FoodLabeling: Stakeholders: [Food Labeling] Food companies (redesign packaging/do more nutrient research), Consumers (more informed) Keyhole system-Nordic system of labeling healthy foods with a green sticker (good system b/c easy to understand, accepted by food industry, does not require language mastery) FDA Compliance and Enforcement: Assurance (Monitor, Report) Programs (Inspection [field exams, sample collection, state-collected labels, food labeling educational materials, data reporting], analysis [analyzing units, analysis, reporting results]}
Assurance:encouraging actions by others, by requiring such action through regulation, or by providing services directly to achieve agreed upon goals If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of perfect competition?
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Food Fortification: 4 Ethical Principles in PH: Autonomy, Justice, Beneficence, Non-maleficenceNeural Tube Defects: rate has been declining since the 1950s, but is still problem in UK.Folic Acid Supplementation/nutrition education/fortification are solutions to increasing folic acid levels in women. Women need ~0.4mg folic acid/day. BUT overconsumption could potentially have neg effects.Supplementation=”The magic bullet approach”-increase folate intake, decrease NTD 70%, Why “magic bullet” is not effective: women don’t consume sufficient dietary folate, or take folate supplements, or plan their pregnancies. Nutrition Education: restricted to those who need extra folate, restricted to individual level, may not actually result in people increasing folate levels Fortification: affects whole population, not a voluntary approach US fortification history: Originally (1940) done to prevent deficiency disease. Now, to prevent a birth defect. Things currently fortified: salt, milk and infant formula, water, cereal grains. Folate policy dilemma: -Current dilemma: Lower then anticipated benefits in prevention of NTDs (some NTDs have other causes); Risk benefit trade off for chronic diseases among adults is complex but favorable
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nerconnece ases: pocy ormuaon, mpemenaon, mocaon ocy nsrumens: egsaon, eucaon an guidance, development of standards and policies, regulation, monitoring and research, food-assistance programs Policy: Management of affairs primarily on money interest Assessment: "everything involved in community diagnosis. Surveillance, identifying needs, monitoring and forecasting trends, collecting and interpreting data, research and evaluation of outcomes, case finding."Barriers to Assess.= resistence to release of personal info, ID, ltd coordination among data collection efforts DRI: orig="provide standards to serve as goal for good nutrition", used to make food policy, recommendations, food labeling, programs, education, clinical dietetics, etc. Made up of EAR, RDA, AI, UL Official poverty measure: Based on thresholds representing: (cost of a minimum diet) x3 (b/c considers food expenditure as 1/3 of total expenses) Supplemental poverty measure: Measure that takes into account the geographical differences in cost of living Food Insecurity: When food that is nutritionally adequate and safe is not readily accessible, or cannot be acquired in a socially acceptable ways EER (Estimated Energy Requirement): average amount of dietary intake needed to maintain energy balance for an individual. Varies by demographics, calculated by equation and not by distribution (DRI). Equation variables mean dif things for dif age groups. EAR (Estimated Average Requirements): To meet the needs of 50% of the population's healthy intake RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance): Average amount that 97-98% of people consume AI (Adequate Intake): An estimation or assumption based on healthy people about what an acceptable intake would be (used when RDA can't be determined) NHANES: surverys of dietary intake and health status (food insecurity and hunger) We also discuss several other topics like What is the content of mendel’s laws?
Dietary Assessment: measurement of what an individual has consumed recently or habitually, can be used to compare intake with reference population/reference intake II Advantage: Can detect individual/population differences in nutrient intake II Disadvantage: may not be the most accurate way of measuring nutrient status, though the simple approaches may be inadequate for individual assessment, it may provide adequate data for populations Anthropometric Assessment: Measuring body size (height, weight, recumbent length) II Advantages: provides insight into nutritional history, easy to use in field surveys II Disadvantage: Does not tell you reasons for deficit or excess Laboratory Assessment: Analysis of body fliuds or tissues for specific nutrients or enzymes that reflect nutritent function II Advantages: usefull for staging degree of depletion or change in functional outcome II Disadvantage: invasive, may not be possible to be done on young children, usually not suitable for field surveys Clinical Assessment: Medical history and physical examination to detect the signs and symptoms of malunutrition Medical history and physical examination to detect the signs and symptoms of malunutrition II Advantage: Can provide insight into cause of malnutrition II Disadvantage: insufficient on its own for a definitive definition of cause Poverty Income Ratio Equation: (Actual Income)/(Threshold)<1="In poverty"BRFSS (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System): CDC, State-based, monthly cross sectional phone survery: provide info on health risk behaviors, clinical preventative practices, health care access and use PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System): Data on maternal attitudes before/during/after pregnancy. Goal: to improve health of moms and infants by reducing adverse outcomes of pregnancy Benefits of breastfeedings: 1. Contraceptive 2. Childhood Cancer 3. SIDS 4. Diabetes 5. Atopy Food: Educational messages about the ecological and nutritional impacts of food waste could include reducing excess food purchase, efficiently storing and preparing foods, saving and reusing leftovers, and composting. Such messages could use diverse presentation methods and locations Why does the way we produce food matter: production affects economy, consumer food, net cost, what we get for a cheap price How to waste less food: (At store) Plan meals, take inventory, shop for produce list, beware of bulk, be realistic, avoid excessive prepared food, use it up (At home) Store food sensibly, keep food visible, don’t be a fridge filler, save leftovers, eat leftovers, repurpose, have a leftover night, use freezer If you want to learn more check out What might happen if reproductive isolation is incomplete?
Policy development: the process by which society makes decision about problems, chooses goals and proper means to reach them, handles condlicting views about what should be done and allocates resources. We also discuss several other topics like Which type of organisms are placed in the kingdom protista?
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10 steps to successful BF: written BF policy routintely communicated with health care staff, train all HC staff in skills necessary to implement the policy, inform preg wom about benefits and mngmt of BF, help moms initiate BF within half hour of birth, show moms how to BF and maintain lactation, nerborns ONLY get BF and nothing else unless medically needed, allow moms to be in a room together 24 hr/day, encourage BF on demand, no artificial pacifiers for BF babies, Foster development of BF support groups and direct moms to them