AN 1103 Midterm #2 Study Guide
AN 1103 Midterm #2 Study Guide AN 1103
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Falyn Ruby on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Jean Marcus in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Intro to Anthropology Study Guide Movies: o Who discovered Lucy? Johansen o How did Lucy get her nickname? Beatle’s Song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” o What was evidence that Lucy was bipedal? Knee bone, pelvis, feet w/arch d o How was Lucy dated? Argon laser and volcanic ash around it o Why did the Eskimos eat raw seal liver? Paying tribute to the seal goddess o Why do young Nuer boys receive “gar” cuts on forehead? To become a man (initiation) o Why do New Guinea horticulturalists jump from the tower? Represents male fertility and a good harvest o While intensive agriculture in the U.S. is highly productive, what is the impact on the environment? o Erosion because of topsoil Hominid Evolution: the appearance of bipedalism as a method of locomotion, increase in brain size occurred later, loss of the cp3 complex, only found in Africa, evidence of tool use o First Hominid: Sahelanthropus tchadensis *** Discovered in chad 6-7 million years ago Ape like features: Small brain Primitive teeth U-shaped dental arcade Skull shape Hominid like: Flat face Enormous brow ridges Forward position of the foramen magnum (consistent with bipedalism) Cranial capacity – 320-350 cm^3 o Australopithecines (“Southern Ape”) Characteristics: Bipedal Small brained Having large teeth with thick enamel 4.2-1.2 million years ago Average cranial capacity – 500 cm^3 Short infancy Two types Gracile – delicate o Australopithecus afarensis o Australopithecus africanus Robust o Australopithecus robustus o Australopithecus boisei Australopithecus afarensis *** “Lucy” 3.5 million years ago 3.5 ft. tall V-shaped dental arcade Medium sized canines Sexual dimorphism between 50% and 88% Ape-like skull Fully bipedal Cranial capacity: 404 cm^3; Chimp: 390 cm^3 Slept in trees (nests) Gracile Australopithecus africanus *** South Africa 3-2.2 million years ago Pronounced sexual dimorphism seen in canines and body size o Males – 4.6 ft tall and 90 lbs o Females 3.9 ft tall and 60 mlbs Large molars and lower jaw Cranial Capacity: 442 cm^3 Fully bipedal and gracile May have been ancestors Australopithecus Robustus Tanzania and Kenya 2.3-1.2 million years ago Marked sexual dimorphism Massive chewing apparatus and a sagittal crest Ate seeds, nuts, and meat Cranial Capacity: 530 cm^3 Australopithecus boisei Kenya and Ethiopia 2.3-1.2 million years ago Large body, molars, chewing apparatus, and sagittal crest Cranial capacity: 490cm^3 Afarensis -> africanus -> homo o The Genus Homo Characteristics: Large cranial capacity Decrease in chewing apparatus – absence of sagittal crest and flaring zygomatic arches Smaller face, jaw, and teeth Parabolic arch KNMER – 1470: fossil found in Kenya. Dated about 1.9 million years ago Scientists are still not sure what to categorize the fossil Cranial Capacity: 7500 cm^3 *** Large cranial capacity, parabolic dental arcade, Bipedalism, loss or reduction of CP3 complex o Homo habilis: “handy man” Tanzania and Kenya 2.5-1.44 million years ago Small chewing complex Larger brain Oldowan tools – not proven to belong to habilis Cranial capacity: 631 cm^3 Smaller brow ridges and flatter face o Homo erectus 1.8-.2 million years ago Africa, Asia, and Europe First to leave Africa Characteristics: Used fire Hunters and gatherers Temporary camps and shelters Increase in brain size Reduction in size of premolars and molars Receding forehead Mild ridge in middle of skull Cranial Capacity: 900 cm^3** Acheulian stone tools o Homo floresiensis “hobbits” Indonesia 74,000-16,000 years ago Cranial capacity and posterior cranium resemble the australopithecines Skulls resemble homo erectus Small brains Evidence of tools, hunting, and possible cooking and fire o Homo neanderthalensis Europe, Israel, Iraq, and Gibraltar 225,000-28,000 years ago Thick bones and a large nose Faces projected with sloping foreheads First to ritually bury dead Mousterian tools** Possibility of cannibalism Late archaic Homo sapiens 1520 cranial capacity ** o Homo sapiens sapiens 200,000 years ago Africa, Asia, and Europe first; then Australia and Americas **Anatomically modern humans: large gracile skull with small or absent brow ridges, flat nose, mid-face and a round occiput, small jaws and teeth, chin is present, large mastoid process, straight limb bones, pelvis and rib cage are narrow Culture: Musical instruments Sculpture Jewelry Use of ochre Paintings Needles Harpoons Spear throwers Composite tools Blade tools Regularly buried dead o Tools: Homo habilis – Oldawan Tools Homo erectus – Acheulian Stone Tools Homo neanderthalensis – Mousterian tools Race: o The term race is a broad term and scientists do not agree on how many races there are. (arbitrary) o No genes specifically belong to a race. o Race is not a valid biological concept o Folate – A B vitamin that is necessary for rapidly producing cells Deficiency can lead to interference with sperm production and fetal growth, neural tube defects Breaks down in strong UV radiation and sunlight, therefore people who live in these conditions have darker skin o Vitamin D – metabolizes calcium; comes from sunlight – people further away from the equator have lighter skin in order to absorb more vitamin D o Rickets – deficiency in vitamin D that causes the bones to soften and weaken o Hypervitaminosis D – too much vitamin d, where calcium deposits form throughout the body o Melanin – a pigment in the epidermis that determines skin color o Hypodescent for African Americans: One drop rule – African American hypodescent rules Mixed racial heritage is defined as African American Even one African American ancestor is defined as African American 1 out of 32 African American great, great, great grandparents is defined as African American o Blood quantum laws – Native American hypodescent laws Must be ½ Choctaw to be considered a member ¼ tribal blood: Navajo and other tribes 1/8 for the Apache Tribe 1/16 for the Sac and Fox tribes o Hispanic hypodescent laws More flexible People have a choice in calling themselves white or Hispanic o Social Race Race is not visible, skin color is Skin color – natural selection operating on our ancestors to protect them from the breakdown of folate and to increase intake of Vitamin D. Race – cultural construct based on beliefs about biological differences “social race” Both America and Brazil were populated with the same 3 groups: Native Americans, European colonists, and African Slaves o Race in the United States: Race is ascribed at birth and rarely changes. Hypodescent – social rule that states that if a person is of mixed descent, they are assigned to the minority race One drop rule – African American hypodescent rules Mixed racial heritage is defined as African American Even one African American ancestor is defined as African American 1 out of 32 African American great, great, great grandparents is defined as African American Blood quantum laws – Native American hypodescent laws Must be ½ Choctaw to be considered a member ¼ tribal blood: Navajo and other tribes 1/8 for the Apache Tribe 1/16 for the Sac and Fox tribes Hispanic hypodescent laws More flexible People have a choice in calling themselves white or Hispanic o Race in Brazil: No hypodescent rules Mixed race classifications – over 500 labels Race is fluid and can change easily “money lightens” wealthy people can fit into lighter skinned social groups easily o Race in Japan: 3 discriminative minorities of Japan: Ainu (indigenous) Koreans Burakumin (lower caste from samurai times) Neolithic Revolution – the invention of the domestication of plants and animals o From Homo erectus until about 10,000 years ago, our ancestors made a living by combining hunting, gathering, and fishing collectively called foraging. These foragers were nomadic and moved from place to place according to the seasons. They did not overexploit the resources. Broad Spectrum Revolution – broad-spectrum foragers became sedentary – exploitation of species of plants, animals, and sea life. o Women’s fertility increased due to an excess in body fat May have stimulated domestication of plants and animals in several places (marginal zones) What brought about this change from foraging to farming? o Decrease in number of big game animals available Maybe due to climate, or over-killing o Rise in sea level o Centers of Domestication: Middle East and Near East, Africa, China, South America, Mesoamerica, North America Domestication of species spread by diffusion through direct contact between the cultures Horticulture – a method of subsistence based on the domestication of plants without the domestication of animals. “slash and burn” Depends on fallow periods to restore soil fertility Pastoralism – refers to herding domesticated animals Simple Agriculture – horticulture with domesticated animals providing energy for plowing and transport and manure for fertilization Intensive agriculture – agriculture with irrigation, fertilization, and machines Foraging – come combination of hunting, gathering, and fishing – o Consequences? Populations increased Social organizations developed to regulate population and resources Development of tribes, chiefdoms, and state-level societies Costs and benefits of states: o Benefits: new discoveries and inventions including: Spinning and weaving Pottery, bricks, and arched masonry Smelting and casting of metals Trade and commerce by land and sea Markets, streets, temples, and palaces Sculpture and mural art Writing systems Weights and measures Calendars, astronomy, and architecture o Costs: Food producers must work harder than foragers Long distance trade Everyone must work Require specialties Social stratification (classes) Citizens are forced to serve in armies or projects Taxes and tribute Health declines Environment suffers nomadic egalitarian band-level societies
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