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psych 302 learning and memory study guide 1 part 1

by: jh1371

psych 302 learning and memory study guide 1 part 1 Psych 302

Marketplace > California State University - Fullerton > Psychlogy > Psych 302 > psych 302 learning and memory study guide 1 part 1
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part 1 of study guide for test 1. covers chapter 1-2
Learning and Memory
Dr. Wilson-Ozima
Study Guide
Psychology, 302 learning and memory, CSUF
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by jh1371 on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 302 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Wilson-Ozima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Learning and Memory in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Chapter 1 Learning – relatively permanent change in behavior that results from some type of experience Memory – mental processes for acquiring and retaining info for later retrieval / mental storage  system enables these processes How are learning and memory related ­ move information into LTM and automaticity  Clive Wearing – couldn’t form new memories video* > has amnesia, forgets immediately • Removal of hippocampi resulted in amnesia Plato ­ Nativism • Knowledge is inborn / souls gather knowledge from past life Aristotle ­ empiricism   Knowledge gained from experience  Children born w/ minds that have yet to be written on Descartes ­ French philosopher / mathematician   cognition ergo sum (I think therefore, I know) / dualism: mind and body are separate  entities John Locke William James Galton Nativist ­ knowledge inborn Empiricist ­ knowledge gained from experience  Ebbinghaus ­ father of memory research > 1st attempt to quantify human learning and forgetting  nonsense syllables   ­ negative acceleration  Savings score             ­ retention curve  Thorndike ­ puzzle box and cats / trial and error learning > instrumental conditioning  (reinforced/link) Watson ­ founder of behaviorism Hull/Mathematical Learning Models – composed a mathematical equation to explain behavior • E = (H x D x K) ­ I • E­ reaction potential / H­ habit strength / D ­ drive / K­incentive motivation / I­  inhibition  Skinner­ wrote behavior of organisms > operant conditioning > Skinner box > reinforcement  schedule Radical behaviorism Pavlov/ Classical Conditioning – collected dog saliva / sight of food made dog saliva Darwin/ Evolution/Natural Selection – nature vs. nurture Tolman/ Cognitive maps – goal directed behavior  • Behavior has a purpose and is cognitive • Used maze to study rat behavior Bower/Insight Miller/ Information Theory ­ measured short­term memory > average digit span 7 digits +/­ 2 Rumelhart/Connectionist Models ­ connection model > information contained in nodes Experimental Psychology Behaviorism­ study learning Neobehaviorism­ Make use of intervening variables to help explain relationship between  environment and behavior   Environmental events > internal hydrological process (ex. Hunger/fatigue) > observable  behavior Methodological Behaviorism­ internal events (ex. Consciously perceived thoughts) are excluded from the analysis Cognitive behaviorism – theorists make use of intervening variables Declarative /explicit memory – consists of info that is explicitly stored and retrieved  • Memories that can be consciously recalled Helping behavior and feelings of concern – voluntary actions intended to help others w/ or w/o  reward Non­declarative/implicit memory – type of long­term memory that doesn’t require conscious  though • Flows effortlessly in our actions ex. Procedural memory, priming Internal events Skinner Molar view and genetics – genes have a great impact on behavior but behaviors can  change • Behaviors w/ favorable outcomes are more likely to be repeated / those do not  lead to favorable outcomes are less likely to be repeated Chapter 2 H.M. and his contributions – removal of hippocampi resulted in amnesia Comparative Neuroanatomy – branch of neuroscience that searches for the rules behind such  organized diversity, which results from evolution Lobes of the neocortex –  ­ Frontal: responsible for some of the most complex cognitive processes ­ parietal: important for processing sensations of touch, including body position,  pressure, skin temp, and pain   ­ occipital: visual processing center ­ temporal: language comprehension, emotion association Internal Structures Thalamus – subcortical structure involves with the processing of sensory info, states of arousal,  and learning corpus callosum – wide band of axons connecting the right and left hemispheres of the brain hippocampus – connected to amygdale, plays an important role in episodic memory (long term) Neurons – processing info by communicating w/ each other - Axon: branch of a neuron that sends messages to other neurons - Dendrite: branch for neural cell body that receives input from other  neurons/receive messages from other neurons - Node of Ranvier: gap between myelin - Glia cells: provide physical structure holding neurons in place Sensory input Action potential/strength – when stimulated, potassium leaves the axon and sodium travels  inside / during resting potential, potassium is inside and sodium is outside - Resting potential: ­70mV - Hyperpolarized: difference between electrical charge inside and outside of the  neuron increases Neurotransmitters/reuptake,enzymes ­  chemical messenger that communicates across a synapse Synapse/pre and post synaptic – point of communication between two neurons Chemical synapse – neurotransmitters can have two effects on a neuron - Excitatory effect: depolarize the receiving neuron - Inhibitory effect: hyperpolarize the receiving neuron Spatial summation – input from many synapses is added together to determine whether or not an action potential will be produced Temporal summation – single, very active synapse may provide sufficient input to produce an  action potential Types of neurotranmitters/names & function ­ Glutamate ­ excitatory (activates receptors increasing the possibility of the postsynaptic neurons firing) ­ GABA ­ inhibitory (does the opposite if glutamate and tells adjoining cells not to fire  and send and impulse) ­ acetylcholine – connects motor neurons & muscles/attention & memory regulation ­ dopamine – regulates reward seeking behavior ­ norepinephrine – increases arousal / long lasting memories ­ Epinephrine – increases attention and concentration ­ serotonin – regulates sleep, mood, appetite, and aggression ­ histamine – regulates sleep and arousal ­ glycine – decreases neural activity Neuromodulators/ function – diffuse away from the synapse to target cells some distance away Primary Sensory cortices ­ sound (A1): primary auditory cortex, located in temporal lobe ­ touch(S1): primary somatosensory cortex, located in parietal lobe ­ visual (V1): primary visual cortex – located in occipital lobe Primary motor cortex (M1) – generates coordinated movements, area where decisions are made  and instructions are sent to spinal cord to activate motor fibers that control muscles Cortical Homunculus – neurological map of anatomical divisions of the body > 2 types 1) Sensory 2) Motor Ramachandran/learned  - Brain constructs body image in mind / Eternal sense of presence of body (arms,  legs, etc.) is constructed in brain (ex. Phantom limb) - In brain there is a mapping of the body  - Part of the brain responsible for hand feeling isn’t getting any more info so now  head region is activating hand region of the brain (reorganization of sensory  pathways in the brain) paralysis/mirror box Lashley – studied learning and memory - Tried to locate area in brain where memory traces were stored  - Concluded memories are stored all throughout the brain through tissue Theory of equipotentiality – positions that all areas of the brain are equally able to perform tasks ­ Contrasts w/ localization in which functions are specifically referable to discrete areas  of brain > damage to region would produce selective cognitive deficits NMDA receptor – receptor involved in learning ­ Functions are the predominant molecular mechanism involved in controlling synaptic    plasticity & memory function ­ N­methyl­D­aspartate) Synaptic/neural plasticity – learning (experience can change a synapse) Donald Hebb – neurons that fire together, wire together Rosenweig's study enriched vs. impoverished environments – investigated whether  environmental factors such as a rich or impoverished environment affect development of  neurons in cerebral cortex - Enriched environment – stimulation of brain by its physical and social  surroundings > brain can change and adapt to new situations - Impoverished environment – no toys or maze Methods of studying the brain: ­ fMRI – measures brain activity by detecting changes in blood flow > functioning of  brain ­ PET – uses radiotraces (camera/computer) to evaluate organ and tissue functions ­ EEG – measures electrical activity non­invasively through electrodes Phrenology – pseudo medicine primarily focused on measurements of the human skull ­ Based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind and certain brain areas  have localized, special functions or modules Reflexes (types) – stretch reflex,  Long­term potentiation – persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of  activity  ­ Produce a long­lasting increase in signal transmission between 2 neurons Long­term depression – activity­dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses  lasting hours Effects of drugs – brain can adjust to chemical changes 


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