knowledge do not cover. Pragmatically sufficing generates a takenforgrantedness about and continuity for social meaning, thus making it appear real and objective. Stocks of knowledge are further ordered through social differentiation and individual structures of relevance. o The term cultural capital refers to nonfinancial social assets that promote social mobility beyond economic means. Examples can include education, intellect, and style of speech, dress, or physical appearance. Your experience with life will be directly reflected in this. o Edmund Husserl argued to suspend belief in human world (lifeworld) and focus only on pure consciousness (epoché; bracketing). To think like Husserl is to focus on the problem of meaning. Meaning always implies a difference between objects and experiences on one hand, and the meaning attributed to them on the other. In order to understand how people cope with the problem of meaning, Schutz concentrates his work on the natural attitude in the lifeworld o Epoché is an ancient Greek term which, in its philosophical usage, describes the theoretical moment where all judgments about the existence of the external world, and consequently all action in the world, are suspended. o Bracketing involves setting aside the question of the real existence of a contemplated object, as well as all other questions about the object's physical or objective nature; these questions are left to the natural sciences. Bracketing may also be understood in terms of the phenomenological activity it is supposed to make possible: the "unpacking" of phenomena, or, in other words, systematically peeling away their symbolic meanings like layers of an onion until only the thing itself as meant and experienced remains. Thus, one's subjective intending of the bracketed phenomenon is examined and analyzed in phenomenological purity. o In phenomenological research epoché is described as a process involved in blocking biases and assumptions in order to explain a phenomenon in terms of its own inherent system of meaning. One actual technique is known as bracketing. This involves systematic steps to "set aside" various assumptions and beliefs about a phenomenon in order to examine how the phenomenon presents itself in the world of the participant Explain Weber’s three types of authority. o Traditional Based on a system in which authority is legitimate because it "has always existed". People in power usually enjoy it because they have inherited it. Officials consist either of personal retainers (in a patrimonial regime) or of personal loyal allies, such as vassals or tributary lords (in a feudal regime). Their prerogatives are usually similar to those of the ruler above them, just reduced in scale, and they too are often selected based on inheritance. o LegalRational Based on a system of rules that is applied administratively and judicially in accordance with known principles. The persons who administer those rules are appointed or elected by legal procedures. Superiors are also subject to rules that limit their powers, separate their private lives from official duties and require written documentation o Charismatic Based on the charisma of the leader, who shows that he possesses the right to lead by virtue of magical powers, prophecies, heroism, etc. His followers respect his right to lead because of his unique qualities (his charisma), not because of any tradition or legal rules. Officials consist of those who have shown personal devotion to the ruler, and of those who possess their own charisma Describe dramaturgy and explain the front stage, backstage, and offstage. Give an example. o Dramaturgy is a view of social life as a series of dramatic performances akin to those that take place in the theater. To Goffman, the self is not a possession of the actor but rather the product of the dramatic interaction between actor and audience. o Following the theatrical analogy, Goffman spoke of a front stage, that part of the performance that generally functions in rather fixed and general ways to define the situation for those who observe the performance. For example, a surgeon generally performs in an operating room, carrying a personal front, items of expressive equipment that the audience identifies with the performers and expects them to carry into the setting, such as a lab coat and gloves. The surgeon will have an appearance and manner that should remain relatively consistent. o Goffman also described a back stage, where facts suppressed in the front stage or various kinds of informal actions may appear. A back stage is usually adjacent to the front stage, but it is also cut off from it. Performers can reliably expect no members of their front audience to appear in the back. The doctor’s lounge is the back stage relative to the office where physicians interact with patients. Safely in the back stage lounge, doctors can say things about their patients, their expertise, or their performance that they would never say to patients in the front stage. o A third, residual domain is the outside, which is neither front nor back. For example, a brother is (usually) outside, relative to the doctor’s office and lounge. However, it is possible that a brother could become a backstage if it is visited by doctors or patients who then bend the ear of the hooker by complaining about each other. o No area is always one of these three domains. Also, a given area can occupy all three domains at different times. A professors office is front stage when a student visits, back stage when the student leaves, and outside when the professor is at a university basketball game.
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