PKSC- test 2 study guide
PKSC- test 2 study guide 81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001
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81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Addie Pearson on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Heather P Batt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Packaging Science in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
INTRO TO PACKAGING SCIENCE TEST 2 STUDY GUIDE Tips: test is 3/9/26 GREAT FLASHCARDS FREE ON QUIZLET THIS IS AN OVERVIEW—LOOK AT NOTES! (( if you want the code for a free study guide email me; It can only be used once and I would save it for the final exam study guide!!)) PACKAGING FORMS - Rigid o Defined shape o Can’t be deformed unless massive force exerted o Deformation will result in breakage of the package and/or permanent damage o Paperboard (set up boxes), metal (cans), glass, plastics o CLOSURES Metal: threaded, lug style, roll on (baby food), press on, crown (beer), friction fit/pry off(paint cans) Plastic: thermoset, most thermoplastic, induction seal Closures- types and uses Type Uses Plug (cork) Wine, liquor Crown Beer Continuous thread Beer Roll on Beer Lug/ interrupted thread Jam/jelly Press on Baby food - Semi rigid o Defined shape o Can be deformed with moderate force exerted o Returns to original shape o Paperboard: folding catons, egg cartons, berry boxes, etc… o Plastics: extrusion/injection blow molded container, injection stretch blow molded container, thermoformed container o Metal: aluminum foil (pie pans) - Flexible o Takes on shape of the product o Distorted with ease o Doesn’t return to original shape (EX. Candy wrapper) o Paper- label, bags o Plastic- cast and blow film o Metal- foil laminate and metallized films o Flexible laminates Paper, plastics, foil and metallized Purpose is to combine best properties into single structure o FLEXIBLE LAMINATED FILMS Structural- stiffness, strength Barrier- moisture, gasses, light Aesthetic- metallic, clarity feel Cost- best performance for minimal cost Sealing- heat seal, cold seal, reseal o BARRIER MATERIALS Material Moisture Oxygen LPDE Fair Poor HDPE Excellent Poor EVOH Poor Excellent PVDC Excellent Excellent Nylon Poor Good PS Poor Poor PET Fair good OPP Good Poor o METHODS OF COMBINING MATERIALS Laminating (wet bonging, dry bonding, hot melt, extrusion) Coating (co extrusion) TERMINOLOGY Thickness - Plastics- 100 gauge = 1 mil = .001 inches - Paperboard- 1 point = .001 inches - Metals- mils 1 mil = .001 inches - Micrometers (microns): 1 metric: 1x10^-6 - Paper- “pounds” comes from the basis weight of paper; also term used in converting PACKAGE TESTING - OVERVIEW OF PACKAGE TESITNG o Primary o Secondary o Tertiary o Quaternary - THREE BASIC AREAS OF TESTING o Quality testing o Environmental testing o Shipping and abuse - QUALITY TESTING o Uses standard methods and machines to determine quality of materials or combination of materials - ENVIROENTAL TESTING o Use a fully made and approved package o Subject to real world simulated conditions or real world conditions o Involves accelerated aging- process of evading conditions and speed testing o Measures- effects of environment on product and package effects of product on the package during storage o Shelf life determination: Package or packaging material Packaged goods Effect of environment (on temperature and humidity) - SHOCK AND VIBRATION TESTING (transportation or distribution testing) o How package stands up to rigors of shipping storage and handling o Sophisticated machines used to stimulate conditions… but they are just stimulations o Two advantages: Short testing time Uniformity ORGANIZATIONS THAT PRODIVE TESTING PROCEDURES ASTM- American society for testing materials TAPPI- technical association of the pulp paper industries FPA- flexible packaging association ABA- American boxboard association ISTA- international safe transit association Paper example: - Paper must be conditioned using TAPPI standards: 24 hrs @ 73 +/- 3.5 Fahrenheit, +/- 2% RH - Creates standard conditions to eliminate variables due to changes in climate or season Specific tests for paper: - Tensile strength and elongation - Tear - Mullen burst strength - Stiffness - Opacity Specific tests for plastic: - Gloss, haze, clarity - Slip, blocking, static - Impact fatigue - Flex resistance - Permeability testing: cc/mil/100in^2/24hr o Mocon method for O2, CO2, and WVTR (Water vapor transmission rate) o OR cup method for WVTR Specific tests for aluminum: - First digit indicates primary alloy - Last two digits indicates purity - Most foil alloy is 1235 (.65% Si and Fe) - Generally tested similar to paper except for conditioning Specific tests for aluminum foil - Pinholes - Wettability Tests for inks, lacquers and adhesives - Weight/gallon - Zahn cup (viscosity) - Printing characteristics - Adhesion- scotch tape tests and sotherland rub tests Identification of unknown materials: - Duplicate a competitor package - Check competition for patent infringement Machinery - often, individual machines are made by individual companies, but must operate together in a packaging line. - PMMI- packaging machinery and manufacturers institute Four options for increasing line production - Buy the newest equipment - Do something with existing equipment - Buy refurbished equipment - Hire a contract packager Linespeed- what really counts as output. - Cpm- containers per minute - Filler is critical part of determining line speed - Filler will always determine your lines per minute - REMEMBER- machines do not run at 100% efficiency - To calculate actual cpm: o Efficiency of each machine x cpm of lowest machine = actual cpm Developing custom machinery - Super expensive - Systems approach: o You develop the machine and the package it runs on o Puts you in a powerful position Filling systems - Products come in all forms: o liquid, powder, flakes, solid, sticky… - Containers come in all forms and materials o Rigid, esmi-rigid, flexible… Glass, metal, plastic, paper and paperboard Liquid fillers- two types - Constant level - Constant volume - First lets consider accuracy o Cost of “give away” vs cost of more accurate filler o The idea is to reduce “giveaway” without underfilling Constant fill level - Higher probability of give away - Use for transparent packages - For inexpensive product Constant volume - Less giveaway - For opaque package - Expensive product Machinery – filling - Vacuum fill o Seal package to filler, start vacuum pulls product into package - Gravity fill o Slower than vacuum, used for products that will foam slightly - Pressure and vacuu fill o Used for thick and foamy products - Piston filler o Used for thick, paste products and liquids Dry product filling - Volume - Weight - Number count - Net weight fillers- weighs product only o Ex: scales weigh product as package is formed, drops exact amount into package - Gross weight fillers- includes weight of pack o Ex: scales subtracts weight of package and adds product until it reaches given fill weight Gross weight fillers - Faster but has more chance of giveaway - Set scale for heaviest possible package weight so you never sell underweight Packaging machinery- - Uses packages but does not make them - Includes code marking but does not include printing in general - Converting- makes the package, so considered part of the package machinery PACKAGE GRAPHICS AND PRINTING Package design Technical and physical requirements, freatres that: - Attract and inform consumer - Motivate to purchase product Demographics: gender, culture, marital status, geography, occupation, ethnic background, family size, religious factor, residence, education, socioeconomic factors Psychographics: - Hwo groups of people are motivated and how they behave - Beware poll data with moral objectives: environmental poll data doesn’t match real behavior INFORMATION: - consumer information: o preferrd purchase unit o durable good o impulse item o staple item o seasonal purchase - product information o easy opening o measuring aids o instructions o use quantities o enclosure features o able pack o cautions o returnable package o special features o dispensers o disposal method o secondary uses - competitive information o target markets o market strategy o package type o market share o unit sizes o strengths and weaknesses o pricing structure o sales volume o gift item retail market—out of 30-40,000 items, consumer will see less than 100, leave with 14 on average, each item has consumers attention for 7 seconds or less merchandizing methods: self service mail order shelf display inspection before purchase door to door pegboard display specialty stores vending machine sales clerks department sores warehouse outlets THREE FUNDAMENTAL MESSAGES: - WHAT is this? - What will it DO for me? - WHO guarantees this? IDENTITY ARCHITECTURE is key to brand recognition—company name, brand name, symbol, typographic style, shapce TRADE DRESS- COLOR, SHAPE AND TYPOGRAPHIC STYLE PROTECTED UNDER COPYRIGHT LAWS BASIC ELEMENTS OF DESING - Size - Shape - Coloc - Texture - Tone - Line (orientation evokes different meanings) - Icons Printing and decorationg basic methods - Relief (raised image) - Planographic (flat image) - Gravure (engraved) Other Methods - Note, especially embossing - Design in relief - Often used for aluminum foil - Holographic “printing” is a form of this Printing Inks - Solvent based - must control emissions through - Solvent recovery - Incineration - Water based o cant be used with all printing methods or substrates yet - UV Cured
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