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CORNELL / Dietetics / DHN 4500 / What is the meaning of the keyhole system?

What is the meaning of the keyhole system?

What is the meaning of the keyhole system?

Description

School: Cornell University
Department: Dietetics
Course: Public Health Nutrition
Professor: Rosenkranz
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: nutrition, Public Health, ns, ns 4500, cheat sheet, and Study Guide
Cost: 50
Name: NS 4500 Cheat Sheet
Description: -Covers theories and formulas from class -Includes both back and front of cheat sheet -Can be used for Prelim/Final
Uploaded: 03/09/2016
2 Pages 37 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews


FoodLabeling: Stakeholders: [Food Labeling]  Food companies (redesign packaging/do more nutrient research), Consumers (more informed) Keyhole system-Nordic system of labeling healthy foods with a green sticker (good system b/c easy to understand, accepted by food industry, does not require language mastery) FDA Compliance and Enforcement: Assurance (Monitor, Report) Programs (Inspection [field exams, sample collection, state-collected labels, food labeling educational materials, data reporting], analysis [analyzing units, analysis, reporting results]} 


What is the meaning of the keyhole system?



Assurance:encouraging actions by others, by requiring such action through regulation, or by providing services directly to achieve agreed upon goals If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of perfect competition?

Federal FAPs: 


What is fda compliance and enforcement?



We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of charles's law?

encouraging actions 

by others, by 

requiring such 

action through 

regulation, or by 

providing services 

directly Provide 

food directly or 

vouchers

Types of social programs: social 

insurance principles v means test 

Food Fortification: 4 Ethical Principles in PH: Autonomy, Justice, Beneficence, Non-maleficenceNeural Tube Defects: rate has been declining since the 1950s, but is still problem in UK.Folic Acid Supplementation/nutrition education/fortification are solutions to increasing folic acid levels in women. Women need ~0.4mg folic acid/day. BUT overconsumption could potentially have neg effects.Supplementation=”The magic bullet approach”-increase folate intake, decrease NTD 70%, Why “magic bullet” is not effective: women don’t consume sufficient dietary folate, or take folate supplements, or plan their pregnancies. Nutrition Education: restricted to those who need extra folate, restricted to individual level, may not actually result in people increasing folate levels Fortification: affects whole population, not a voluntary approach US fortification history: Originally (1940) done to prevent deficiency disease. Now, to prevent a birth defect. Things currently fortified: salt, milk and infant formula, water, cereal grains. Folate policy dilemma: -Current dilemma: Lower then anticipated benefits in prevention of NTDs (some NTDs have other causes); Risk benefit trade off for chronic diseases among adults is complex but favorable 


What are federal faps?



We also discuss several other topics like What does wernicke's area do?

nerconnece ases: pocy ormuaon, mpemenaon, mocaon ocy nsrumens: egsaon, eucaon an  guidance, development of standards and policies, regulation, monitoring and research, food-assistance programs Policy: Management of affairs primarily on money interest Assessment: "everything involved in community diagnosis. Surveillance,  identifying needs, monitoring and forecasting trends, collecting and interpreting data, research and evaluation of outcomes, case finding."Barriers to Assess.= resistence to release of personal info, ID, ltd coordination among data collection efforts DRI:  orig="provide standards to serve as goal for good nutrition", used to make food policy, recommendations, food labeling,  programs, education, clinical dietetics, etc. Made up of EAR, RDA, AI, UL Official poverty measure: Based on thresholds  representing: (cost of a minimum diet) x3 (b/c considers food expenditure as 1/3 of total expenses) Supplemental poverty  measure: Measure that takes into account the geographical differences in cost of living Food Insecurity: When food that is  nutritionally adequate and safe is not readily accessible, or cannot be acquired in a socially acceptable ways EER (Estimated  Energy Requirement): average amount of dietary intake needed to maintain energy balance for an individual. Varies by  demographics, calculated by equation and not by distribution (DRI). Equation variables mean dif things for dif age groups. EAR  (Estimated Average Requirements): To meet the needs of 50% of the population's healthy intake RDA (Recommended Daily  Allowance): Average amount that 97-98% of people consume AI (Adequate Intake): An estimation or assumption based on  healthy people about what an acceptable intake would be (used when RDA can't be determined) NHANES: surverys of dietary  intake and health status (food insecurity and hunger) We also discuss several other topics like What is the content of mendel’s laws?

Dietary Assessment: measurement of what an individual has consumed recently or habitually, can be used to compare intake with  reference population/reference intake II Advantage: Can detect individual/population differences in nutrient intake II Disadvantage:  may not be the most accurate way of measuring nutrient status, though the simple approaches may be inadequate for individual  assessment, it may provide adequate data for populations Anthropometric Assessment: Measuring body size (height, weight,  recumbent length) II Advantages: provides insight into nutritional history, easy to use in field surveys II Disadvantage: Does not  tell you reasons for deficit or excess Laboratory Assessment: Analysis of body fliuds or tissues for specific nutrients or enzymes  that reflect nutritent function II Advantages: usefull for staging degree of depletion or change in functional outcome II  Disadvantage: invasive, may not be possible to be done on young children, usually not suitable for field surveys Clinical  Assessment: Medical history and physical examination to detect the signs and symptoms of malunutrition Medical history and  physical examination to detect the signs and symptoms of malunutrition II Advantage: Can provide insight into cause of  malnutrition II Disadvantage: insufficient on its own for a definitive definition of cause Poverty Income Ratio Equation: (Actual  Income)/(Threshold)<1="In poverty"BRFSS (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System): CDC, State-based, monthly cross sectional phone survery: provide info on health risk behaviors, clinical preventative practices, health care access and use PRAMS  (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System): Data on maternal attitudes before/during/after pregnancy. Goal: to improve  health of moms and infants by reducing adverse outcomes of pregnancy Benefits of breastfeedings: 1. Contraceptive 2. Childhood  Cancer 3. SIDS 4. Diabetes 5. Atopy Food: Educational messages about the ecological and nutritional impacts of food waste could  include reducing excess food purchase, efficiently storing and preparing foods, saving and reusing leftovers, and composting. Such  messages could use diverse presentation methods and locations Why does the way we produce food matter: production affects  economy, consumer food, net cost, what we get for a cheap price How to waste less food: (At store) Plan meals, take inventory,  shop for produce list, beware of bulk, be realistic, avoid excessive prepared food, use it up (At home) Store food sensibly, keep food  visible, don’t be a fridge filler, save leftovers, eat leftovers, repurpose, have a leftover night, use freezer If you want to learn more check out What might happen if reproductive isolation is incomplete?

Policy development: the process by which society makes decision about problems, chooses goals and proper means to reach them,  handles condlicting views about what should be done and allocates resources. We also discuss several other topics like Which type of organisms are placed in the kingdom protista?

NutPol=PIIA I AMDR=red rate chron  dis I HP2020:EACPI DefineProb Def/Exc, PubProb,Quant, JustNeed

10 steps to successful BF: written BF policy  routintely communicated with health care staff, train  all HC staff in skills necessary to implement the  policy, inform preg wom about benefits and mngmt  of BF, help moms initiate BF within half hour of  birth, show moms how to BF and maintain lactation,  nerborns ONLY get BF and nothing else unless  medically needed, allow moms to be in a room  together 24 hr/day, encourage BF on demand, no  artificial pacifiers for BF babies, Foster development  of BF support groups and direct moms to them

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