Study guide for the exam tomorrow 4/12/16
Study guide for the exam tomorrow 4/12/16 POLS 155
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alison Dhont on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 155 at California State University Chico taught by Craig Scarpelli in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 190 views. For similar materials see Intro to American Government in Political Science at California State University Chico.
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Study Guide American Government 2 nd Exam Chapter 6: The Fifth Branch: refers to the press in its role as a check and balance, checks on public officials after the other four branches, through its commentary and broadcast of events. Types of Public Opinion: Broad expressions are typically formed early in life and remain stable over time. A latent opinion is formed on the spot, only when needed (as distinct from a deeply held opinion, which is stable over time). Or Opinion intensity: Measures how strongly people feel about an issue or politician. Opinion saliency: Measures the extent to which issues are important and relevant to peoples lives. On like Processing: “ like democrats but I’m not sure why..” Growth of Radio/TV in Us: the growth of cable has dramatically decreased the number of newspapers in circulation. 1970’s- cable services developed. 2009- all TV’s switched to digital delivery. FOUR major networks: ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC……..Disney owns ABC network! 41% of Americans say that internet was major source of national and international news. News Consumption Yesterday: Penny Press- main newspaper contact for news for Americans. Newspaper, even though TV has triumphed over it, is still the main source for local news. 58% of American’s watch TV news daily, and 32% read a newspaper, 34 percent listen to the radio, and 34% get daily online news. Media Monopolies: Locally owned newspapers and television shows may be a thing of the past. Laws that prevent a single station from reaching more than 35% of viewers and prevent a single company from owning more than one of the four major networks. **The fairness Doctrine: a regulation of the federal communications commission that required radio and television stations to devote some airtime to balanced discussion of political issues. To keep it fair and to make sure both sides are represented. WAS REPEALED in 1987. News Release: a story written by a press agent for distribution to the media. Federal Communications Commission: Established in 1934 as the successor to the radio commission. Has broad rule making authority. Regulates the telecommunications industry. Limit commercial time, prohibits filthy words. FCC has 5 commissioners for a 7year term. The Equal Time Rule: a provision of the communications act that requires radio and television stations to give or sell equivalent time to one political candidate If the station has given or sold time to another candidate for that office. Confidentiality of News Sources: SHIELD ACTS: statutes that protect the identity of journalist’s news sources or their knowledge of criminal acts. A president has a very good relationship with press during first few months after inauguration, then steadily declines until they leave office. The Media as Gatekeepers: Journalists and media consultants get to decide what the public gets to hear about. They do not show you everything that happens, only what they want you to see. Only 35% of Americans say they follow politics closely. Supportive media can work wonders on how America views you. Leaks/ Backgrounds: A lead is a deliberate leakage of information given by an official to a journalist for a specific purpose. A background is a news briefing in which reporters may not reveal the identity of the source of their information. Are the Media Biased?: 63% of people think that media is biased. Media and news reporting is a business, so its hard to trust that these things are not biased when they are being paid to get your attention with their stories. Political News: Entertaining and Informative?: satirical news is more effective in getting attention than news itself. It seems that its so boring that people need to see the humor in it in order to understand. Agenda Setting: the process by which the news media select and focus on a small number of stories from a large number of possibilities because of the time crunch on air, thus shaping how Americans view different problems and their opinions. Framing: How the media talks about a subject, their tone of voice and wording. If a journalist is negative, the way the audience perceives it will also be negative and can impact their initial idea of a situation. Chapter 7 Interest groups and political party: Professional and Public Interests: looks for how everyone’s interests can get served, as a public whole. Pluralism and Elitism: elitism is the idea that a small group holds all the power, and they are the elite people who know how to run the country. Pluralism is the idea that we all share the power, and we all checkup on each others powers. Federal election campaign act 1974: an attempt to stop the unnecessary expenses during campaign time, and has each party regulate and give sources of everything they spend money on. Only had 1000$ for individual contributions and 5000$ for group contributions. PAC’s became wildly popular after this because it was another way to raise money. Direct Lobbying- lobbying is the attempt to influence legislation by coming up in person and talking to them about concerns through personal contact. These people are very informed about their topic, and often support and help congress edit and collaborate about bills and amendments. Direct Grassroots lobbying: attempting to influence congress by reaching out to the citizens in their area, and persuading them to contact their legislators. This is sometimes ineffective because its hard to have everyone agree on one thing. Iron Triangle: The combination of interest groups representatives, legislative committees, and government administrators seen as extremely influential in determining the outcome on political decisions. Cross Cutting Cleavage: a break in polarizing conflict in society. The overlapping of multiple groups that an individual is in, and therefore they can agree with certain people but not with others. Stops us from being EVERYONE against EVERYONE ELSE. Interest group elitism: The idea that the leaders of an interest group may act in ways that promote their own interests rather than the interests of the broader membership of the group. The powerful group swill eventually overpower the smaller groups. What parties do: Parties put people into categories in relation to what they agree with and how they feel about political problems, and then having them vote for you once they’re in your party. These parties stay strong by not changing their views, and gaining more followers the stronger they get. Proportional representation: Proportional representation is a type of electoral system that decides the make-up of a parliament by allocating seats on the basis of the number of votes each party received. Although there are many different types of PR, this is the base requirement for a system to be described as proportional. Party Platform: A broad statement of the philosophy and program under which a parties candidates run for election. (read chapter 8) National Convention: The meeting of an American political party that focuses on the upcoming presidential election. They sit and plan about the political campaign, a big “introduction” meeting Political machine: a political organization that recruits and controls its members by giving them benefits in return for voting for their things or supporting their opinions. Parties- Past, present, future: Political parties in the past Federalists vs antifederalists, only two parties and the democratic party is the oldest standing party. Presently, parties seemed weak, and people are starting to stray away from picking a side. There is said to be a resurgence in political party power. People usually chose the same political party that they grew up in, but this is changing drastically. In the future, parties have showed to adapt well to major changes, no matter how slowly, time continues to move and the parties will change. Chapter 8 CAMPAIGNS AND ELECTIONS Voting requirements and eligibility: People have to decide whether or not to vote and how to vote. 26 amendment fixed the minimum voting age to 18 instead of 21. Because people who are old enough to die for our country should be able to vote. VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1970 states that a person should be a resident for more than 30 days to officially participate in presidential elections. Campaign finance: Campaigns have restrictions to how much they can use and how much they can ask for in donations. Voter turnout: The older a person is, the more educated a person is, and the greater the interest in politics they are makes it more likely for them to vote. Lots of people don’t actually vote because the one day is inconvenient to them. Soft money : money that can be collected for a campaign that has no restrictions, and can fund as much as they want. Hard money: a loan is a specific type of asset-based loan financing through which a borrower receives funds secured by real property. Hard money loans are typically issued by private investors or companies. The primaries and Caucuses: a primary election is when the party picks their delegates to a party convention, and votes for it’s candidates for public office. The Caucuses are a meeting of the members of a legislative body who are members of a particular political party, to select candidates or decide policy. Regional Primary a primary election held within a region instead of just a state. LIKE the West vs the South. General Election: Happens every November and has everyone in the entire country vote for their preference in president. Candidates and Issues: The Electoral College: Electors chosen by the voters get chosen to actually vote for the president. This could be bad because a elector could be a faithless elector and chose the opposite person you chose him to chose for you. Who runs for president: A president cannot be elected more than twice- Twenty Second Amendment. Presidents usually have held other high political positions in their past. This gains them recognition and allows them to be voted in. Only Dwight Eisenhower never held another elective office. Media Consultants” an expert hired by a political candidate to give advice on the use of the mass media. Particularly television and direct mail. So the person on AIR can look poised and professional, and their reputation is not soiled. Exit Poll: a poll taken from voters as they leave the voting place, to see who they voted for and to make a guess in how the election is going. Who is winning? Presidential Election Campaign Fund: 3$ tax taken from citizens that the president can use in his campaign for expenses. CHAPTER 9 THE CONGRESS Functions of Congress: congress has the power to make the necessary and proper clause which is that they can make all laws that are proper for carrying on normal everyday peace. And to maintain power within government. Constitutional powers of Congress: Congress is also limited in powers, they cant make laws that weren’t there before a crime in order to put someone in jail, and they cannot give someone a jail sentence without a trial.- BILL OF ATTAINDER Differences between senate and the house: Senate: has 100 members, 6 year terms, riders are permitted, treaty ratifying powers. House: 435 members, two year terms, from the states and not as old, right to originate tax bills. Debate in house and senate: Seventeenth Amendment: 1913, provides for the direct popular election of US senators. Party leadership: Speaker of the house is most powerful officer in the house of rep. this person is next in line to the president. Can nominate people for the rules committee that clears the most important bills. The whip- a person who acts as an assistant leader to the minority and majority party, and encourages discipline and attendance. In the senate; the president of the senate is the chief officer. How a bill becomes a law: WATCH THIS VIDEO ONLINE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66f4-NKEYz4&nohtml5=False Franking privilege pork barrel politics: franking privilege is the congressional benefit that permits members to send mail without using postage. Can help them send out mail to their constitutions and keep them informed. Pork Barrel Politics is a method of gaining popularity by using federal funds to improve and build things like sewage plants and dams. Standing, select, and Joint committees: Standing committee: the permanent committees of congress that alone can approve legislation and send it to the floor of the house or senate. Joint committee: permanent committees of congress made up of both houses! Select special committees: committees of congress created periodically to study and solve particular problems or new areas of legislation. Subcommittees: most of the standing committees are divided into subcommittees. 104 in the house and 72 in the senate. Helps to make it more obtainable. Pg. 237 Committee Chairs: A committee chair serves as the parliamentary head of a committee. The chair sets the committee's agenda, determining when—or in many states, whether—bills will be considered. Other responsibilities of a committee chair typically include: Calling the committee together to perform its duties. Distributive policies: Distributive policies extend goods and services to members of an organization, as well as distributing the costs of the goods/services amongst the members of the organization. Redistributive policies: Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law. Chapter 10 THE PRESIDENT Powers of the president: Chief of state, can be a symbol of national unity in times of crisis. He is the head of government too, and they become symbols of adoration, but that slowly decreases as their term continues. Has the power to send the troops anywhere. President gets blamed for bad things happening. Can have power to pardon and the removal power to remove someone who is insufficient. Appointment Powers: A power of appointment is a term most frequently used in the law of wills to describe the ability of the testator (the person writing the will) to select a person who will be given the authority to dispose of certain property under the will. PRESIDENT CAN CHOOSE AND APPOINT PEOPLE THEY ARE COMFORTABLE WITH. The president and the constitution: only natural born citizens of the Us can run for presidency. A president must be 35 years old to run, and a resident of the US for at least 14 years. Different presidents interpreted their “executive power” differently. Election 2008 breaks new ground: War powers Act 1973: The War Powers Resolution (also known as the War Powers Resolution of 1973 or the War Powers Act) (50 U.S.C. 1541–1548) is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of the U.S. Congress. Stewardship constitutional theories: Stewardship theory is a theory that managers, left on their own, will indeed act as responsible stewards of the assets they control. The ongoing war on terrorism: Military commissions act that expands the detention and interrogation powers. Terrorism scared the nation, president bush included the creation of a new department of homeland security. The president needs to agree with congress and the senate in order to ask for war. The cabinet: the cabinet is a selected group of individuals that the president can ask questiond too at any time, but does not have to ask for their advice. The cabinet brings ideas from all areas, and can prove to be very loyal. Made of an inner and outer cabinet. The white house staff: President can hire white house staff that are people whom he feels comfortable confiding in and provide MULTIPLE ADVOCACY which is a system of advising the president in which all sides of an issue is presented. Veto options: the most important checks and balances power the president has is the veto. HE can say no to any bill and send it back to the beginning. Presidential Secession: should a president be impeached or convicted, resign or die, the vice president will step up in his place. The twenty fifth amendment provided a mechanism whereby the president is disabled that the vice president takes his place and a new vice president is elected In his place. After the VP is the speaker of the house, then the president of senate, and then the cabinet secretaries. The cold war: the cold war is when the president asked for American aid in protecting south Korea against north Korea. Truman basically initiated war without the permission of congress, and it was not allowed but he put them into war anyways. The Iraq war After the 9/11 attack the war train sped up. The doctrine of preemption stated that Americas strategy would now be to attack potential enemies before they attacked us. Bush wanted immediate action to be given. Obama wanted to stop the war but no progress. Executive orders: Executive Orders (EOs) are legally binding orders given by the President, acting as the head of the Executive Branch, to Federal Administrative Agencies. Executive Orders are generally used to direct federal agencies and officials in their execution of congressionally established laws or policies. Executive privilege: The right of the president to refuse to give out information to congress and the court. Impeachment: an actual impeachment is caused by the house acting as a grand jury. House decides if they should be impeached, and senate agrees or disagrees on this decision. CHAPTER 12 THE COURTS Foundation of American Law: The law of the United States comprises many levels [1of codified and unmodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States. The Constitution sets out the boundaries of federal law, which consists of acts of Congress, treaties ratified by the Senate, [3regulations promulgated by the executive branch, and case law originating from the federal judiciary. Judicial Review: Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary. A court with judicial review power may invalidate laws and decisions that are incompatible with a higher authority, such as the terms of a written constitution. Marbury v Madison: Marbury v. Madison was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. The landmark decision helped define the boundary between the constitutionally separate executive and judicial branches of the American form of government. The US court system: The courts of the United States are closely linked hierarchical systems of courts at the federal and state levels. The federal courts form the judicial branch of the federal government of the United States and operate under the authority of the United States Constitution and federal law. Eleventh Amendment : he 11th Amendment changed a portion of Article III, Section 2. The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State. Federal Judicial Selection: According to Article II of the United States Constitution, the President "shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint" federal judges. According to Article III, federal judges enjoy life tenure and cannot be removed from office except through impeachment. Law Clerks A law clerk or a judicial clerk is a person who provides assistance to a judge in researching issues before the court and in writing opinions. Unlike the court clerk and the courtroom deputy, both of whom are administrative staff for the court, a law clerk assists the judge in making legal determinations . Special Courts; Common forms of special courts include "Drug Courts," "Family Courts," and "Traffic Courts". In 2008, the first Veterans' Court was created. Of the older such courts, usually Article I tribunals, is the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces founded in 1951 which functions as an appeal court for military offences.
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