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Study Guide on Prokaryotes

by: Vivian Luong

Study Guide on Prokaryotes BIO 101

Vivian Luong
Cal State Fullerton

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First study guide to prepare for the 2nd bio exam with Prof Cindy Duong
Elements of Biology
Cindy Duong
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vivian Luong on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Cindy Duong in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.

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Date Created: 03/08/16
STUDY GUIDE on PROKARYOTES Complete study guide questions on a weekly basis to stay on top of lecture Readings from 3 ed. Phelan textbook: Ch. 3 (Section 3.2) and Ch. 13 (Sections 13.3-13.10) 1.  On the exam, be able to identify and describe the function of the following prokaryotic cell structures: Structure Function a.  cell wall Structural support and protection b.  plasma membrane Encloses the contents of the cell, separate the cell’s internal environment from its  external environment, & regulates movements of substances in and out of the cell c.  cytoplasm & cytosol Cytoplasm: The physical space between the cell membrane the nuclear membrane. Cytosol: Fluid that fills the cytoplasm; it provides internal support and nutrients  for the cell. d.  ribosomes Makes proteins for the cell e.  pili Allows bacteria to attach to surface f.  capsule 1. Prevents dehydration of bacteria (so it can survive longer) 2. Makes it more difficult for white blood cells to destroy bacteria g.  flagellum(pl: flagella1. Helps with cell movement 2. It helps prokaryotes move away from white blood cells of immune system &  helps move toward food and other resources like iron h.  chromosomal DNA Genes for basic survival i.  plasmid DNA 1. Allows antibiotics resistance 2. Bacteria can metabolize different food sources C. Duong Page 1 of 7 2. Practice this at home:  Label the major structures of this prokaryotic cell and write out their functions.   You can double check your answers using the labeled image provided in the PowerPoint slides. 3. Describe the process of binary fission in bacteria and compare it to our (eukaryotic cell) method of cell  division by mitosis.  Discuss one pro and one con of binary fission.  Binary Fission: how bacterial cells divide o Pro: they can take over quickly b/c cells can divide so fast (wants to survive/grow) o Con: all the cells are the same so if there are no genes, there are no features 4.  Explain how the following processes allow bacteria to acquire new genes that may be beneficial to them. a. Transformation: how initial bacteria can absorb new genes and import plasmid b. Conjugation:  o How 2 bacteria share genes o Conjugation bridge: point of contact where they merge 5.  How are resident microbes (also known as normal flora) different from pathogenic microbes?    Resident Microbes: healthy  Pathogenic Microbes: any disease causing agent 6. Why are resident microbes essential for good health? C. Duong Page 2 of 7 1) Vitamins K and B are produced 2) Can out compete pathogens for space (so pathogens can’t cause problems)  3) Produce toxins to kill pathogens 7.  The term “resident microbe” includes bacteria (prokaryotes) and fungi (eukaryotes) that are found  naturally in and on your body.  Lactobacillus is a common bacterial microbe and Candida is a common  fungal microbe (Candida is yeast).  Describe the relationship between bacterial and fungal resident microbes  and explain what occurs when the population of bacteria and fungi are out of balance.  Lactobacillus (resident bacterium): produce antifungal  Candida (resident fungus): produce antibiotics  Disrupters of microbe balance:  o 1. Stress o 2. Poor Diet o 3. Lack of Sleep o 4. Birth Control (increases yeast infection) 8.  Describe the protective role of the cervical mucus plug in a pregnant female.  Prevents exposure of resident microbes going upward to vaginal tract to protect the baby 9.  Discuss two ways resident microbes are first established in humans.  From vaginal tract as baby comes out from mother  C­ section, outer layer of resident microbes, environment 10.  Pathogenic microbes cause disease and illness as long as they are able to survive within the host’s body  (i.e., your body) and gradually weaken it.  Listed below are examples of virulence (disease­causing) factors  bacteria can use to increase survival rates.  Fill out the table based on information presented in lecture. Virulence (disease­causing) factors How does this help bacteria survive? What is a biofilm? How do bacteria benefit from forming biofilms?    Community of bacteria living together  Can share food/resources  Polysaccharide shield (sugar based)  Can talk to each other by releasing chemicals C. Duong Page 3 of7  Example: dental plaque What is an endotoxin?  What are the symptoms of  How do bacteria benefit from releasing endotoxins? exposure to an endotoxin?  “Inside” call  Kills our cells  Added to cell membrane of bacteria  Symptoms: fever, cough, body aches, chills What is an exotoxin?  What are the symptoms of  How do bacteria benefit from releasing exotoxins? exposure to an exotoxin?  Kills our cells  “Outside” cell  Released by bacteria  Symptoms: diarrhea, vomit What is an endospore? How do bacteria benefit from forming endospores? 11.  How are bacteria identified and classified?  Answer: By their shape.    Cocci: circular  Spirilla: spiral  Bacilli: rod­ shaped C. Duong Page 4 of 7 12.  Meningitis is an example of a bacterial infection caused by a cocci bacterium.  Fill in the table below.   Bacterial meningitis Route of   From nose to brain transmission  Ear canal to brain  Flu­like symptoms  Neck pain/stiffness  Loss of motor coordination  Slurred speech/nonsense words  Loss of cognition Symptoms Method of   Lumbar puncture diagnosis (if   Spinal fluid is collected to check if meningitis is gone discussed)   Treatment  Antibiotics are prescribed to kill the bacteria. 13.  What preventative measure can we take against bacterial meningitis?    HIB vaccine 14.  If there was an outbreak of meningitis on campus, what steps would be taken?  Identify where people has been and question if symptoms occur  Consider the vaccine 15. Anthrax is an example of a bacterial infection caused by a bacilli bacterium.  Fill out the table below.   You are responsible for any additional information covered in lecture regarding this disease.   Anthrax  Cutaneous exposure (most common route) Route of transmission  Inhalation  Ingestion  Symptoms  Skin lesions  Respiratory failure  Disruption and bleeding of GI organs Method of diagnosis (if   Blood test discussed) C. Duong Page 5 of 7 Treatment Antibiotics are prescribed to kill the bacteria. 16. Two examples of spirilli bacterial diseases were discussed in lecture.  Fill out the table for each.  You are responsible for any additional information covered in lecture regarding these diseases.   Syphilis  Transmitted when you are exposed with body fluid Route of transmission Symptoms  Little sore  Rash  Then, no symptoms at all Method of diagnosis (if   Blood tests discussed) Treatment Antibiotics are prescribed to kill the bacteria.   Lyme disease  Vector: insect that helps with disease transmission Route of transmission Symptoms  Where the tick bites (radiating bite forms rash)  Affect nervous system Method of diagnosis (if   Blood test, visual examinations discussed) Treatment Antibiotics are prescribed to kill the bacteria. 17.  Explain how bacteria can become resistant antibiotics when individuals fail to finish the entire course of  medication as prescribed by their doctor.  Occurs when medications is no longer effective of killing bacteria C. Duong Page 6 of 7  2 main goals o 1. Drastically reduce # of pathogenic bacteria o 2. Immune system takes over, white blood cells have a fighting chance to destroy remaining  bacteria C. Duong Page 7 of7


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