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Updated exam 3 study guide

by: Madeline Notetaker

Updated exam 3 study guide Biol 2230-001

Madeline Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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This is the updated version of the exam 3 study guide with the information from today's lecture.
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. John Cummings
Study Guide
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madeline Notetaker on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2230-001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John Cummings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 03/08/16
Lymphatic System Identify the lymphatic vessels, and discuss how lymph is transported through these structures. Components of the lymphatic system • Lymphatic vessels o Contain fluid called lymph § Fluid often contains large substances like proteins which are too big to fit in circulation o One way flow toward the heart § Fluid is dumped into interstitial space and lymphatic system moves it back toward heart to be dumped into a vein § The regulation of how much of this fluid returns to the heart affects and maintains blood volume • Lymphatic tissues o Proliferation site for lymphocytes (lymphocytes gather here) o Allows for detection of infection or damage o 2 kinds of lymphatic tissue 1. Diffuse: no tightly packed reticular elements 2. Nodular: reticular fibers are dense and compact, tightly packed, larger stroma, has germinal center in middle of reticular elements • Lymphatic organs (see other lecture objective) • Lymphatic vasculature • Lymphatic capillaries o Entry point into lymphatic system o Formed by loosely overlapping endothelial cells that are anchored by collagen filaments § When pressure is higher in interstitial fluid, opens the entry into the capillary and fluid flows in § “mini valve” system o Lymphatic capillaries are found everywhere in body except= teeth, bones, nervous system o Example of a special lymphatic capillary in the walls of intestines is a lacteal § The Lacteal lymph is called chyle • Has a special name because it is so rich in fats • Lymphatic collecting vessels o Lymphatic capillaries empty into here o 3 thin tunics similar to a vein o Have more valves than veins § Why? Because lymph has lower pressure than blood so needs help • Lymphatic trunks o Drain large areas of the body o Lymphatic collecting vessels empty into here o List the major lymphatic trunks: § subcalvian § jugular § lumbar § intestinal § bronchomediastinal 1 • Lymphatic ducts o Right lymphatic duct: upper arms, thorax, head o Thoracic duct: the rest of the body o Both ducts empty into the junction between the jugular and subclavian veins • Factors assisting lymphatic flow: o Valves o Muscular pump: skeletal muscle contraction pushes fluid when it contracts o Respiratory pump: breathing changes the pressure of thoracic cavity o Arterial pumping: contraction of muscle in artery helps push fluid o Smooth muscle contraction: peristalsis of the thin tunics of lymphatic vessels Differentiate the lymphoid cells. • Lymphocytes o Immunocompetent cells= the ability to interact with markers on a foreign cells o White blood cells, produced by bone marrow o Genetically determined (amount, types) Ø B cells: when come in contact with something foreign, makes plasma that makes antibodies to tag foreign cells for destruction; indirectly kill pathogens because they don’t actually do the killing Ø T cells: directly kill foreign cells • Macrophage o A monocyte that has left a blood vessel o Phagocytic cells o Activates T cells (engulfing the pathogen gives it special receptors so T cells can attack) • Dendrite cells o Phagocytic cell o Activates T cells • Reticular cells o Produce stroma: a reticular fiber network for other lymphoid cells to be in List the lymphoid organs, discuss their functions, identify their histological makeup and compare their modes of action. Organ Description Action Lymph Node Collection of lymph tissues, Lymph (fluid) enters via afferent sinus, hundreds throughout body, dilate to filters through, gets to medulla, exits through allow more things to enter which efferent lymphatic vessels at the hilus (the leads to more filtration indentation in the node) * There are more afferent pathways than efferent, so more fluid is coming than leaving, so flow is slowed down to give more time to filter Spleen Largest lymphatic organ, upper left Blood is delivered by splenic artery, lymph quadrant or body, produces red filtered out by lymphocytes contained in the blood cells in embryo, cleans blood, white pulp, filtered by macrophages in red removes platelets and old blood cells pulp, cleansed fluid returns to splenic vein Thymus Active in embryos and newborns, Secretes thymosin and thymopoietin that diminishes with age, promotes causes T cells to become immunocompetent immunocompetency Tonsils Trap bacteria from air and food Crypts trap bacteria and particles, bacteria 2 Types of Tonsils passes through epithelium into lymphoid Ø Palentine (2): one on each tissue, passing through reticular cells, side of oral cavity, largest lymphoid tissue destroys pathogens, then tonsils memory cells form Ø Lingual (2): on each side of base of tongue Ø Pharyngeal (adenoids) (1): located on pharynx, posterior wall of nasal cavity Ø Tubal (2): surrounding auditory tubes *Palentine and pharyngeal are typically removed in a tonsillectomy Peyer’s patches Isolated clusters of lymphoid n/a follicles, located in distal end of small intestine and near appendix, destroys bacteria and generates memory cells Outline the development of the lymphatic system. • Lymph sacs begin to bud off of the developing veins at 5 week post conception o Jugular lymph sacs are first to form o Sacs also will bud off of the vena cava and iliac veins • These sacs form branching system of lymphatic vessels • Connection of jugular lymph sac with jugular veins become right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct • Lymphoid organs develop from mesodermal mesenchyme that become reticular tissue o Thymus is a lymphoid organ that does not originate from the same place as all the other endocrine organs § Has a endoderm origin § Outgrowth of pharynx § The first lymph organ to appear • Directs the development of other lymphatic organs • Are there lymphocytes in any of the lymph organs before birth? Not in any except the thymus 3 Immune System *** The immune system is a functional system not an organ system*** Differentiate the nonspecific and specific immune pathways. • Specific Immune System o Once non specific fails o Also known as adaptive system o Using specific lymphocytes that are interacting with certain pathogens • Non-Specific Immune System o Attacks anything foreign o Also known as innate immune system o Makes a barrier to prevent things from entry, and kills anything foreign o First barrier is skin and mucus membranes, second barrier is once things are in body Identify the nonspecific defenses, both superficial and internal. Defense Superficial or Description internal? Skin Superficial • Pathogens cannot breach the body if skin is intact • Intact integument keeps out foreign invaders • Dead cells that make up the superficial layers of skin cannot become infected because they have no way of being affected • Skin has acid mantle; it is slightly acidic and this kills pathogens sometimes Mucous Superficial • Linings of cavities and organs contain these to secrete Membrane mucus o This product creates a physical barrier • Can produce enzymes packaged in lysosomes, can be released by saliva or tears. Break down carbohydrate coats • Acts as a “trap” Mast Cells Internal • Have receptor proteins on surface that allow them to interact with pathogens, bind to it, ingests pieces, and breaks it up. o Pseudo-phagocytic • Mostly bind to bacteria • Release histamine NK cells Internal • Special group of lymphocytes • Attack any of our own body cells that are infected • Not phagocytic; kill it by lysing it, secrete chemicals that create holes in the infected cells plasma membrane Antimicrobial Internal • Proteins that attack foreign microorganism by either proteins killing it or interrupting the reproduction cycle Ø Interferon o Secreted by one cell that has become infected to protect the adjacent cells Ø Complement system o More than 20 proteins that are circulating in the blood that become activated when inflammation 4 occurs o Activation of proteins causes destruction of foreign cells Inflammation Internal § Occurs to bring more oxygen, nutrients, and cells to area. § Caused by dilation of the blood vessels § 4 signs o redness- because more blood o swelling- from accumulation of fluid o heat- because blood is warm o pain (nociceptors)- pressure on receptors Phagocytes Internal § Macrophages o Phagocytizes pathogens and then destroyed by T lymphocytes. Sends out cytoplasmic extension that wraps pathogen o Called monocytes when in blood § Neutrophil o Become phagocytic when they encounter a pathogen o First to arrive at site, followed by monocytes § Eosinophil o Phagocytizes parasitic worms; non specific Fever Internal • Systemic response to infection; elevation of body temperature • Activation of inflammatory response, activation of intermediary proteins trigger hypothalamus in the brain to change the set point for basal body temperature, shivering drives body temperature up. MECHANISMS OF EACH DEFENSE 1. Phagocytic Mechanism o Phagocyte recognizes pathogen’s carbohydrate surface markers § Opsonization process that enhances the recognition and destruction of foreign cells when other things (antibodies, complement proteins, etc) are attached to the pathogen o Cytoplasmic extensions adhere to pathogen o Pathogen pulled inside cell in vacuole § Is now called a phagosome o Lysosome binds to lysosome forming phagolysosome o Lysosomal enzymes digest pathogen § Can be aided by respiratory burst (additional enzymes that speed up the process of the digestion of pathogen) o Residual body formed and then expelled 2. Natural killer Mechanism (NK) o NK cells detect infected or cancerous cells through lack of self markers or presence of certain sugars o Activated NK cells release perforins, a cytolytic chemical that is perforating, meaning it pokes holes to destroy cell o Channels appear in target cell and nucleus disintegrates 5 3. Inflammatory Mechanism o Macrophages have toll-like receptors (TLR) on surface that recognize pathogens o TLRs bind to pathogens and trigger release of cytokines § What effects do cytokines have? Cytokines produce inflammation o Other cells in the area release other inflammatory mediatory chemicals o Vessels in injured area dilate and increase permeability o Accumulation/congestion of blood, also known as hyperemia occurs. o Leaking fluid from blood vessels, exudate, accumulates causing swelling/edema § Edema dilutes foreign substances, bring oxygen and nutrients, also carries clotting proteins o Results of inflammation § Injured cells release leukocytosis-inducing factors. These factors promote release of neutrophil from the bone marrow. • Bone marrow starts producing/releasing lots and lots of neutrophils § Loss of fluids slows down blood flow locally • This helps neutrophils accumulate at spot § Endothelial cells produce selectin (adhesion molecules) that adhere to neutrophils and hold them in spot, called margination (binding of selectin with neutrophils) § Neutrophils become activated through this process and escape capillaries through this interaction with selectins § Inflammatory chemicals act as chemotactic agents and attract neutrophils to the site § As monocytes leave circulatory system they become macrophages and acquire greater number of lysosomes 4. Interferon Mechanism o Cells infected by virus release interferons (IFN) o IFNs diffuse to neighboring cells o Stimulate production of PKR proteins o PKR proteins interferes with viral replication by stopping nucleic acids of virus from getting into neighboring healthy cells o IFN also activates macrophages and NK cells 5. Complement System Mechanism I o “Classical pathway”- antibodies activate this system o Antibodies bind to pathogens o Complement proteins (20+) bind to antibody-pathogen complexes o Reactions occur causing lysis, phagocytosis, and inflammation 6. Complement system Mechanism II o “Alternative pathway”- pathogen molecules activate this system o Complement proteins bind to polysaccharide molecules on pathogens o Result in lysis, phagocytosis, and inflammation 7. Fever Mechanism o Leukocytes and macrophages exposed to pathogens secrete pyrogens o Pyrogens cause hypothalamus to raise body temp § Increased body temperature decreases availability of iron and zinc which are req. by bacteria to reproduce 6 Define antigen, and describe how antigens affect the immune system. • Antigen: any substance that provokes an immune response § Must be a foreign cell or our own cell that has been so altered that it is no longer recognized as a “self” cell. List and define the properties possessed by antigens. Antigenic Properties 1. Immunogenicity: a. Activate the production of specific lymphocytes and/or antibodies 2. Reactivity: a. Ability to interact with active lymphocytes and antibodies via markers on cells surface 3. Antigenic determinants: a. The marker on the cell that immunogenic and stimulates the immune response by providing the ability to interact with the immune cells Identify the “self” antigens. Self-antigens are specific to YOUR own body; they are MHC’s, which stands for major histocompatibility complex Differentiate the humoral and cell-mediated specific immune responses. • Humoral/antibody mediated pathway (fluid/liquid) o Pathogens are free floating in the blood or lymph o Involves production of antibodies which are transported throughout the blood o Come in contact with the antigen they “mark” it for destruction, o Do not directly kill the pathogen • Cell-mediated response o Attacks infected body cells § Mutation of MHC markers on the cells o Kills pathogen directly Compare the origin, maturation and action of B and T lymphocytes. Lymphocyte production • All lymphocytes produced by stem cells in red bone marrow • Immature lymphocytes are identical to one another; must differentiate after they are produced • Do not have to be exposed to pathogen for it to produce receptors on surface for pathogen. We already have those from birth Ø Lymphocytes are the cells that function in humoral and cell-mediated specific immune responses o T Lymphocytes become Immunocompetent in the thymus o B Lymphocytes become Immunocompetent in the bone marrow • Immunocompetent cells mature in secondary lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes, etc.) o Primary lymphoid organs thymus and bone marrow o Secondary lymphoid organs (all others) o Called naïve immuncompetent cells until they have come into contact with their specific antigen • Not fully functional until it binds with antigen o This activates lymphocytes 7 Describe the role of antigen presenting cells. • Antigen presenting cells (APCs) o Engulf pathogen and then present fragments of them on their own surfaces • This in turn will activate our immune cells Define antigen challenge. • First encounter between naïve Immunocompetent lymphocyte and antigen o Usually occurs in secondary lymphoid organs Differentiate primary and secondary humoral responses. RESPONSE DESCRIPTION Primary • First encounter with the pathogen • Antigens bind with surface receptors on naïve immunocompetent B lymphocyte (antigen challenge) • Clonal selection occurs; B lymphocytes start to proliferate/clone themselves • Most clones become plasma cells (circulate in plasma) which produce antibodies that can directly bind to and “mark” the specific antigen to be destroyed by non-specific immune system • Some clone cells become memory cells that stay in circulation and hang around • Response lasts about 4-5 days Secondary • Next encounter with the pathogen o Same mechanism as primary immune response o Immune response is faster o Immune response lasts longer o Immune response more efficient (because makes more antibodies with a greater affinity) Compare and contrast active, passive, natural and artificial humoral immunity. Active o Antigens are present in body to stimulate our own body to produce antibodies o Ex: being exposed, infections, getting a cold Passive o Antibodies are produced from some other source other than yourself o Ex: mom passing antibodies through placenta or breast milk Natural o Your own body or another body made the antibodies o Ex: vaccine of an attenuated (partly dead) pathogen; body still makes own antibody Artificial o Needle is involvedà injected with either attenuated pathogen or the antibodies themselves o Injecting antibodies Describe the structure of an antibody • Complex proteins (4 polypeptide chains), 3 dimensional structure give it its binding ability • Heavy Chains o 2 long polypeptide chains • Light chains o 2 short polypeptide chains 8 • Variable region o Area where there are light and heavy chains o Determines what antigen it binds to • Constant region o Within a class of antibodies, the constant region is the same o Between class of antibodies the constant region is different o Determines how the pathogen will be destroyed § Some might activate complement proteins, some might hold the pathogen in place and wait for phagocytic cell • Antigen-binding site o Determined by the variable region   Monomers • IgG o Primary immune responders o Most common antibody in bloodstream o Constant regions binds with complement proteins and allows them to lyse the pathogen/cell they are attached to • IgD o On surface of B cells o Function as receptors • IgE o Bind to mast cells and basophils o Causes production and release of histamine o -results in inflammatory response Dimers • IgA • Has 4 receptors sites • *can bind with 8 different pathogens Pentamers • IgM o Has 10 total receptor sites o First type of antibody secreted during primary response o Causes agglutination to slow pathogen movement and keep them in a *Monoclonal antibodies: commercially produced antibodies Identify the general functions of antibodies. • Antibodies do not destroy pathogen directly 9 • Formation of antigen antibody complex allows for different functions: o Provides site for binding of complement proteins causing lysis o Block sites on the pathogen so that the pathogen can’t infect any other cells in the body § Neutralizing the pathogen o Causes clumping of… § Antigen-containing cells § Soluble antigen molecules § Both enhance phagocytosis Describe the general mechanism of the cell-mediated immune response. Action on body cells that have been altered or infected 1. T cell, lymphocyte, binds with antigen on infected body cell (antigen challenge), activates T Lymphocyte 2. Activated T lymphocyte activate co-stimulatory signals 3. T cell activated and clones are produced 4. Some clones become memory cells List the various types of T cells, and identify the role each plays in imparting immunity. Type of T Cell Role in Immunity 1. CD4 • T4 Cell or helper T cells • Activated by Class II MHC protein- linked antigens o Phagocytic cell engulfed a pathogen and is now presenting parts of the antigen on its surface o Exogenous antigens 2. CD8 • T8 or cytotoxic T cells o It kills the cell it interacts with through lysis • Activated through Class I MHC protein-linked antigens o Endogenous antigens Suppressor T cells • Shuts off activated T cells List specific examples of immune disorders. Immunodeficiency: any condition that causes immune cells to behave abnormally o SCIDS § Genetic reduction in B or T lymphocytes § Congenital immunodeficiency § Antigens aren’t attacked and cause infection § Causes production of enzyme that produces a lethal substance o AIDS § Immune system attacks T lymphocytes § Results in no resistant to infections Autoimmune disorders: immune system attacks its own body cells; loses ability to differentiate between self and non self o Multiple sclerosis § Immune system destroys white matter of brain and reduces neural conduction o Myasthenia gravis § Destroys neuromuscular junction o Grave’s disease § Disease of thyroid gland o Juvenile diabetes 10 § Destruction of pancreatic cells that cause decrease in in insulin production o Lupus § Disease of kidneys, heart and lungs § Butterfly rash on nose and cheeks o Rheumatoid arthritis § Immune cells attacks synovial membranes in the joint § Usually bilateral Hypersensitivities: immune system activated by something not normally immunogenic Type Reaction time Example Acute Immediate Anaphalaxis (systemic vasodilation) Subacute 1-3 hours Blood transfusion reaction Delayed 1-3 days Poison ivy Transplants o Autograft § Tissue from own body o Isograft § From identical twin; pretty much an autograft because same MHC markers o Allsograft § Between 2 people that aren’t identical twins o Xenograft § From another species 11 Respiratory System List and describe the processes of respiration. • Pulmonary respiration: moving of air in and out of body; breathing • External respiration: gas exchange in the lungs, moving oxygen into blood and carbon dioxide out • Gaseous transport: transporting from lungs to tissues; movement • Internal respiration: exchange between blood and tissues Trace the path air must follow from outside the body to the alveoli in the lungs. Nasal passage or mouthà pharynxà larynxà tracheaà bronchià bronchiolesà alveoli Differentiate the conducting and respiratory zones, including the structures and functions of each. Conducting Zone • From nose to terminal bronchioles • Air is carried to respiratory zone • Filtering, cleaning, humidifies, warms air Respiratory Zone • Consists of respiratory bronchioles and alveoli • Actual site of gas exchange Identify the specialized structures involved with the respiratory passageway, and discuss their functions. • NOSE o Only external structure! o Functions § Respiratory functions: • Passageway for air • Warms and moistens air • Filters air using hairs § Other functions: • Resonating chamber • Olfactory receptors • NASAL CAVITITY o Components § External nares: openings to outside § Vestibule: cavity lined with vibrissae § Vibrissae: stiff hair § Internal nares: opening to pharynx § Paranasal sinuses: lighten skull, resonation center o Mucosae § Olfactory mucosa: smell receptors § Respiratory mucosa: • Components: o Pseudostratefied ciliated columnar epithelium (PCCE): contain cilia that sweep particles into throat for coughing o Goblet cells: produce mucus o Mucous glands: produce mucus o Serous glands: secrete enzymes o Defensins: proteins that act like natural antibiotics to kill bacteria • PHARYNX 12 o Nasopharynx: § Connected to nasal cavity § Air passes through § Lining consists of PCCE § Extra components to chamber: § Uvula • When we swallow, the uvula goes up and blocks nasal cavity § Phayngotympanic tubes: connect pharynx to inner ear • Allows maintenance of pressure in the ear o Oropharynx § Connectred to oral cavity § Air and food pass through § Lining consists of stratified squamous epithelial § Fauces=the bend o Laryngopharynx § Air and food pass through § Lining consists of PCCE • LARYNX o Functions: § Provides an open airway when needed through the use of epiglottis § Directs food and air § Produces vibrations that give us our voice • Vocal Structures o Vocal folds: vibrate to give voice, 2 thin membranes o Glottis: hole in middle o Vestibular folds: muscle on outside, changes diameter • TRACHEA o Consists of C shaped rings of cartilage § These rings keep the trachea open o Carina is the last ring of the trachea before the bronchi branches off o Tracheal layers in order from superficial to deep: mucosa, submucosa, adventitia • BRONCHIAL TREE o Primary bronchi (2): one for each lung o Secondary bronchi: go to specific lobe; 3 on right, 2 on left o Tertiary bronchi o Bronchioles: slightly less than 1 mm o Terminal bronchioles: 0.5mm o Respiratory bronchioles: microscopic • LUNGS o Pleural cavities : sac that surrounds each lung § Parietal pleura: lines cavity § Visceral pleura: lines organ § Pleural fluids • Is important to help with expansion of lungs, preventing it from collapsing, keep lungs attached o Cardiac notch: where heart sits in left lung o Lobes: segments of each lung o Alveoli (alveolar sacs): where gas exchange occurs 13 Describe how the structure of the alveoli makes them the ideal respiratory membrane. Structure of the Alveoli Type I cells Single layer of simple squamous epithelial Pulmonary capillaries Surround each alveoli Respiratory membrane What gas has to pass through: 2 layer membrane (of type 1 cells and pulmonary membrane) Type II cells Cuboidal epithelial, secrete surfactant to reduce surface tension Alveolar pores Openings between alveoli to ensure pressure is equal Alveolar macrophages Destroy bacteria and pathogens in air List the factors that can affect pulmonary ventilation, and describe the effect each has. Pulmonary ventilation: moving air into and out of the lungs • Consists of inspiration and expiration • Regulated by: o Pressure- change from high to low o Volume- changing volume changes pressure o Resistance- friction o Surface tension- lower lets things pass through easier o Compliance- stretchiness of lungs Discuss the relationship of pressure and volume to breathing. Boyle’s Law: pressure and volume are inversely related P V 1P 1 2 2 Describe the mechanics of breathing. Breathing: moving air in and out of lungs by changing pressure • Inspiration o Inspiratory muscles contract § Diaphragm lowers § Rib case rises o Thoracic cavity volume increases o Lungs stretched § Intrapulmonary volume increases o Intrapulmonary pressure decreases o Air flows in lungs • Expiration o Inspiratory muscles relax § Diaphragm raises § Rib case lowers o Thoracic cavity volume decreases o Lungs compress § Intrapulmonary volume decreases o Intrapulmonary pressure increases o Air flows out of lungs Explain and compare the various lung volumes and capacities. Include a definition of dead space. • Volumes o Tidal volume: volume that is typically moved with normal breathing o Inspiratory reserve volume: amount of air we can take in excess o Expiratory reserve volume: amount of air you could possibly use 14 o Residual volume: air remaining in lungs; you can never get rid of o Anatomical dead space: air in conducting zone • Capacities o Inspiratory capacity: tidal volume + Inspiratory reserve volume o Functional residual capacity: residual volume + Expiratory reserve volume o Vital capacity: tidal volume + Inspiratory reserve volume + Expiratory reserve volume o Total lung capacity: tidal volume + Inspiratory reserve volume + Expiratory reserve volume + residual volume Nonrespiratory air movements • Change the rhythm of breathing • List them: coughing, sneezing, laughing, yawning, crying, hiccupping Describe how atmospheric and alveolar air differ in composition. Atmospheric Composition • Mostly nitrogen, then oxygen, little carbon dioxide and water Alveolar gas composition • Air is moistened so water increases, carbon dioxide increases, there is a decrease in nitrogen and oxygen Relate Dalton’s and Henry’s laws to the event of external and internal respiration. • Dalton’s Law: pressure of gas mixture is the sum of individual gas pressures • Henry’s Law: when a gas is in contact with a liquid, gas will dissolve in proportion to its partial pressure External Respiration o Oxygen § Alveolar P O2 is 104 mm Hg § Pulmonary capillary P O2 is 40 mm Hg • Oxygen will move from the high pressure in the lungs to the lower pressure in the bloodstream § Oxygen diffuses into blood until equilibrium of 104 mm Hg is reached o Carbon dioxide § Alveolar P CO2 is 40 mm Hg § Pulmonary capillary P CO2 is 45 mm Hg • Higher pressure in capillary so it will move to the lungs § Carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood until equilibrium of 40 mm Hg reached Internal Respiration o Oxygen § Capillary P O2is 104 mm Hg (bloodstream pressure of O that we got in the lungs) § Tissue P O2 is 40 mm Hg § Oxygen diffuses out of blood into the tissues until equilibrium of 40 mm Hg reached o Carbon dioxide § Capillary P CO2 is 40 mm Hg § Tissue P CO2 is 45 mm Hg § Carbon dioxide diffuses into blood and out of the tissues until equilibrium of 45 mm Hg reached *** Amount of oxygen taken into blood equals the amount of carbon dioxide expelled*** Why? Because carbon dioxide is 20X more soluble than oxygen so it moves way easier List and describe the factors that can affect external respiration. 15 Factor Effect Partial pressure Higher pressure, greater exchange Solubility Higher solubility, greater exchange Ventilation- perfusion coupling Ventilation: the amount of air coming in and out of lungs Perfusion: the transfer of gas in and out of blood We want to move blood to areas like the lungs when they have more oxygen to pick up. If decreased oxygen in lungs, wont have as much blood flowing there Membrane surface area Increased surface area, increased exchange Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood. Oxygen transport o 98.5% of oxygen= bound to heme of hemoglobin o 1.5% of oxygen= dissolved in plasma Carbon Dioxide transport o 20% of carbon dioxide= bound to globin of hemoglobin o 7-10% of carbon dioxide= dissolved in plasma o 70% of remaining carbon dioxide= converted to bicarbonate Define the Haldane effect and relate it to carbon dioxide transport. Haldane effect= increased CO2 transport due to low partial pressure of oxygen and low hemoglobin to oxygen saturation o Because there is more room for CO2 to bind Describe the neural controls of respiration, and describe factors that can affect the breathing rate. The normal rate of breathing is referred to as eupnea STEPS: • Inspiratory center in the medulla oblongata is composed of a cluster of neurons called the ventral respiratory group (VRG) o VRG causes inspiration • VRG sends neural signal down phrenic and intercostal nerves • Excites diaphragm and external intercostals • thorax expands • Air rushes into lungs • VRG becomes inhibited • Expiration occurs • Pattern repeats 12-15 times per minute (normal breathing rate) • Another cluster of neurons in the medulla called the dorsal respiratory group (DRG) assists VRG during forced or strenuous breathing • pontine respiratory group (located in the pons) modifies activity of VRG by inhibiting it Breathing: • Rate o Duration of stimulation will change the rate of breaths § The longer the duration, the slower the rate of breathing • Depth o Frequency of stimulation will change the depth of breaths 16 • Both of these can change depending on the need of the body Factors Affecting Breathing: • Irritant reflexes: receptors detect an irritant in gas and nervous signal causes constriction of bronchiole tree § Activation will cause constriction of the respiratory pathway • Hering-Breuer reflex o If we inhale deeply, stretch receptors are activated and inhibit the VRG § This stops muscle contraction and makes us stop inhaling • Hypothalamic controls o Emotional states/ pain can modify the respiratory center • Conscious controls: cerebrum sends signals • Chemical controls: o 3 classes that detect different things: § CO2 § CO2 § pH o Which class is the most important? CO2 levels Compare the causes and consequences of respiratory imbalances. Name Description Chronic obstructive pulmonary Respiratory pathway is obstructed disease (COPD) • Obstructive emphysema Decreased surface area of alveoli; decreased amount of air that can be exchanged Excess mucus- long term inflammation of bronchi in • Chronic bronchitis response to irritants (smog, dust…) Pathways are inflamed and constrict; Difficulty breathing because of the smaller pathway for air to travel Tuberculosis Respiratory bacterial infection from a chemical imbalance; bacteria get in lungs causing fluid filled cysts Lung Cancer Aggressive form of cancer, spreads very quick 17 18


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