INTERNATNL RELATIONS INR 2002
Popular in Course
Popular in INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Barney Schaden on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to INR 2002 at Florida State University taught by Dale Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/205405/inr-2002-florida-state-university in INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS at Florida State University.
Reviews for INTERNATNL RELATIONS
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/17/15
INR Exam 2 Review Chapter 5 International Institutions and War I Collective Security Broad based institutions that promote peace and security among its member Collective Security works by either preventing violence from breaking out or in response to an act of aggression deemed a threat to international peace Three ways it affects bargaining between adversaries prospect of outside involvement makes con ict less attractive as it changes the likely outcome between groups or states Secondly it recti es commitment issues by enforcing what otherwise would be an unbelievable commitment by one state and lastly by serving as neutral observers and peacekeepers they can promote peace without violence Two major challengers are faced by Collective Security however Collective Action and JointDecision Making problems Collective Action problems arise as collective organizations do not have power to tax or raise troops and are entirely dependent on members to provide such free rider problem risks v rewards JointDecision Making problems deals with problems involving deciding who is aggressor when quali es as selfdefense and issues of legitimacy speci c interests The Security Council of the UN of 5 permanent and 10 variable members is the main governing body of the UN and as such is in charge of deciding what response is necessary for certain causes and also deciding which causes are worthy of involvement The P5 or permanent 5 are the 5 countries permanently on the UN Security Council US UK France Russia and China Voting in the UN is deciding through a majority result among all Council members and a unanimous result among the P5 As such the P5 exhibit extreme power of the UN as only one has to veto in order to successfully stop a resolution from being passed A Peacekeeping Operation involves observers and lightlyarmed troops that are deployed to monitor and make sure a cease re or peace agreement is honored A PeaceEnforcement Operation is when heavilyarmed troops are used to force or enforce peace among warring sides that have not agreed to end con ict During the Cold War 1946 1989 the UN was effectively paralyzed as both the US and USSR vetoed any resolutions that went against their desires effectively stalemating any UN involvement during that era However the Korean war was the lone exception and one of the few positive reviews of UN efforts as the USSR was boycotting meetings at the time they were not able to veto the UN resolution to stop the N Korean invasion Following the Cold War optimism over the UN s future role grew As the UN succeeded in the Gulf War by backing US defense of Kuwait from Iraqi invasion It was deemed that based on this success and the end of Cold War that a New World Order of peace through an effective UN would end con ict The Triumph of the Lack of Will refers to the failures of the UN to do anything involving Bosnia Somalia Rwanda and Darfur It refers to the member states lack of will to risk so much and spend so much with such little reward Kuwait had 20 of world s oil supply deemed valuable to American interests and was not in the members main interests UN has endured many Quiet Successes though through primarily peacekeeping missions being a neutral observer after peace is already attained as opposed to the police organization it was deemed to be After 911 all member states supported war on terror in Afghanistan as all deemed it best to combat the terrorist threat to their interests however despite not agreeing or being backed by UN on Iraq America was able to do some anyways due to being greatest actor in the organization For UN to be successful two requirements must be fulfilled One none of vetowielding members can see potential operations in con ict to its interests and Secondly the UN facilitates jointdecision making Poor Police are better than none The UN s spotty track record is better than having no such Collective Security Organization involved at all Chapter 6 International Trade Trade is good because it allows countries to realize the benefits of specialization and division of labor Specialization came to prominence through Adam Smith s The Wealth of Nations where he argued that division of labor allows gains from international trade countries should export what they are good at making and import what they are bad at making specialization increases productivity which increases growth Comparative Advantage is where a country can produce a certain good more efficiently than other goods Absolute Advantage is when a country can do so better than others however only a comparative advantage is necessary to gain from trade specialization Imports are gains from trade vs Exports which are the costs Free Trade allows a country to follow its comparative advantage ideal policy HeckscherOhlin Theorygt A country will export goods that make intensive use of the factors of production for which they are well endowed 2x2x2 model perfect internal competition 4 Factors of Production Land Capital Skilled and Unskilled Labor HO Theory very good at broad prediction of patterns in international trade Noneconomic factors can also effect trade such as diplomatic and military relations and most importantly national trade policies Types of Trade Barriers Restrictions are Tariffs tax imposed on imports Quotas quantitive limits placed on importation of goods also regulations and other forms of discrimination on foreign imports After 1945 the West reduced trade barriers between developed countries Governments restrict trade re ecting domestic concerns where many fear imports will hurt jobs or pro ts Bene ts and Costs of Trade Barriers Bene ts are than tariffs and quotas make it more expensive to import goods allowing domestic markets to gain pro ts The most direct cost is to consumers of protected good as they mostly end up paying more for the domestic goods than what they would ve paid for imported versions Producers gain and Consumers lose from trade barriers in what is called redistributive effect The three groups that lose the most are consumer of protected good included consuming industries also exporters who fear international retaliation and nally consumer in general may be willing to punish politicians for the costs of protection StolperSamuelson Theorem protection bene t s the scare factor of production Owners of scare factors support trade barriers while owners of abundant factor favor free trade RicardoViner Speci c Factors Approach emphasizes the sector in which factors of production are employed as opposed to HO theory which nature of factor is principle Protection favors narrow and concentrated groups while it harms consumers and the economy in whole Democracies tend to favor free trade vs Dictatorships favor mostly protection Due to trade with developing countries where labor is cheaper the wages of unskilled workers in the US has been stagnant or declining since 1970 Smaller regional based trade organizations make it easier to overcome problems of strategic interactions MFN Most Favored Nation status established in modern trade agreements stating that said countries will extend any favorable trading terms offered in agreements with third parties ex Tariff reduction to one country is given to all MFN status countries GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade the predecessor to WTO from 19481995 WTO World Trade Organization the successor to the GATT encourages and polices the multilateral reduction of barriers to trade and settles trade disputes Chapter 7 International Financial Relations amp Chapter 8 Monetagy Relations Types of Investments Portfolio gives investor some claim on income but none on managing investment Sovereign Lending loans from private nancial institutions to sovereign countries FDI Foreign Direct Investment company with facilities in another country in which is has control of said facility Investors invest abroad to earn higher rates of return on their capital than they could in their domestic market Borrowers borrow capital to increase productivity of other factors of production especially labor Both Gain Price of CapitalInterest Rate In a poor country capital is scarcegt expensive Interest rates are high In a rich country capital is abundantgtcheaper Interest rates are less Trade in Goods and Factor ows across National borders are near perfect substitutes Countries can trade goods that embody factors of production or allow those factors of production to move with near identical effects HO theorem factor ows are determined by relative factor abundance Capital ows from Capital abundant rich to Capital scarce poor countries Labor ows from Labor abundant poor to Labor scarce rich countries Although according to HO international investment ows from rich to rich countries 90 of international investment goes to rich countries Higher risk investing in developing or poorer countries higher chance of receiving return from developed rich countries International investment far riskier than Domestic investments because of exchange rate risks and investors have no control over foreign governments which may take actions that reduce the value of their investments Companies borrow from abroad to expand their business Governments borrow from abroad to finance projects to spur development roads power plants ports etc Governments can raise additional funds to repay debts by raising taxes reducing government service spending andor restraining wages Groups that bear austerity measures may not be the same groups that benefited from the loans International Political Economy eralism Lib Actors are individuals households and firms Goal is to maximize Global welfare Nature of Economic Relations are ha1monious Economics and Politics should be separate Interactions based on mutually beneficial exchange and absolute gains View Change as continued growth and a progressive spread of income Values of Worldview proponents are efficiency and growth Typical Prescription of LaissezFaire rcantilism Me Actors are NationStates Goal is to maximize National Interest Nature of Economic Relations are con ictual Politics determines Economics Interactions based on power and wealth A relative gain Change viewed as same as the past Cycles of Hegemony Values of Worldview proponents are stability and relative peace Typical Prescription is protect enhance power and national selfsufficiency
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'