psych 302 learning and memory study guide 1 part 1
psych 302 learning and memory study guide 1 part 1 Psych 302
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Learning and Memory
verified elite notetaker
KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance
Sergio Castro Rachmacy
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by jh1371 on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 302 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Wilson-Ozima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Learning and Memory in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
Reviews for psych 302 learning and memory study guide 1 part 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/09/16
Chapter 1 Learning – relatively permanent change in behavior that results from some type of experience Memory – mental processes for acquiring and retaining info for later retrieval / mental storage system enables these processes How are learning and memory related move information into LTM and automaticity Clive Wearing – couldn’t form new memories video* > has amnesia, forgets immediately • Removal of hippocampi resulted in amnesia Plato Nativism • Knowledge is inborn / souls gather knowledge from past life Aristotle empiricism Knowledge gained from experience Children born w/ minds that have yet to be written on Descartes French philosopher / mathematician cognition ergo sum (I think therefore, I know) / dualism: mind and body are separate entities John Locke William James Galton Nativist knowledge inborn Empiricist knowledge gained from experience Ebbinghaus father of memory research > 1st attempt to quantify human learning and forgetting nonsense syllables negative acceleration Savings score retention curve Thorndike puzzle box and cats / trial and error learning > instrumental conditioning (reinforced/link) Watson founder of behaviorism Hull/Mathematical Learning Models – composed a mathematical equation to explain behavior • E = (H x D x K) I • E reaction potential / H habit strength / D drive / Kincentive motivation / I inhibition Skinner wrote behavior of organisms > operant conditioning > Skinner box > reinforcement schedule Radical behaviorism Pavlov/ Classical Conditioning – collected dog saliva / sight of food made dog saliva Darwin/ Evolution/Natural Selection – nature vs. nurture Tolman/ Cognitive maps – goal directed behavior • Behavior has a purpose and is cognitive • Used maze to study rat behavior Bower/Insight Miller/ Information Theory measured shortterm memory > average digit span 7 digits +/ 2 Rumelhart/Connectionist Models connection model > information contained in nodes Experimental Psychology Behaviorism study learning Neobehaviorism Make use of intervening variables to help explain relationship between environment and behavior Environmental events > internal hydrological process (ex. Hunger/fatigue) > observable behavior Methodological Behaviorism internal events (ex. Consciously perceived thoughts) are excluded from the analysis Cognitive behaviorism – theorists make use of intervening variables Declarative /explicit memory – consists of info that is explicitly stored and retrieved • Memories that can be consciously recalled Helping behavior and feelings of concern – voluntary actions intended to help others w/ or w/o reward Nondeclarative/implicit memory – type of longterm memory that doesn’t require conscious though • Flows effortlessly in our actions ex. Procedural memory, priming Internal events Skinner Molar view and genetics – genes have a great impact on behavior but behaviors can change • Behaviors w/ favorable outcomes are more likely to be repeated / those do not lead to favorable outcomes are less likely to be repeated Chapter 2 H.M. and his contributions – removal of hippocampi resulted in amnesia Comparative Neuroanatomy – branch of neuroscience that searches for the rules behind such organized diversity, which results from evolution Lobes of the neocortex – Frontal: responsible for some of the most complex cognitive processes parietal: important for processing sensations of touch, including body position, pressure, skin temp, and pain occipital: visual processing center temporal: language comprehension, emotion association Internal Structures Thalamus – subcortical structure involves with the processing of sensory info, states of arousal, and learning corpus callosum – wide band of axons connecting the right and left hemispheres of the brain hippocampus – connected to amygdale, plays an important role in episodic memory (long term) Neurons – processing info by communicating w/ each other - Axon: branch of a neuron that sends messages to other neurons - Dendrite: branch for neural cell body that receives input from other neurons/receive messages from other neurons - Node of Ranvier: gap between myelin - Glia cells: provide physical structure holding neurons in place Sensory input Action potential/strength – when stimulated, potassium leaves the axon and sodium travels inside / during resting potential, potassium is inside and sodium is outside - Resting potential: 70mV - Hyperpolarized: difference between electrical charge inside and outside of the neuron increases Neurotransmitters/reuptake,enzymes chemical messenger that communicates across a synapse Synapse/pre and post synaptic – point of communication between two neurons Chemical synapse – neurotransmitters can have two effects on a neuron - Excitatory effect: depolarize the receiving neuron - Inhibitory effect: hyperpolarize the receiving neuron Spatial summation – input from many synapses is added together to determine whether or not an action potential will be produced Temporal summation – single, very active synapse may provide sufficient input to produce an action potential Types of neurotranmitters/names & function Glutamate excitatory (activates receptors increasing the possibility of the postsynaptic neurons firing) GABA inhibitory (does the opposite if glutamate and tells adjoining cells not to fire and send and impulse) acetylcholine – connects motor neurons & muscles/attention & memory regulation dopamine – regulates reward seeking behavior norepinephrine – increases arousal / long lasting memories Epinephrine – increases attention and concentration serotonin – regulates sleep, mood, appetite, and aggression histamine – regulates sleep and arousal glycine – decreases neural activity Neuromodulators/ function – diffuse away from the synapse to target cells some distance away Primary Sensory cortices sound (A1): primary auditory cortex, located in temporal lobe touch(S1): primary somatosensory cortex, located in parietal lobe visual (V1): primary visual cortex – located in occipital lobe Primary motor cortex (M1) – generates coordinated movements, area where decisions are made and instructions are sent to spinal cord to activate motor fibers that control muscles Cortical Homunculus – neurological map of anatomical divisions of the body > 2 types 1) Sensory 2) Motor Ramachandran/learned - Brain constructs body image in mind / Eternal sense of presence of body (arms, legs, etc.) is constructed in brain (ex. Phantom limb) - In brain there is a mapping of the body - Part of the brain responsible for hand feeling isn’t getting any more info so now head region is activating hand region of the brain (reorganization of sensory pathways in the brain) paralysis/mirror box Lashley – studied learning and memory - Tried to locate area in brain where memory traces were stored - Concluded memories are stored all throughout the brain through tissue Theory of equipotentiality – positions that all areas of the brain are equally able to perform tasks Contrasts w/ localization in which functions are specifically referable to discrete areas of brain > damage to region would produce selective cognitive deficits NMDA receptor – receptor involved in learning Functions are the predominant molecular mechanism involved in controlling synaptic plasticity & memory function NmethylDaspartate) Synaptic/neural plasticity – learning (experience can change a synapse) Donald Hebb – neurons that fire together, wire together Rosenweig's study enriched vs. impoverished environments – investigated whether environmental factors such as a rich or impoverished environment affect development of neurons in cerebral cortex - Enriched environment – stimulation of brain by its physical and social surroundings > brain can change and adapt to new situations - Impoverished environment – no toys or maze Methods of studying the brain: fMRI – measures brain activity by detecting changes in blood flow > functioning of brain PET – uses radiotraces (camera/computer) to evaluate organ and tissue functions EEG – measures electrical activity noninvasively through electrodes Phrenology – pseudo medicine primarily focused on measurements of the human skull Based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind and certain brain areas have localized, special functions or modules Reflexes (types) – stretch reflex, Longterm potentiation – persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity Produce a longlasting increase in signal transmission between 2 neurons Longterm depression – activitydependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours Effects of drugs – brain can adjust to chemical changes
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'