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Midterm 2/4

by: Sarah Steadman
Sarah Steadman
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This is a study guide for the midterm we had in February just in case we need it for review for the final.
Cognitive Neuroscience
Dr. Greenberg
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Steadman on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 385 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Greenberg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Neuroscience in Psychlogy at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
PSYC 385 Final Review Sheet for Exam 1 This exam will assess your knowledge of the neuroanatomy, neuroimaging techniques, and  research findings that we have covered so far.  I expect that the exam will involve some  identification, some factual questions, and some short­answer questions that ask about research  findings, experimental designs, etc.  This is the final review sheet—if it isn’t on this sheet, it isn’t on the exam.  (The material from today’s class is at the very bottom.)  Know the four main lobes of the brain (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital) and the major sulci,  and be able to mark them on an unmarked/uncolored brain from several perspectives (medial,  ventral, lateral, etc.) Be able to identify whether an image was taken in the coronal, sagittal, or axial/horizontal plane. What is the difference between structural and functional imaging?  What can structural imaging  tell you that functional imaging can’t, and vice versa? Structural Imaging: x­ray, CT, cerebral angiography, MRI, Angiography, DTI,  Probing Functional: EEG,cant determine exact place for something, ERP, MEG, fMRI,  For each of the imaging methods we discussed (CT, MRI, angiography, MRI (both T1 and T2),  diffusion tensor imaging, probing for particular compounds using PET; EEG, PET, fMRI, , , ….) you should be able to answer the key questions I posed: What’s it good for?  How precise is it— that is, what are its spatial, temporal, and contrast resolutions?  What isn’t it good for? CT: MRI:  Line up water molecules, knock them over, see how long they take to realign T1 good for gray/white contrast T2: good for most clinical applications Angiography: DTI:  Can reveal white matter damage which is harder to pick up on other scanners  Works by knowcking over protons and tagging them to see where they go Probing:  Inject radiolabeled tracer that binds to a compound and you can watch where it ends up  Structural not functional PET:  Picks up functional changes before structural  Radioactive substance…yuck  Radioactive oxygen breaks down and emits a positron which the scanner picks up.  EEG:   Can detect small/ rapid changes  Non invasive  Hard to determine location ERP and MEG:  Slower  Involves signal averaging, extracting signal from noise  Can detect time and sequence of activation fMRI  Measures ozygen level and flow  :no radiation, more precise, combine structural and functional;   not good becayse cant have metal in your body to use the scanner, some things cant be  done in a scanner, assumption that a change in brain equals a change in blood flow which may not be correct. In particular, what exactly are you measuring when you use functional MRI?  What is the BOLD signal?  What is the pattern of the BOLD response?  What is the initial dip, and why does it  occur?  Detect changes in relative hemoglobin concentration, neural fnunction, increase flow of  oxygen.  Actually measuring the levels of O after stimulation of dendrites in synapse causing O in  nucleus.   Measuring input  BOLD: blood­oxygen­level dependent Initial dipSure.  (By the way, sorry it took me a while to get  back to you­­I have zero free time on Tuesdays!) Anyway, functional MRI is essentially measuring the levels of  oxygenated blood in a particular brain region. This is useful  because brain regions that are *more* active tend to use  *more* blood. So let's say you show someone a really colorful and dynamic moving picture.  The visual cortex (especially V4 and MT) will activate. At first, the visual cortex will use up all  of the oxygen in the surrounding area, so the level of  oxygenated blood will decrease. As that starts to run out, the  visual cortex will send a signal to dilate (expand) the blood  vessels and flood the area with oxygenated blood, so the level of oxygenated blood will increase. You can see that in the graph below. It shows the oxygenation levels in a particular brain region as it becomes more active.    Here, the Y axis shows the oxygen levels, and the X axis  shows how they change over time. At first, the level of oxygen actually drops, because the brain region is using up all of the  oxygen in the area.  Then it increases as oxygenated blood  flows into the area. At the end, there is a slight overshoot  where it drops below 0 again (not everyone finds this,  though). Then it returns to baseline.  Hope that helps­­let me know if you have more  questions. (It's tricky because it's not a simple pattern.)  How do you go about designing a functional MRI experiment?  What sort of control condition do you need?   Put someone in a scanner ad have them listen to music and read music (control) watch how brain responds. They need to do something because otherwise they will fall asleep. Looking for BOLD response to listening to music, not reading the music. What is transcranial magnetic stimulation? What is transcranial direct current stimulation? Magnetic coil placed over brain region, magnetic field “shuts down” that part of the brain,  creates a reversible brain lesion. Attempt to treat depression—dorsolateral profrontal cortex.  tCDS: send current into brain from electrodes on scalp, stimulate or shut down assorted  brain regions. Ex. Dot line connection test­stimulation makes you better. What are the terms used to describe directions in the brain (e. g. anterior, posterior, medial,  lateral, etc.) Know the function of all of the brain regions we’ve mentioned so far, and be able to mark them  on a drawing of the brain (corpus callosum, ventricles, V1, lateral geniculate nucleus, etc.)  CC: connect hemispheres  Ventricles: supplies nutrients  Cerebellum: fine motor control and cognition  Limbic system: learning, memory, and emotion  Basal ganglia: movement, motor learning  What are the key components of the brainstem?  Thalamus and down  Diencephalon, midbrain, hindbrain, cerebellum What are the key components of the limbic system? What does the limbic system do?  Medial temporal lobe o Hippocampus o Amygdala  Fornix  Cingulate gyrus  Learning, memory, emotion What are the key components of the basal ganglia?  What do the basal ganglia do?  Caudate  Putamen  Central striatum o Nucleu accumbens o Substantia nigra o Ventral tegmental area o Movement  What are the major white­matter tracts in the brain?  What function do they serve?  (We haven’t  yet talked about the uncinate fasciculus, but we’ve discussed some of the others when going over the dorsal and ventral streams.) What are the three major cerebral arteries? What parts of the brain do they supply? (You should  be able to mark the regions they supply on a diagram of the brain.) How is the brain protected from injury?  Meninges  Pia mater  Arachnoid  Dura Mater  CSF  Skull  Hair What are the main ways in which the brain can be damaged?    Stroke: interruption of blood flow  Hemorrhagic: ruptured blood vessel  Ischemic: blockage of blood vessel  Traumatic brain injury (TBI)  Closed­head injury  Open­head injury  Neurodegenerative disease  Alzheimer’s, etc.  Anoxia: interruption of oxygen delivery  Heart attack  Asthmatic attack  Neoplasm (tumor) What are the key properties of consciousness?  What brain regions seem to be responsible for  consciousness?  What are the different levels of impairment of consciousness?  Intentionality: Consciousness is about something—usually the self  Limited control: We’re not entirely in charge  Unity & Selectivity: Typically focus on one thing (hard to multitask)  Fluidity: Consciousness is constantly changing  Claustrum­connects brain regions Impairments  Brain death  Coma  Vegetative state  Minimally conscious state  Locked­in state How did Owen use fMRI to determine whether people in the vegetative state were conscious?  Imagining the rooms in your home: parietal (and other) activation  Imagining playing tennis: supplementary motor area (near motor cortex)  Same thing happens in SOME people in vegetative state What cells in the retina detect light?  What is the difference between rods and cones?  What are  the different kinds of cones?    Cones:color o Red  o Green o blue  Rods: light/dark  Ganglion cells What are retinal ganglion cells?  To what kind of stimulus are they sensitive?  What are on­ center and off­center cells?  lead to optic nerve  respond to what we can see  usually light of specific locations (on center off surround)  Midget (parvocellular pathway; slower; color)  Parasol (magnocellular pathway; fast; contrast; rods)  Bistratified (koniocellular pathway; intermediate; blue cones)  Photosensitive (suprachiasmatic nucleus?)  How is the retina organized?  That is, different parts of the retina (in each eye) go to different  parts of the brain; which parts go where?    Fovea: center of eye, more cones tha  rods  What looking at directly  Geniculostraite goes back to V1 and crosses over  Tecto pulvinar stays inside tectum in thalamus  Tecto­motion What is the difference between the geniculostriate path and the tectopulvinar path?  Where does  each pathway go, what function does each pathway serve, and what information does each  pathway transmit?   How is the lateral geniculate nucleus organized?   Organized in layers What artery feeds the occipital lobe and the major visual regions? PCA What is blindsight?  Why don’t people with blindsight react to the color blue?  Patients claim to be blind but do better than chance  Respond to facial expressions  Navigate a maze  Geniculostriate pathway bad, tecto good.   Cant detend blue/ purple What is Anton’s syndrome?  What is anosognosia?  83­year­old woman  Admitted due to stroke  No dementia/delirium  Pupillary dilation normal  Totally blind  Crashed into things  Couldn’t answer questions  Denied blindness  Ventricular enlargement  Bilateral occipital damage  Anosagnosia: lack of insight into illness Where is V1 and what role does it play?  What sort of stimuli are V1 neurons sensitive to?  Why  is edge detection so important?  Sensitive to angles  Edge detection  What are ocular dominance columns? Diagonal columns that respond to different colors in the brain? What are the roles of area V4 and area V5/MT? 1. V4: color 2. V5/MT: motion What is the difference between the dorsal stream, the ventral stream, and the superior temporal  sulcus stream?  Where are they located and what information do they process?   What is apperceptive agnosia? What is associative agnosia?  Dorsal stream: handles (visuo)spatial information  Ventral stream: handles object/face information  Superior temporal sulcus stream: visual motion(?)  Apperceptive/integrative: can’t combine parts into whole (right hemisphere)  Associative: can combine parts, but can’t recognize object (left hemisphere) What is Balint syndrome?  Optic ataxia: cant move eyes to a point  Gaze ataxia: when you look at something you cant reach and grab it  Simultanagnosia: an only see one thing at a time What are some functional neuroimaging studies that have provided evidence for the roles of  these brain regions (i.e., everything from V1 onward)? Let people look at people and at places, you can see what they are looking at based on brain  activity. Look at image..certain brain waves. Can tell what they are looking at. How can fMRI be used to “read” someone’s mind and determine what they are thinking? What is prosopagnosia? What brain region(s) are involved in face recognition? How does  face recognition differ in people with autism?  What is the evidence that we have a bias  towards the left visual field in face recognition?  Cant tell peron by their face. Can be acquired from brain injury or inherited  Fusiform face area­ unique identity  Occipital face area­nose, lips etc  Superior temporal sulcus­expression and eye gaze  Look at woman with two left sides of her face, looks more similar to herself than if  you put two right sides together  Mirror­we don’t look like we think we do What is the difference between congenital prosopagnosia and acquired prosopagnosia? What are the different “kinds” of space? (You should focus on the ones we discussed most —peripersonal space and distal space.)    Body space (proprioception)  Peripersonal/grasping space (simultanagnosia)  Distal space  (Time space)  Egocentric space (relative to you)  Allocentric space (relative to world around you) What is hemineglect? How do you test for hemineglect? What brain region is involved in  hemineglect?  What is the evidence that attention, not perception, is impaired in  hemineglect?   Inattention” or indifference to left side of space  Appear to have hemiplegia or hemianopia….  …but basic perception, motor function, etc., generally OK  Typically affects left side  Arises from damage to right inferior parietal lobule  Can affect one or more senses (vision most common)  Can sometimes attend to neglected side with sufficient stimulation  Can affect memory too!  Barbell test, mirror, prism goggles


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