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Study Guide

by: Krista Lindenberg

Study Guide soc 2083

Krista Lindenberg
Arkansas Tech University
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

This study guide covers the short answers and essays expected to be on the test, including extra details and charts.
history of social theory
dr. huss
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krista Lindenberg on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to soc 2083 at Arkansas Tech University taught by dr. huss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see history of social theory in Sociology at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 03/08/16
Short answers  List and describe o Three components of looking glass self  A social theory of the self: The idea that we form our sense of ourselves  by using others, their reactions to us, as mirrors to asses who we are and  how we are doing.  We imagine how we must appear to others.  We imagine the judgement of that appearance.  We develop our self through the judgements of others. o Four seeds of destruction  Demands for labor saving machinery/technological innovation.  Monopolies are inevitable (can hedge markets).  Control of state by the wealthy.  Lack of central planning leading to boom/bust cycles.  Wealthy get richer,  no matter what cycle. o Mechanical vs. organic solidarity  In mechanical solidarity social cohesion and integration comes from the  homogeneity of individuals: People feel connected through similar work,  educational and religious training, and lifestyle, which is often based on  the kinship ties of familial networks.  In Durkheimian theory, this is the  idea that primitive society is held together by the fact there is little  division of labor and, as a result, virtually everyone does essentially the  same things.  Organic solidarity is social cohesion based upon the dependence  individuals have on each other in more advanced societies. It comes from  the interdependence that arises from specialization of work and the  complementarities between people.  To Durkheim, this is the idea that  because of the substantial division of labor in modern society, solidarity  comes from differences; that is, people need the contributions of an  increasing number of people in order to function and even to survive.  The two types of solidarity can be distinguished by morphological and  demographic features, type of norms in existence, and the intensity and  content of the conscience collective.  (Read below for more details; not necessary)  In sociology, "mechanical solidarity" and "organic solidarity" refer to  the concepts of solidarity as developed by Émile Durkheim. They are used in the context of differentiating between mechanical and organic  societies.  According to Durkheim, the types of social solidarity correlate with types  of society. Durkheim introduced the terms "mechanical" and "organic  solidarity" as part of his theory of the development of societies in The  Division of Labour in Society (1893). In a society exhibiting mechanical  solidarity, its cohesion and integration comes from the homogeneity of  individuals—people feel connected through similar work, educational and  religious training, and lifestyle. Mechanical solidarity normally operates in [1] "traditional" and small scale societies.  In simpler societies (e.g., tribal),  solidarity is usually based on kinship ties of familial networks. Organic  solidarity comes from the interdependence that arises from specialization  of work and the complementarities between people—a development which occurs in "modern" and "industrial" societies. Definition: it is social  cohesion based upon the dependence individuals have on each other in  more advanced societies. Although individuals perform different tasks and often have different values and interests, the order and very solidarity of  society depends on their reliance on each other to perform their specified  tasks. Organic here is referring to the interdependence of the component  parts. Thus, social solidarity is maintained in more complex societies  through the interdependence of its component parts (e.g., farmers produce  the food to feed the factory workers who produce the tractors that allow  the farmer to produce the food).  The two types of solidarity can be distinguished  by morphological and demographic features, type of norms in existence,  and the intensity and content of the conscience collective.  Feature Mechanical solidarity Organic solidarity Based on resemblances Based on division of labor Morphologica (predominant in less advanced (predominately in more l (structural) societies) advanced societies) Segmental type (first clan- Organized type (fusion of basis based, later territorial) markets and growth of cities) Little interdependence (social Much interdependency (social bonds relatively weak) bonds relatively strong) Relatively low volume of Relatively high volume of population population Relatively low material and Relatively high material and moral density moral density Rules with repressive sanctions Rules with restitutive sanctions Prevalence of penal law Prevalence of cooperative law Types of norms (civil, commercial, procedural, administrative and (typified by constitutional law) law) High volume Low volume High intensity Low intensity Formal features of High determinateness Low determinateness conscience Collective authority absolute More room for individual initiative and reflection collective Highly religious Increasingly secular Content of Transcendental (superior to Human-orientated (concerned conscience human interests and beyond with human interests and open discussion) to discussion) collective Attaching supreme value to Attaching supreme value to society and interests of society individual dignity, equality of as a whole opportunity, work ethic and Concrete and specific social justice Abstract and general Short Essays  Define stock knowledge, epoché, bracketing, and cultural capital and explain how they  relate to one another. o Everyday life is interpreted through a stock of knowledge (meanings, categories,  constructs). Stocks of knowledge are the cultural information that is available to  any group. They are “what everybody knows” and thus aid in the taken­for­ grantedness of cultural reality.  The world toward which we become intentional is  an already existing ordered lifeworld.  Stocks of knowledge are socially produced  and impose an order on the universe and human experience within it.  These  stocks of knowledge are available to every one of us and are minimally modified  as individuals encounter problems or differences that their stocks of knowledge  do not cover.  Pragmatically sufficing generates a taken­for­grantedness about and continuity for social meaning, thus making it appear real and objective.  Stocks of  knowledge are further ordered through social differentiation and individual  structures of relevance.   o The term cultural capital refers to non­financial social assets that promote social  mobility beyond economic means. Examples can include education, intellect, and  style of speech, dress, or physical appearance.  Your experience with life will be  directly reflected in this. o Edmund Husserl argued to suspend belief in human world (lifeworld) and focus  only on pure consciousness (epoché; bracketing).  To think like Husserl is to  focus on the problem of meaning.  Meaning always implies a difference between  objects and experiences on one hand, and the meaning attributed to them on the  other.  In order to understand how people cope with the problem of meaning,  Schutz concentrates his work on the natural attitude in the lifeworld o Epoché is an ancient Greek term which, in its philosophical usage, describes the  theoretical moment where all judgments about the existence of the external world, and consequently all action in the world, are suspended. o Bracketing involves setting aside the question of the real existence of a  contemplated object, as well as all other questions about the object's physical or  objective nature; these questions are left to the natural sciences.  Bracketing may  also be understood in terms of the phenomenological activity it is supposed to  make possible: the "unpacking" of phenomena, or, in other words, systematically  peeling away their symbolic meanings like layers of an onion until only the thing  itself as meant and experienced remains. Thus, one's subjective intending of the  bracketed phenomenon is examined and analyzed in phenomenological purity. o In phenomenological research epoché is described as a process involved in  blocking biases and assumptions in order to explain a phenomenon in terms of its  own inherent system of meaning. One actual technique is known as bracketing.  This involves systematic steps to "set aside" various assumptions and beliefs  about a phenomenon in order to examine how the phenomenon presents itself in  the world of the participant  Explain Weber’s three types of authority. o Traditional  Based on a system in which authority is legitimate because it "has always  existed". People in power usually enjoy it because they have inherited it.  Officials consist either of personal retainers (in a patrimonial regime) or of personal loyal allies, such as vassals or tributary lords (in a feudal regime). Their prerogatives are usually similar to those of the ruler above them, just reduced in scale, and they too are often selected based on inheritance. o Legal­Rational  Based on a system of rules that is applied administratively and judicially  in accordance with known principles. The persons who administer those  rules are appointed or elected by legal procedures. Superiors are also  subject to rules that limit their powers, separate their private lives from  official duties and require written documentation o Charismatic  Based on the charisma of the leader, who shows that he possesses the right to lead by virtue of magical powers, prophecies, heroism, etc. His  followers respect his right to lead because of his unique qualities (his  charisma), not because of any tradition or legal rules. Officials consist of  those who have shown personal devotion to the ruler, and of those who  possess their own charisma  Describe dramaturgy and explain the front stage, backstage, and offstage.  Give an  example. o Dramaturgy is a view of social life as a series of dramatic performances akin to  those that take place in the theater.  To Goffman, the self is not a possession of the actor but rather the product of the dramatic interaction between actor and  audience. o Following the theatrical analogy, Goffman spoke of a front stage, that part of the  performance that generally functions in rather fixed and general ways to define  the situation for those who observe the performance.  For example, a surgeon  generally performs in an operating room, carrying a personal front, items of  expressive equipment that the audience identifies with the performers and expects them to carry into the setting, such as a lab coat and gloves.  The surgeon will  have an appearance and manner that should remain relatively consistent. o Goffman also described a back stage, where facts suppressed in the front stage or  various kinds of informal actions may appear.  A back stage is usually adjacent to  the front stage, but it is also cut off from it.  Performers can reliably expect no  members of their front audience to appear in the back.  The doctor’s lounge is the  back stage relative to the office where physicians interact with patients.  Safely in  the back stage lounge, doctors can say things about their patients, their expertise,  or their performance that they would never say to patients in the front stage. o A third, residual domain is the outside, which is neither front nor back.  For  example, a brother is (usually) outside, relative to the doctor’s office and lounge.   However, it is possible that a brother could become a backstage if it is visited by  doctors or patients who then bend the ear of the hooker by complaining about  each other. o No area is always one of these three domains.  Also, a given area can occupy all  three domains at different times.  A professors office is front stage when a student visits, back stage when the student leaves, and outside when the professor is at a  university basketball game.


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