BSC216 Exam 2 Study Guide
BSC216 Exam 2 Study Guide 216
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lecture in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
▯ How do releasing, inhibiting and tropic hormones affect the secretion of other hormones Tropic hormones o Hormones that control hormone secretion from other endocrine glands Releasing hormones o Tropic hormones produce and released by hypothalamus that stimulate secretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary Inhibiting hormones o Tropic hormones produce and released by hypothalamus that inhibit secretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary ▯ Describe the stimulus for release, target tissue and functional effect of the hormones released by the posterior and anterior pituitary Posterior pituitary o Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), (vasopressin) Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus stimulate ADH release if blood solute conc. too high Increases aquaporins in kidney tubules Results in increased water retention o Oxytocin Ex: infant suckling in nursing mothers Mammary gland cell contraction Milk let-down reflex Anterior pituitary (5 tropic hormones + growth hormone) o Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Thyroid gland development and Thyroid hormone secretion o Corticotropic releasing hormone (CRH) Adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Adrenal gland development and steroid hormone secretion o Prolactin releasing hormone (PRH) Prolactin (PRL) Mammary gland development and milk production o Gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) Stimulates testes and ovaries to produce testosterone and estrogens respectively Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Binds and concentrates testosterone in males, estrogen production and follicle maturation in females Most pituitary hormones target specific endocrine organs o (Exception: growth hormone) o (Wide spread effects on body tissues) o Ex: induces liver to produce Insulin-like growth factors (IGF I & IGF II) IGF I prolongs the effects of growth hormone Growth hormone half-life~10 min, IGF I~20 hrs. IGF II mostly only involved in fetal growth Describe the gross anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands Thyroid gland o Largest endocrine gland o Two lobes joined by an anterior isthmus o Rich blood supply Parathyroid glands o 3-5 glands embedded in posterior thymus ▯ Describe the cells that produce thyroid hormone and calcitonin Parafollicular cells (produce calcitonin) o Outside of follicle cells o Released when blood calcium level is too high Chief cells (parathyroid hormone) Thyroid follicles containing colloid (thyroid hormone precursor) Secrete thyroxin (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) ▯ Describe the stimulus for release, target tissue and effect of thyroid and parathyroid hormones Thyroid Calcitonin Parathyroid hormones (T3 & hormone T4) Release Thyrotropin Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia stimulus stimulating hormone (TSH) from anterior pituitary Target tissue Nearly all body Osteoclasts in Bone, Kidneys, cells bone Intestines Effect Sets basal Inhibits bone Inhibits bone metabolic rate resorption resorption Promotes growth Increases calcium & development ion absorption in Synergism with kidneys Sympathetic Increases dietary nervous system calcium absorption Describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the cortex and medulla of the adrenal glands Adrenal gland sits on kidney Layers of adrenal gland: adrenal cortex (including capsule) and adrenal medulla o Cortex Capsule Zona glomerulosa Mineralocorticoids Zona fasciculate Glucocorticoids & adrenogenic steroids Zona reticularis Glucocorticoids & adrenogenic steroids Adrenal medulla Neuroendocrine ▯ Describe the stimulus for release, target tissue and effects of the mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex Mineralocorticoids Glucocortocoids (e.g. (e.g. Aldosterone) Cortisol) Release stimulus Elevated blood K+ Adrenocorticotropic Decrease in blood pH hormone Angiotensin II Stress hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone Target tissue Kidney tubules liver, muscle, Adipose tissue (most body cells) Effect Increases Na+ ion Gluconeogenesis in retention directly liver H2O retention Release of amino acids indirectly from muscle tissue Increases K+ and H+ Release of fatty acids ion loss in urine from adipose tissue Regulates blood Anti-inflammatory pressure agent How is the adrenal medulla functionally related to the sympathetic nervous division Stimulated by: acetylcholine released by preganglionic, sympathetic neurons Chromaffin cells: endocrine cells derived from nervous tissue, post ganglionic neurons Secrete: catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) into blood stream Enable: wide spread sympathetic response ▯ Describe the structure of the endocrine pancreas and its hormone secreting cells Covered by Acinar cells Islets of Langerhans contains o Alpha cells (glucagon) o Beta cells (insulin) o Delta cells (somatostatin) ▯ Describe the stimulus for release, target tissue and effects of glucagon and insulin Glucagon Insulin Release stimulus Decrease in blood Adrenocorticotropic glucose hormone Sympathetic stimulation Stress Circulating catecholamines Target tissue Liver, muscle, adipose Liver, cardiac & skeletal tissue muscle & parts of the brain Effect Promotes actions that Stimulates uptake of increase blood glucose lipids, amino acids and levels glucose from blood Synthesis of glycogen in liver Synthesis of adipose tissue from fatty acids Promotes satiety ▯ What are the causes, symptoms and treatments of the two types of diabetes mellitus Hypoglycemia: low blood glucose Hyperglycemia: high blood glucose o Often caused by Diabetes mellitus Type 1: pancreas fails to produce enough insulin Causes: immune system destroys Beta cells Symptoms: constant hunger, glucosuria, polyuria, polydipsia Treatment: insulin injection Type 2: body cells fail to respond to insulin Causes: heredity and/or obesity Symptoms: similar to type 1 Treatment: lifestyle changes, oral hypoglycemic Lymphatic system & immunity What are innate and adaptive immunity? Non-specific (innate response) 1 line: surface barriers skin nd mucous membrane 2 line: cells & proteins of innate response Phagocytic cells Fever NK cells Antimicrobial proteins Inflammation First response (~12 hours) Specific (adaptive response) 3 line: Cells and proteins of adaptive response Humoral immunity (B cells) Cellular immunity (T cells) Response to specific antigens (3-5 days) What role do surface barriers play in immunity? Skin Too dry to support much microbial growth Constant exfoliation Impenetrable Keratin fibers Sweat and sebum provide an acid mantle Mucous membranes Physically ensnares microbes Cilia move respiratory microbes to pharynx swallowed and destroyed by stomach acid MALT Areolar tissue Underlies epithelia Battleground for patrolling immune cells Hyaluronic acid matrix (entraps pathogens) Describe the proteins and cells that make up the immune system? Surface barrier proteins Keratin Tough protein barrier in skin that few pathogens can penetrate Dermicidin Antibacterial peptide found in sweat Defensins & cathelicidins Proteins that destroy bacteria, viruses and fungi secreted by keratinocytes, neutrophils and macrophages Lysozyme Enzyme in mucous, tears and saliva that digests bacterial cell walls nd th 2 and 4 line defense proteins antibodies produced by B lymphocytes compliment system proteins cytokines How do the lymphatic and immune systems work together? B cells, T cells and macrophages often take up residence in lymphoid organs and tissue Lymphoid organs and tissues trap pathogens for the immune system Lymphoid organs activate cells of the immune system Describe the roles of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells in innate immunity Monocytes Transform into macrophages in connective tissues Play multiple roles in immune system First responders, ingest other cells and cellular debris Cytotoxic effects (secrete toxic substances onto cells too large to ingest) Antigen presenting cells Neutrophils Concentrated in connective tissues (blood especially) generally need to be recruited Target bacteria Phagocytosis & digestion Respiratory bursts Detection of bacteria results in discharging lysosome enzymes that form a chemical killing cloud around the neutrophil, kills large numbers of bacteria, but can also damage tissue Eosinophils Concentrated in mucous membranes Target parasites & allergens Tapeworms roundworms killed by producing superoxide hydrogen peroxide neurotoxins Phagocytose antigen/ antibody complexes Basophils Secrete chemicals that aid mobility of other leukocytes Mediate the inflammatory response Leukotrienes: active and attract neutrophils and eosinophils Histamine: vasodilator, increases local blood flow Heparin: prevents clot formation Mast cells are similar in action but non-mobile Lymphocytes (Natural Killer cells) The Granzyme kiss of death NK cells do not recognize antigens Bind to cells that appear irregular, or are bound to antibodies Describe compliment system and its role in immunity Group of ~20 Globulin proteins (synthesized in liver) “compliment” both innate and adaptive immunity Activated from “C” form to smaller protein fragments (e.g. C3 C3a and C3b) in presence of pathogen Activated forms enact their own cascade and enhance other pathogen destruction mechanisms What roles do cytokines play in immunity? Cytokines: proteins produce by several immune cells the enhance the immune response in some way Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) Secreted by activated macrophages Positive feedback loop Attract more phagocytes Increase phagocytic activity Cause release of more cytokines Interferons (INF) Secreted by macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells and lymphocytes Inhibit intracellular pathogens from infecting other cells (e.g. viruses) Interleukins Secreted by various leukocytes Stimulate neutrophil production, stimulate NK cells, activate T cells What is fever? Describe the inflammatory response Local defense response to tissue injury (trauma or infection) Suffix –it is denotes inflammation of specific organs General purposes of inflammation Limits spread of pathogens, then destroy them Removes debris form damaged tissue Initiates tissue repair 3 major inflammatory processes Mobilization of body defenses Local hyperemia Increased local blood flow & increased space between capillary wall cells (hyperemia) Histamines, leukotrienes & other cytokines secreted by basophils and mast cells Hyperemia also washes toxins away faster What arrives in blood Compliment, antibodies & clotting factors Neutrophils Margination: selectin cytokines released by endothelium “trap” neutrophils on endothelium membrane Diapedesis: neutrophils crawl between widened spaces between endothelial cells Chemotaxis: neutrophils travel up concentration gradient of cytokines (leukotrienes and bradykinis) Containment & destruction of pathogens Clotting factors (fibrinogen) clot in tissue fluid adjacent to site of infection (contain bacteria) Heparin within local area prevents clotting Local macrophages activated Neutrophils o Phagocytose bacteria, produce respiratory clouds, attract monocytes and lymphocytes, stimulate red bone marrow to produce more neutrophils (neutrophilia) Tissue clean up and repair Arrival of monocytes/macrophages o 8-12 hrs after injury o engulf and destroy remaining bacteria, cellular debris and dying neutrophils o remains accumulate as pus (either absorbed or accumulates in abscess under dermal layer) how does adaptive immunity differ from innate immunity 2 characteristics distinguish the adaptive from the innate immune response specificity: response is directed against a particular pathogen distinguished by its unique antigens memory: when re-exposed to the same pathogen, the body often reacts so quickly that there is no noticeable illness what are antigens, epitopes, immunogens and haptens antigen: any molecule that is potentially capable of producing antibodies against it epitopes: regions of the antigen that interact with antibodies (i.e. 1 antigen can have more than 1 antibody recognize it because of multiple epitopes) immunogens: antigens that actually elicit antibody production (usually foreign) haptens: too small to combine with antibodies themselves, but when combined with host macro molecules, stimulate a response o e.g. poison ivy, animal dander, cosmetics, detergents o penicillin complex binds to mast cells, causes anaphylactic shock due to massive release of histamine summarize the functions of the cells involved in adaptive immunity antigen presenting cells o major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins all nucleated cells present internal protein fragments on MHC I o dendrites, macrophages, reticulocytes, and B lymphocytes present foreign antigens only on MHC II proteins T lymphocytes o Cytotoxic, helper, regulatory and memory T lymphocytes o Cell mediated immunity o Immunocompetence training in Thymus B lymphocytes o B lymphocytes plasma cells o Plasma cells secrete antibodies o Humoral immunities o Immunocompetence training in bone marrow Describe the roles of the various T cells involved in cell mediated adaptive immunity Cell mediated immunity o A form of adaptive defense where T lymphocytes directly attack and destroy foreign or diseased cells o The immune system “remembers” the specific immunogens and prevents them causing disease in the future o Four classes of T lymphocytes Cytotoxic T (TC) cells (aka Killer T cells, T8, CD8, CD8+) Carry out attacks on enemy cells Helper T (TH) cells (aka T4, CD4, CD4+) Promote T aCd B cell action Involved in innate resistance Regulatory T (T R cells (T-regs) (aka T4, CD4, CD4+) Inhibit multiplication & cytokine secretion by other T cells Important in preventing autoimmune diseases Memory T (T )Mcells (derived from T cClls) Descend from the cytotoxic T cells Responsible for memory in cellular immunity T cells cannot recognize antigens on their own Antigen presenting cells need to “present” them on their surfaces (MHC proteins) o Helper T – MHC II o Cytotoxic T – MHC I o Steps Phagocytosis of antigen Lysosome fuses with phagosome Antigen and enzyme mix in phagolysosome Antigen is degraded Antigen residue is voided by exocytosis Processed antigen fragments (epitopes) displayed on macrophage surface Cellular immunity o Both cellular and humoral immunity occur in 3 stages Recognition (requires immunocompetence) Attack Memory o T cell immunocompetence T cells migrate to Thymus cortex for immunocompetence training Thymus cortex reticular cells secrete cytokines that stimulate T cells to express surface receptors (highly variable due to somatic recombination) Selection Negative o Failure to recognized self antigens or too strong interaction results in elimination Positive o Appropriate recognition of self antigens, migration to medulla and clonal reproduction o T cell activation o o Helper T cells THand T cClls play different roles in cell-mediated immunity THcells are necessary for most immune responses Play a central role in mediating both cellular & humoral immunity THcells recognize MHC II presented antigens only, secrete interleukins in response with 3 effect Attract neutrophils & NK cells Attract macrophages, stimulate their phagocytic activity and prevent them from leaving area Stimulate B & T cell mitosis & maturation o Cytotoxic T cells TCcells are the only T cells that directly attack other cells Recognize MHC I antigens only Foreign antigens trigger cells to secrete Perforins & granzymes Interferons Tumor necrosis factor o Memory T cells Some T cClls become memory cells (T ) afteM activation Long lived clone of particular T cell receptors T cell recall response rapidly recognizes antigen 2 nd time around describe the roles of B cells and the various antibodies they produce in humoral adaptive immunity o Humoral immunity o Much more indirect than cellular immunity, but involves same 3 steps Recognition (requires immunocompetence) Antigen binds to several B cell receptors (must be large enough to do this) Endocytosis and MCH II presentation THcells evaluate MHC II-antigen complex Interleukins secreted by T cell activate B cell Clonal reprocution of B cells – differentiation into plasma cells Secretes 2000 antibodies/ second for 4-5 days (mainly in germinal centers of lymph nodes) Attack The B cell attack is mediated by antibodies (immunoglobulin proteins) 2 heavy chains, 2 light chains o both have constant hyper-variable regions o hyper-variable regions produced by somatic recombination, somatic hypermutation but must pass immunocompetence test in bone marrow o indirect humoral attack mechanisms neutralization antibodies can bind to pathogenix portion of antigens (e.g. toxins) and render them ineffective compliment fixtation IgM & IgG change shape upon antigen binding to reveal compliment binding sites imflammatory response Agglutination Sticks enemy cells together (e.g. blood incompatibility) thereby immobilizing them Precipitation Antibodies link antigens (not whole cells) – causing them to become too large to remain dissolved in solution, removed by immune clearance mechanisms (macrophages) Memory During primary response (1 encounter with antigen) o Some naïve B cells multiply and mature into plasma cells o Other B cells become clonal memory cells (mainly in germinal centers of lymph nodes) o Memory not quite as long in humoral immunity as it is in cellular immunity How is immune memory acquired? o Naturally acquired Active Infection Contact with pathogen Passive Antibodies pass from mother to fetus via placenta; or to infant in her milk o Artificially acquired Active Vaccine Dead or attenuated pathogens Passive Injection of immune serum (gamma globulin) The Respiratory System Which organs/tissues make up the upper and lower respiratory tracts and the conducting and respiratory zones o Upper respiratory tract o Nose & nasal cavity o Pharynx (throat) o Larynx (voice box) o Lower respiratory tract o Trachea (wind pipe) o Bronchial tree o Lungs What are the major functions of the respiratory tract o Respiration o Pulmonary ventilation o Pulmonary gas exchange o Gas transport o Tissue gas exchange o Communication o Olfaction o Abdominal content expulsion o Venous blood and Lymph flow o Acid base homeostasis o Blood pressure regulation (assists in Angiotensin II production) Trace the pathway of airflow during inspiration and describe the gross anatomy and function of each upper respiratory tract regions o Nasal cavity o External o Internal o Functions Warms & humidifies incoming air Filters out debris and secretes antibacterial substances Detects odors through olfactory structures Resonating chamber for amplifying the voice o Specifics Olfactory mucosa Bipolar neurons Respiratory mucosa Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium & Goblet cells Stratified squamous epithelium o One nostril more open than the other? Erectile tissue in inferior concha (lamina propria) Extensive venous plexus Every 30-60 min, 1 side swells with blood, diverting airflow to other side Allows engorged side recovery time from drying out Switches back and forth sides o Pharynx: muscular 90° turn in respiratory tract between posterior nares and larynx o Nasopharynx Passes only air, lined with pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium Receives audiotry tubes and house pharyngeal tonsil 90° turn traps large particles (pathogens) – dealt with by ciliated mucous membranes and tonsil uvula and soft palate close off nasopharynx during swallowing o Oropharynx Passes air, food and fluid, lined with stratified non keratinized squamous epithelium Houses palatine tonsils o Larngpharynx Esophagus begins where laryngopharynx ends, lined with non-keratinized squamous epithelium o Larynx o Primary function To keep food and drink out of airways o Secondary function (evolved in some organisms) Phonation: sound production o Epiglottis Flap of elastic cartilage that guards the superior opening of the larynx At rest, stands almost vertically During swallowing Extrinsic muscles pull larynx upwards Tongue pushes epiglottis downwards to meet larynx Closes airways and directs food to esophagus o Larynx cartilages Trace the pathway of airflow during inspiration and describe the gross anatomy and function of each lower respiratory tract region o Trachea o ~2cm in diameter, 10-12 cm long o supported by C-sahped hyaline cartilage rings o keep trachea open o open sections of rings face posteriorly o elastic connective tissue & smooth muscle spans C gap (allows contraction and expansion) o carina (internal median ridge) directs air flow in lower most tracheal cartilage to left & right bronchi o Bronchial tree o Branching system of conducting air tubes in each lung o Main bronchus to ~ 65000 terminal bronchioles o Primary (main) bronchi Supported by C-shaped cartilage rings (like trachea), 1 left, 1 right o Secondary (lobar) bronchi 2 left, 3 right supported by overlapping crescent shaped cartilage plates o tertiary bronchi 10 per lung continue to branch into bronchioles terminating in alveoli o all bronchi lined with pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium o lamina propria contains numerous goblet cells and MALT o elastic connective tissue and smooth muscle (muscularis mucosae), relax or constrict airways o bronchial tree serviced by the bronchial artery (oxygenated blood0 o pulmonary artery branching closely follows branches of bronchial tree (oxygen-less blood) Describe the histology of bronchioles, alveoli and structure of the respiratory membrane Bronchioles o Lack cartilage o <1 mm diameter o each ventilates a pulmonary lobule o cuboidal epithelium o well developed layer of smooth muscle o branches into 50-80 terminal bronchioles (<0.5 mm diameter) terminal bronchioles branch into respiratory bronchioles start of respiratory division alveoli bud from walls (participate in gas exchange) respiratory bronchioles divide into 2-10 alveolar ducts o end in alveolar sacs, clustered around atrium o simple squamous epithelium Alveoli o 0.2-0.5 mm pouch o respiratory membrane o squamous (type I) alveolar cells cover 95% of surface rapid gas diffusion o Great (type II) cuboidal alveolar cells cover 5% of surface Repair alveolar epithelium Secrete pulmonary surfactant (prevents bronchioles from collapsing during exhalation) o Alveolar macrophages Most numerous alveolar cells Respiratory membrane o Barrier between alveolar air and blood o Alveoli are kept dry by absorption of excess fluid by capillaries Airflow summary Conducting division o Upper respiratory tract Nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx o Lower respiratory tract Trachea Main bronchi Lobar bronchi Segmental bronchi Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles Respiratory division o Respiratory bronchioles o Alveolar ducts o Alveolar sacs Describe Boyle’s law and explain how the muscles of inspiration and expiration change the thoracic cavity volume Boyles law the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely related (assuming constant temperature and number of gas molecules) Inspiratory muscles o Increase the size of the thoracic cavity o Indirectly increase lung volume o Decrease pressure o (diaphragm & external intercostals) Accessory muscles o Further increase size of thoracic cavity o Or decrease it during expiration o (internal intercostals, abdominals & some back muscles) Pulmonary ventilation o Breathing (pulmonary ventilation)= repetitive cycle of inspiration and exhalation Quiet respiration= effortless, autonomic breathing whilst at rest Forced respiration= deep, rapid breathing (e.g. during exercise) o Only muscle in lungs is smooth muscle of bronchial tree Change diameter of bronchioles o Breathing muscles Diaphragm Intercostals Various accessory muscles Explain how values for atmospheric pressure, intrapulmonary pressure, and intrapleural pressure change with inspiration and expiration Atmospheric pressure o 760 mmHg at sea level (influence of gravity on air particles) Intrapulmonary pressure o Air pressure within the alveoli o Rises and falls with inspiration and expiration, then equilibrates with atmospheric pressure Intraplueral pressure o Pressure within the pleural cavity o Rises and falls with inspiration and expiration o ~4 mmHg less than intrapulmonary pressure tendency of lung to collapse and chest wall to expand (suction) pleural fluid constantly pumped out into lymphatic system Explain how airway resistance, pulmonary compliance and alveolar surface tension affect pulmonary ventilation Physical factors affecting pulmonary respiration o Airway resistance Anything that impedes air flow through the respiratory tract Bronchomotion o Bronchodilation Decreased resistance Sympathetic neurons release norepinephrine o Bronchoconstriction Increased resistance Inhaled irritants activate parasympathetic neurons, disease & inflammation, disease & excess mucus, tumors Inflammation Disease o Alveolar surface tension Hydrogen bonds in alveoli thin water layer result in surface tension that can collapse alveoli Pulmonary surfactant o Produced by Type II alveolar cells o Disrupts hydrogen bonds between water molecules, reducing surface tension o Pulmonary compliance Ability of lungs and chest wall to stretch Alveolar surface tension Distensibility of lungs Ability of chest wall to move o Infant respiratory distress syndrome Affects premature newborns Surfactant produced in last 10-12 weeks of gestation Describe and identify the values for respiratory volumes and capacities Measuring breathing (can use a spirometer) o Tidal volume (TV) Amount of air inspired or expired during normal quiet breathing ~ 500 ml of air ~ 350 ml involved in gas exchange ~ 150 ml remains in anatomical dead space o Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) Volume of air that can be inspired after tidal inspiration (2100-3300 ml air) o Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) Volume of air that can be expired after tidal inspiration (700-1200 ml air) o Residual volume (RV) Some air always remains in lungs Calculations o Inspiratory capacity Total volume of air that can be inspired after tidal expiration TV + IRV o Functional residual capacity Volume of air left in lungs after tidal expiration ERV + RV o Vital capacity Total volume of air that can move in and out of the lungs TV + IRV + ERV o Total lung capacity Total volume of air that can move in and out of the lungs TV + IRV + ERV + TV State Dalton’s and Henry’s laws and relate both to internal and pulmonary gas exchange and to the amounts of O and CO d2ssolved 2 in plasma Dalton’s Law The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its component gases Henry’s Law The amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility in water and partial pressure in air (assuming constant temp) Which air gases will dissolve in our blood plasma O 2 little, because it is less insoluble CO 2es, because it is very insoluble Hyperventilation Emotions like anger or anxiety trigger very rapid breathing o CO ex2elled at very high rate o Blood pH rises o Causes cerebral arteries to constrict-dizziness & fainting o Rebreathing expired CO in ba2 brings pH back down Describe O a2d CO pre2sure gradients and net gas movements in pulmonary Diffusion of gases between alveoli and blood O 2iffuses into the pulmonary capillaries, CO into2the alveoli Rising CO levels trigger autonomic mechanisms that 2 bypass voluntary control of breathing
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