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by: Hannah B.


Marketplace > Auburn University > Biology > BIOL 1037 > BIOL 1030 1037 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
Hannah B.
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study guide for Dr. Zanzot's Organismal Biology second exam and Auburn University
Honors Organismal Biology
Study Guide
Auburn University, BIOL 1030, biol 1037, Biol 1031, Organismal Biology, zanzot, Folkerts, Bowling, auburn, Biology
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah B. on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1037 at Auburn University taught by Zanzot in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Honors Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/08/16
ORGANISMAL BIOLOGY LECTURE NOTES Plants: Introduction and Nonvascular Plants Kingdom: Plantae What is a plant? derived from Charophyta, a lineage of green algae multicellular, terrestrial or secondarily aquatic, usually photoautotrophic, cell walls made of cellulose, movement by growth only, embryo protected by the gametophyte tissue (“embryophyta”), sporic meiosis (alternation of generations) —————————> Sporic Meiosis (Alternation of Generations) haploid individual (gametophyte) and a diploid spore producing plant (sporophyte) meiosis: process that makes diploid cells haploid cells produced by meiosis turn into spores then divide to form a gametophyte (multicellular plant) gametophyte produces gametes by mitosis, gametes fuse to achieve fertilization —> zygote (first diploid cell) zygote can divide to form our sporophyte Major Plant Groups Bryophytes (3 phyla), Seedless Vascular (4 phyla, or 2), Gymnosperms (4 phyla), and Angiosperms (1 very large phylum) Bryophytes (Non-vascular plants) 3 extant phyla, dominant gametophyte generation, small plants, moist habitats usually, water is required for sperm dispersal 3 phyla: Bryophyta (true mosses), Hepatophyta (liverworts), Anthocerophyta (hornworts) Phylum Anthocerophyta Anthoceros (our local genus) simple, charophyte-like thallus horn-like sporophyte: dehiscent (popping open) photosynthetic sporophyte Page 1 of 7 Phylum Hepatophyta dichotomously branching thallus (every time branches, two lobes same size) can reproduce asexually using a gemma (-ae) within a gemma cup antheridiophore: male gamete producing structures archegoniophore: female gamete producing structures sporophyte: dependent on the gametophyte foot: connects sporophyte and gametophyte capsule: sporophyte arrangement, spores produced, mitosis occurs elaters on spores: structures that help spores to disperse and anchor Phylum Bryophyta gametophyte, meiospore (products of meiosis), protonema (formed by meiospore, green thread like structure), leafy shoots (made from protonema), rhizoids (like roots, made by leafy shoots), antheridium, splash cup (to collect water and transfer sperm), sperm (flagellated), archegonium, egg, sporophyte (right after fertilization, diploid part), capsule and seta (stem like structure), placenta (sporophyte nutrition), calyptra (hat that covers capsule), operculum (lid on capsule), peristome (under operculum), dispersal, hygroscopic (changing shape in response to humidity of moisture). Plants: Seedless Vascular Plants What’s so great about vascular tissue? dominant sporophyte generation gametophytes variable (photosynthetic/not, attached/unattached, above/below ground) don't often see gametophytes larger plants, somewhat dryer habitats better access to light for photosynthesis A series of tubes… 3 Fundamental Tissue Systems dermal tissue system: outer covering layer, like skin protect plant, add strength, keep moisture vascular tissue system: xylem (vascular system that takes water and minerals up) and phloem (moves resources wherever they are needed) Page 2 of 7 ground tissue system: fills space between DTS and VTS, not root tissue per se. storage, to provide structure and strength Organs: Leaves Microphylls (Lycophyta only has these): one strand of vascular tissue in each leaf Megaphylls (ferns): multiple strands of vascular tissue in each leaf Growth and Development meristems: zones of active cell division and growth in plants (can divide) apical meristems (root and shoot): primary growth, increase in height (and depth) lateral meristems: secondary growth, increase in girth Homospory (one type of spore) —> Heterospory (more than one type of spore) Microspores (small spores) and Megaspores (large spores) Four Phyla: Pteridophyta, Equisetophyta, Psilophyta, Lycophyta or two? = Lycophyta and Monilophyta (Pteridophyta, Equisetophyta, Psilophyta) Phylum Psilophyta (whisk ferns) lacking true leaves & root, dichotomously branching stems, sporangia borne on stem synangia: spore bearing containers where meiosis occurs Phylum Equisetophyta (Arthrophyta, Sphenophyta) horsetails, scouring rushes, pot scrubbers one extant genus = Equisetum (“living fossils”) hollow ribbed stem, toughened with silica whorls of microphylls strobili with sporangiophores, sporophylls elaters function in spore dispersal Phylum Pteridophyta (true ferns) megaphylls = frond usually pinnately compound (pinna [-ae]) — feather like circinate vernation: as new tissues grow and develop they start coiled up and uncoil rhizome and adventitious roots sorus (-i) = cluster of sporangia indusium (-ia): umbrella like cover over sori annulus (-i): “little ring” on outside of sporangium; straightens and spores release gametophyte: start off as protonema, develops to bisexual prothallus (antheridia and archegonia), new baby is called sporeling Page 3 of 7 Fern Life Cycle Phylum Lycophyta club mosses, ground pine, resurrection plant, quillwort, etc. all members have microphylls with only one strand of vascular tissue strobilus (-i): cluster of sporophylls some homosporous, some heterosporous Plants: Gymnosperms Spores vs. Seeds spores: single, totipotent cell; small, easy to make; very limited resources; haploid totipotent: start out as single cell capable of producing all the other structures seeds: multicellular; organs and tissue systems already developed; telescoping of generations (diploid embryo); nutrition for embryo; may have accessory tissues to aid in dispersal A seed is a “baby in a lunchbox” embryo, cotyledons, epicotyl, hypocotyl, radicle, endosperm, seed coat Gymnosperms “naked seed” 4 extant phyla: Gnetophyta, Ginkgophyta, Cycadophyta, Coniferophyta vascular tissue dominant sporophyte generation, larger plants reduction of gametophyte generation heterospory: prerequisite for seeds Phylum Ginkgophyta monotypic: one species left — Ginkgo bibloba “Maidenhair tree” because when about to lose leaves go from green to golden hue deciduous: lose leaves in the fall dichotomous venation: veins radiate out from singular point dwarf branches — seeds are produced from little branches dioecious: separate male and female individual trees bilobed leaves: look like flukes of a whale Page 4 of 7 leaf extract is marketed as memory enhancer fleshy, smelly seed coat (NOT a fruit) Phylum Cycadophyta cycads (short, palm-like) dioecious: separate male and female individual trees microsporangiate strobilus & megasporangiate strobilus herbivorous beetles feed in pollen cones precursor to zoophily (animal pollination) cycad with three megasporangiate stobili Phylum Coniferophyta largest extant phylum of gymnosperms pines, firs, spruces, redwood, sequoia, larch, etc. oldest plant in the world — bristlecone pine ——> <— biggest — giant sequoia (not tallest, but most massive trunk) tallest — coast redwood (3x blue whale length) ——————————————> <— coniferophyta life cycle Plants: Angiosperms 1 Angiosperms one phylum — Magnoliophyta (AKAAnthophyta) flowering plants and fruiting plants most successful (diverse) lineage of plants known (ever) — over 250K flowering species What is a flower? a determinate sporophyll bearing shoot doesn't grow or extend in length once formed in the bud sporophylls: modified leaves that produce the spores subtended by a peduncle (stem that attaches the flower to a plant) borne from a receptacle (attaches whorls of a plant) pistol: multiple carpels fused together four whorls: whorl of sepals (calyx), whorl of petals (corolla), whorl of stamens (androecium), whorl of carpels (gynoecium) calyx + corolla = perianth (around the flower, sterile whorls) Page 5 of 7 Perfect vs. Complete perfect flower has both male and female whorls in every flower complete flower has all four whorls in every flower imperfect: some plants produce flowers with male and female whorls in different flowers incomplete: some plants have a lost whorl (petals most typically) One House or Two? monoecious plants have male and female whorls/gametes produced on the same plant dioecious plants have separate male and female gamete producing plants Fusion of Parts/Whorls connation: fusion of segments of a single whorl is derived, not uncommon adnation: fusion between different whorls is also derived, not as common darwin’s cotton example of adnation: fusion of androecium and gynoecium —> <— morning glory example of connation: five petals fused together Inflorescence arrangement of flowers on a branch or stem solitary: single flower on a branch raceme: peduncles attached to a floral axis spike: one flower attached directly to a floral axis simple umbel: single focal point with several flowers coming from equal pedicels compound umbel: umbel of umbels attached by peduncles panicle: raceme that’s even further branched (pedicels) head or capitulum: looks like single flower, but many florets (grouped small flowers) <— capitulum: flowering head Angiosperm Diversity basal angiosperms (relatively few in number) includes magnolias monocots poaceae (grasses and grains), liliaceae (lily family), arecaceae (palm family), orchidaceae (orchid family, one of the largest), iridaceae (iris family), etc. eudicots (dicots) asteraceae (dandelions, lettuce, etc.), fabaceae (garden peas, peanuts, beans, etc.), rosaceae (rose family, pears, apples, etc.), brassicaceae (mustard family, brussel sprouts, kale, etc.), solanaceae (night shade family, eggplants, peppers, potatoes, etc.), lamiaceae (mint family, rosemary, etc.), etc. Pollen pollen grain with one opening pollen grain with three openings Page 6 of 7 Things About Fruit ovary wall develops into fruit fruit: container for seeds with a job to disperse the seeds can be dry (coconut, etc.) or fleshy (lemons, etc.) strawberries are aggregate fruits one seeded achenes are actual dry fruits red part is fleshy receptacle green part is calyx accessory fruits also exist tomatoes, blueberries, huckleberries are berries all of most of pericarp is fleshy pepo: a berry with a hard, thick rind (ex. melons) hesperidium: citrus fruits, berry with a leathery rind drupe: fleshy fruit with a stony endocarp (pit) with pit inside pome: fleshy fruit; ovary surrounded by fleshy hypanthium (ex. apples and pears) pericarp: ovary wall made of exocarp (outside body), mesocarp (middle body), & endocarp (inside) Page 7 of 7


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